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LI6KAKY 

UNIVERSITY  OF 
CALIFORNIA 


ENCYCLOPEDIA   BBITANNICA 


NINTH    EDITION 


THE 


ENCYCLOPEDIA    BRITANNICA 


DICTIONARY 


OF 


NINTH    EDITION 


VOLUME    VI 


NEW    YORK:    CHARLES    SCRIBNER'S    SONS 

MDCCCLXXVIII 

[  All  Eights  reserved.  ] 


Add*! 


GIFT 


V. 

BIOLOGY 
LIBRARY 


ENCYCLOPEDIA    BEITANNICA, 


OLI-CLI 


/"^LICHY,  or  CLICHY  LA  GARENNE,  a  village  or  township 
\J  of  France,  in  the  department  of  Seine,  situated  on  the 
right  bank  of  the  river,  immediately  to  the  north  of  the 
ramparts  of  Paris,  of  which  it  may  almost  be  said  to  be 
part.  It  is  the  seat  of  a  number  of  extensive  industrial 
establishments,  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  steam 
engines,  chemical  stuffs,  and  glass.  The  village  is  of  high 
antiquity,  and  was  the  residence  of  some  of  the  early  kings 
of  France.  Its  church  was  built  in  the  17th  century  under 
the  direction  of  the  famous  Saint  Vincent  de  Paul,  who  at 
that  time  had  charge  of  the  cure.  Population  in  1872, 
14,599. 

CLIFTON,  a  watering-place  and  fashionable  resort  of 
England,  in  the  county  of  Gloucestershire,  forming  practi 
cally  a  part  of  the  city  of  Bristol.  It  is  situated  on  the 
eastern  heights  above  the  gorge  of  the  lower  Avon,  which 
divides  it  from  the  county  of  Somerset,— partly  occupying 
a  spacious  table-land  about  250  feet  above  the  sea,  and 
partly  an  abrupt  declivity  which  sinks  clown  to  the  once 
fashionable  district  of  the  Hotwells,  on  the  same  level  as 
Bristol.  Three  ancient  British  earthworks  bear  witness  to 
an  early  settlement  on  the  spot,  and  a  church  was  in 
existence  as  far  back  as  the  time  of  Henry  II.,  when  it 
was  bestowed  by  William  de  Clyfton  on  the  abbot  of  the 
Austin  canons  in  Bristol ;  but,  with  the  exception,  perhaps, 
of  Mardyke  House,  in  Hotwells,  there  are  no  longer  any 
architectural  vestiges  of  an  earlier  date  than  the  18th 
century.  Of  the  churches  the  most  important  are  St 
Andrew's  parish  church,  an  ungainly  structure  rebuilt  in 
1819;  All  Saints,  erected  in  1863  at  a  cost  of  £32,000, 
after  the  designs  of  G.  E.  Street,  and  remarkable  for  the 
width  of  its  nave  and  the  narrowness  of  its  aisles  ;  and  the 
Roman  Catholic  pro-cathedral  church  of  the  Holy  Apostles, 
with  a  convent  and  schools  attached.  Among  the  other 
buildings  of  note  may  be  mentioned  the  Victoria  Rooms, 
which  are  used  for  concerts  and  other  public  assemblies, 
the  Fine  Arts  Academy,  dating  from  1857,  and  Clifton 
College,  a  well-designed  cluster  of  buildings  in  the  Gothic 
style,  founded  in  18G2  by  a  limited  liability  company,  and 
giving  education  to  550  boys.  The  famous  suspension 
bridge  across  the  Avon,  designed  by  Brunei  and  commenced 
in  1832,  was  completed  in  1864.  It  has  a  span  of  702 
feet,  and  the  roadway  is  245  feet  above  h;gh  water;  the 

094 


total  weight  of  the  structure  is  1500  tons,  and  it  is  calcu 
lated  to  stand  a  burden  of  9  tons  per  square  inch.  Since 
it  was  opened  a  village  called  New  Clifton  has  grown  up 
on  the  opposite  bank.  The  once  famous  Lot  springs  of 
Clifton,  to  which,  in  fact,  the  town  was  indebted  for  its 
rise,  are  no  longer  frequented.  They  issue  from  an  aperture 
at  the  foot  of  St  Vincent's  Rock,  and  the  water  has  a 
temperature  of  about  76°  Fahr.  The  population  of 
Clifton  in  1712,  the  date  of  the  second  edition  of  Sir 
Thomas  Alleyne's  work  on  Gloucester,  was  only  450  ;  in 
1841  it  amounted  to  14,177  ;  in  1857  to  17,634 ;  in  1861 
to  21,375  :  and  in  1871  to  26,364.  In  the  last-mentioned 
year  there  were  10,319  males  and  16,045  females.  The 
average  annual  mortality  is  about  14  per  10CO. 

CLIMATE.  The  word  Climate,  or  K-At/ua,  being  derived 
from  the  verb  nXivfiv,  to  incline,  was  applied  by  the  ancients 
to  signify  that  obliquity  of  the  sphere  with  respect  to  the 
horizon  from  which  results  the  inequality  of  day  and 
night.  The  great  astronomer  and  geographer  Ptolemy 
divided  the  surface  of  the  globe,  from  the  equator  to  the 
arctic  circle,  into  climates  or  parallel  zones,  corresponding 
to  the  successive  increase  of  a  quarter  of  an  hour  in  the 
length  of  midsummer-day.  Within  the  tropics  these  zones 
are  nearly  of  equal  breadth  ;  but,  in  the  higher  latitudes, 
they  contract  so  much  that  it  was  deemed  enough  to 
reckon  them  by  their  doubles,  answering  consequently  to 
intervals  of  half  an  hour  in  the  extension  of  the  longest 
day.  To  compute  them  is  an  easy  problem  in  spherical 
trigonometry.  As  the  sine  of  the  excess  of  the  semidiurnal 
arc  above  a  quadrant  is  to  unity,  so  is  the  tangent  of  the 
obliquity  of  the  ecliptic,  or  of  23°  28',  to  the  cotangent 
of  the  latitude.  The  semidiurnal  arcs  are  assumed  to  be 
91°  52£',  93°  45',  95°  37J',  97°  30',  <tc.,  and  the  following 
table,  extracted  from  Ptolemy's  great  work,  will  give  some 
general  idea  of  his  distribution  of  seasons  over  the  surface 
of  the  globe.  The  numbers  are  calculated  on  the  supposi 
tion  that  the  obliquity  of  the  ecliptic  was  23°  51'  20",  to 
which,  according  to  the  theory  of  Laplace,  it  must  have 
actually  approached  in  the  time  of  Ptolemy.  They  seem 
to  be  affected  by  some  small  errors,  especially  in  the  paral 
lels  beyond  the  seventeenth,  as  the  irregular  breadth  of 
the  zone  abundantly  shows  ;  but  they  are,  on  the  whole, 
more  accurate  than  those  given  by  Varenius. 

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56  00 

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36  00 

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57  00 

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33  35 

14  45 

2  21 

XXV. 

58  00 

18  00 

30 

XIII. 

40  56 

15  00 

2     9 

XXVI. 

59  30 

18  30 

Climate  in  its  modern  acceptation  signifies  that  peculiar 
state  of  the  atmosphere  in  regard  to  heat  and  moisture 
which  prevails  in  any  given  place,  together  with  its 
meteorological  conditions  generally  in  so  far  as  they 
exert  an  influence  on  animal  and  vegetable  life.  The 
infinitely  diversified  character  which  climate  displays 
may  be  referred  to  the  combined  operation  of  different 
causes,  which  are  chiefly  reducible  to  these  four — distance 
from  the  equator,  height  above  the  sea,  distance  from  the 
sea,  and  prevailing  winds,  which  may  thus  be  regarded 
as  forming  the  great  bases  of  the  law  of  climate. 

Of  these  causes  which  determine  climate  incomparably 
the  most  potent  is  distance  from  the  equator.  The  same 
sunbeam  which,  falling  vertically,  acts  on  a  surface  equal 
to  its  own  sectional  area  is,  when  falling  obliquely  on  the 
earth,  spread  over  a  surface  which  becomes  larger  in  in 
verse  proportion  to  the  sine  of  the  obliquity.  Conse 
quently  less  and  less  heat  continues  to  be  received  from 
the  sun  by  the  same  extent  of  surface  in  proceeding 
from  the  equator  toward  the  poles  ;  and  this  diminution  of 
heat  with  the  increase  of  obliquity  of  incidence  of  the 
solar  rays  is  enhanced  by  the  circumstance  that  the  sun's 
heat,  being  partially  absorbed  in  its  passage  through  the 
atmosphere,  the  absorption  is  greatest  where  the  obliquity 
is  greatest,  because  there  the  mass  of  air  to  be  penetrated 
is  greatest.  Hence  arise  the  broad  features  of  the  distribu 
tion  of  temperature  over  the  globe,  from  the  great  heat  of 
equatorial  regions,  falling  by  easy  gradations  with  increase 
of  latitude,  to  the  extreme  cold  of  the  poles.  If  the  earth's 
surface  were  uniform,  and  its  atmosphere  motionless,  these 
gradations  would  run  everywhere  parallel  with  the  latitudes, 
and  Ptolemy's  classification  of  the  climates  of  the  earth 
would  accord  with  fact.  But  the  distribution  of  land  and 
water  over  the  earth's  surface  and  the  prevailing  winds 
bring  about  the  subversion  of  what  Humboldt  has  termed 
the  solar  climate  of  the  earth,  and  present  us  with  one  of 
the  most  difficult,  as  certainly  it  is  one  of  the  most 
important  problems  of  physical  science,  viz.,  the  determina 
tion  of  the  real  climates  of  its  separate  regions  and  localities, 
and  the  causes  on  which  they  depend. 

The  decrease  of  temperature  with  height  is  perceptibly 
felt  in  ascending  mountains,  and  is  still  more  evident  in  the 
snow-clad  mountains,  which  may  be  seen  even  in  the 
tropics.  The  snow-line  marks  the  height  below  which  all 
the  snow  that  falls  annually  melts  during  summer.  The 
height  of  this  line  above  the  sea  is  chiefly  determined  by 
the  following  causes — by  distance  from  the  equator ;  by  the 
exposure  to  the  sun's  rays  of  the  slope  of  the  mountain,  and 
hence,  in  northern  latitudes,  it  is  higher  on  the  south  than 
on  the  north  slopes  of  mountains,  other  things  being  equal ; 
by  situation  with  reference  to  the  rain-bringing  winds ;  by 
the  steepness  of  the  slope  ;  and  by  the  dryness  or  wetness 
of  the  district.  Since,  then,  no  general  rule  can  be  laid 


down  for  the  height  of  the  snow-line,  it  can  only  be  ascer 
tained  by  observation.  Speaking  generally  it  sinks  little 
from  the  equator  to  20°  N.  and  S.  lat.  ;  from  20°  to  70°  it 
continues  to  fall  equably,  but  from  70°  it  falls  rapidly  to 
78°,  where  it  is  at  sea-level. 

The  following  are  a  few  of  the  more  noteworthy  of  the 
exceptions.  On  the  north  side  of  the  Himalayas  it  is  about 
4000  feet  higher  than  on  the  south  side,  owing  to  the 
greater  depth  of  snow  falling  on  the  south  side  and  the 
greater  dryness  of  the  climate  of  Tibet,  resulting  in  a  more 
active"  evaporation  from  the  snows  and  stronger  sun-heat  on 
the  north  side,  to  which  is  to  be  added  the  comparative 
want  of  vegetation  on  the  north  side,  thus  favouring  a  more 
rapid  melting  of  the  snows.  The  snow-line  is  higher  in 
the  interior  of  continents  than  near  their  coasts,  the  rain 
fall  there  being  less  and  the  heat  of  summer  greater  ;  and 
similarly,  owing  to  the  greater  prevalence  of  westerly  over 
easterly  winds  in  many  regions  of  the  globe,  it  is  higher 
on  the  east  than  on  the  west  sides  of  continents.  In  South 
America  the  snow-line  rises  very  considerably  from  tho 
equator  to  18°  S.  lat.  and  more  so,  markedly,  on  the  west 
than  on  the  east  slopes  of  the  Cordilleras,  because  of  the 
smaller  amount  of  precipitation  of  the  west  side  of  this 
mountain  range.  It  is  as  high  in  33°  as  in  18°  S.  lat.,  but 
south  of  33°  it  rapidly  sinks  owing  to  the  heavy  rains 
brought  by  the  westerly  winds  which  begin  to  prevail  there. 
In  the  south  of  Chili  it  is  6000  feet  lower  than  among  the 
Rocky  Mountains  at  the  same  distance  from  the  equator, 
and  3000  feet  lower  than  in  the  same  latitudes  in  Western 
Europe.  It  is  impossible  to  overestimate  the  importance 
of  the  snow-line  as  one  of  the  factors  of  climate  in  its 
relations  to  the  distribution  of  animal  and  vegetable  life. 

Glaisher,  in  his  balloon  ascents,  made  observations  of 
temperature  at  different  heights,  the  results  of  which  may 
be  thus  summarized.  Within  the  first  1000  feet  the  average 
space  passed  through  for  1°  was  223  feet  with  a  cloudy  sky 
and  162  feet  with  a  clear  sky;  at  10,000  feet  the  space 
passed  through  for  1°  was  4545  feet  for  the  former  and  417 
feet  for  the  latter;  and  above  20,000  feet  the  space  with 
both  states  of  the  sky  was  1000  feet  nearly  for  a  decline 
of  1°.  It  must  be  noted,  however,  that  these  rates  of 
decrease  refer  to  the  temperature  of  the  atmosphere  at 
different  heights  above  the  ground,  which  are  in  all 
probability  altogether  different  from  the  rates  of  decrease 
for  places  on  the  earth's  surface  at  these  heights  above  the 
level  of  the  sea — the  problem  with  which  climatologists 
have  to  deal. 

Observation  shows,  as  might  have  been  expected,  that 
the  rate  at  which  the  temperature  falls  with  the  height  is 
a  very  variable  quantity, — varying  with  latitude,  situation, 
the  state  of  the  air  as  regards  moisture  or  dryness,  and  calm 
or  windy  weather,  and  particularly  with  the  hour  of  the 
day  and  the  season  of  the  year.  In  reducing  temperature 
observations  for  height,  1°  for  every  300  feet  is  generally 
adopted.  In  the  present  state  of  our  knowledge  this  or 
any  other  estimation  is  at  best  no  more  than  a  rough 
approximation,  since  the  law  of  decrease  through  its 
variations  requires  yet  to  be  stated,  being  in  truth  one  of 
the  most  intricate  and  difficult  problems  of  climatology 
awaiting  investigation  at  the  hands  of  meteorologists. 
Among  the  most  important  climatic  results  to  be  determined 
in  working  out  this  problem  are  the  heights  at  which  in 
different  seasons  the  following  critical  mean  temperatures, 
which  have  important  relations  to  animal  and  vegetable 
life,  are  met  with  in  ascending  from  low-lying  plains  in 
different  regions  of  the  world,  viz.,  80°,  75°,  70°,  65°,  63°, 
60°,  58°,  55°,  50°,  45°,  39°  (the  maximum  density  of  fresh 
water),  32°  (its  freezing  point),  and  20°. 

These  results,  which  only  affect  the  mean  daily  tem 
perature  in  different  seasons,  and  which  ore  due  exclusively 


GLIM  A  T  E 


to  differences  of  absolute  height,  though  of  the  greatest 
possible  practical  importance,  yet  leave  untouched  a  whole 
field  of  climatological  research — a  field  embracing  the  mean 
temperature  of  different  hours  of  the  day  at  different 
heights,  for  an  explanation  of  which  we  must  look  to  the 
physical  configuration  of  the  earth's  surface  and  to  the 
nature  of  that  surface,  whether  rock,  sand,  black  soil,  or 
covered  with  vegetation. 

Under  this  head  by  far  the  most  important  class  of  con 
ditions  are  those  which  result  in  extraordinary  modifica 
tions,  amounting  frequently  to  subversions,  of  the  law  of 
the  decrease  of  temperature  with  the  height.  This  will 
perhaps  be  best  explained  by  supposing  an  extent  of 
country  diversified  by  plains,  valleys,  hills,  and  table-lands 
to  be  under  atmospheric  conditions  "favourable  .to  rapid 
cooling  by  nocturnal  radiation.  Each  part  being  under 
the  same  meteorological  conditions,  it  is  evident  that  terres 
trial  radiation  will  proceed  over  all  at  the  same  rate,  but 
the  effects  of  radiation  will  be  felt  in  different  degrees  and 
intensities  in  different  places.  As  the  air  in  contact  with 
the  declivities  of  hills  and  rising  grounds  becomes  cooled 
by  contact  with  the  cooled  surface,  it  acquires  greater 
density,  and  consequently  flows  down  the  slopes  and 
accumulates  on  the  low-lying  ground  at  their  base.  It 
follows,  therefore,  that  places  on  rising  ground  are  never 
exposed  to  the  full  intensity  of  frosts  at  night ;  and  the 
higher  they  are  situated  relatively  to  the  immediately 
surrounding  district  the  less  are  they  exposed,  since  their 
relative  elevation  provides  a  ready  escape  downwards  for 
the  cold  air  almost  as  speedily  as  it  is  produced.  On  the 
other  hand  valleys  surrounded  by  hills  and  higu  grounds 
not  only  retain  their  own  cold  of  radiation,  but  also  serve 
aa  reservoirs  for  the  cold  heavy  air  which  pours  down 
upon  them  from  the  neighbouring  heights.  Hence  mist  is 
frequently  formed  in  low  situations  whilst  adjoining 
eminences  are  clear.  Along  low-lying  situations  in  the 
valleys  of  the  Tweed  and  other  _rivers  of  Great  Britain 
laurels,  araucarias,  and  other  trees  and  shrubs  were 
destroyed  during  the  great  frost  of  Christmas  1860,  whereas 
the  same  species  growing  on  relatively  higher  grounds 
escaped,  thus  showing  by  incontestible  proof  the  great  and 
rapid  increase  of  temperature  with  height  at  places  rising 
above  the  lower  parts  of  the  valleys. 

This  highly  interesting  subject  has  been  admirably  eluci 
dated  by  thenumerousmeteorologicalstationsof  Switzerland. 
It  is  there  observed  in  calm  weather  in  winter,  when  the 
ground  becomes  colder  than  the  air  above  it,  that  systems 
of  descending  currents  of  air  set  in  over  the  whole  face 
of  the  country.  The  direction  and  force  of  these  descend 
ing  currents  follow  the  irregularities  of  the  surface,  and  like 
currents  of  water  they  tend  to  converge  and  unite  in  the 
valleys  and  gorges,  down  which  they  flow  like  rivers  in  their 
beds.  Since  the  place  of  these  air-currents  must  be  taken 
by  others,  it  follows  that  on  such  occasions  the  temperature 
of  the  tops  of  mountains  and  high  grounds  is  relatively 
high  because  the  counter-currents  come  from  a  great  height 
and  are  therefore  warmer.  Swiss  villages  are  generally 
built  on  eminences  rising  out  of  the  sides  of  the  mountains 
with  ravines  on  both  sides.  They  are  thus  admirably  pro 
tected  from  the  extremes  of  cold  in  winter,  because  the 
descending  cold  air-currents  are  diverted  aside  into  the 
ravines,  and  the  counter-currents  are  constantly  supplying 
warmer  air  from  the  higher  regions  of  the  atmosphere. 

Though  the  space  filled  by  the  down-flowing  current  of 
cold  air  in  the  bottom  of  a  valley  is  of  greater  extent  than 
the  bed  of  a  river,  it  is  yet  only  a  difference  of  degree,  the 
space  being  in  all  cases  limited  and  well  defined,  so  that 
in  rising  above  it  in  ascending  the  slope  the  increased 
warmth  is  readily  felt,  and,  as  we  have  seen,  in  extreme 
frosts  the  destruction  to  trees  and  shrubs  is  seen  rapidly  to 


diminish.  The  gradual  narrowing  of  a  valley  tends  to  a 
more  rapid  lowering  of  the  temperature  for  the  obvious 
reason  that  the  valley  thereby  resembles  a  basin  almost 
closed,  being  thus  a  receptacle  for  the  cold  air-currents 
which  descend  from  all  sides.  The  bitterly  cold  furious 
gusts  of  wind  which  are  often  encountered  in  mountainous 
regions  during  night  are  simply  the  out-rush  of  cold  air 
from  such  basins. 

The  two  chief  causes  which  tend  to  counteract  these 
effects  of  terrestrial  radiation  are  forests  and  sheets  of 
water.  If  a  deep  lake  fills  the  basin,  the  cold  air  which 
is  poured  down  on  its  surface  having  cooled  the  surface 
water,  the  cooled  water  sinks  to  a  greater  depth,  and  thus  the 
air  resting  over  the  lakes  is  little  if  at  all  lowered  in  tem 
perature.  Hence  deep  lakes  may  be  regarded  as  sources 
of  heat  during  winter,  and  places  situated  near  their  outlet 
are  little  exposed  to  cold  gusts  of  wind,  while  places  on 
their  shores  are  free  from  the  severe  frosts  which  are 
peculiar  to  other  low-lying  situations.  The  frosts  of  winter 
are  most  severely  felt  in  those  localities  where  the  slopes 
above  them  are  destitute  of  vegetation,  and  consist  only  of 
bare  rock  and  soil,  or  of  snow.  If,  however,  the  slopes  be 
covered  with  trees,  the  temperature  is  warmer  at  the  base 
and  up  the  sides  of  the  mountain, — the  beneficial  influence 
of  forests  consisting  in  the  obstacle  they  offer  to  the 
descending  currents  of  cold  air  and  in  distributing  the  cold 
produced  by  terrestrial  radiation  through  a  stratum  of  the 
atmosphere  equalling  in  thickness  the  height  of  the  trees. 

Hence  as  regards  strictly  local  climates,  an  intelligent 
knowledge  of  which  is  of  great  practical  value,  it  follows 
that  the  best  security  against  the  severity  of  cold  in 
winter  is  afforded  where  the  dwellings  are  situated  on  a 
gsntle  acclivity  a  little  above  the  plain  or  valley  from  which 
it  rises  with  an  exposure  to  the  south,  and  where  the  ground 
above  is  planted  with  trees.  When  it  is  borne  in  mind  that 
in  temperate  climates,  such  as  that  of  Great  Britain,  the 
majority  of  the  deaths  which  occur  in  the  winter  months 
are  occasioned  or  at  least  hastened  by  low  temperatures,  it 
will  be  recognized  as  of  the  most  vital  importance,  especially 
to  invalids,  to  know  what  are  the  local  situations  which 
afford  the  best  protection  against  great  cold.  In  truth, 
mere  local  situations  may  during  periods  of  intense  cold 
have  the  effect  of  maintaining  a  temperature  many  degrees 
above  that  which  prevails  close  at  hand — a  difference  which 
must  mitigate  suffering  and  not  unfrequently  prolong  life. 

In  addition  to  mere  elevation  and  relative  configuration 
of  surface,  the  land  of  the  globe  brings  about  important 
modifications  of  climate  in  the  degree  in  which  its  surface 
is  covered  with  vegetation  or  is  a  desert  waste.  Of  all 
surfaces  that  the  earth  presents  to  the  influences  of  solar 
and  terrestrial  radiation  an  extent  of  sand  is  accompanied 
with  the  most  extreme  fluctuations  of  climate,  as  these  are 
dependent  on  the  temperature  and  moisture  of  the  air ; 
whilst  on  the  other  hand,  extensive  forests  tend  to  mitigate 
the  extremes  of  temperature  and  distribute  its  daily 
changes  more  equably  over  the  twenty-four  hours. 

As  regards  the  influence  of  the  sun's  heat  on  the  tempera 
ture  of  the  air,  attention  is  to  bo  given  almost  exclusively 
to  the  temperature  of  the  extreme  upper  surface  of  the 
earth  heated  by  the  sun  with  which  the  air  is  in 
immediate  contact.  Badly  conducting  surfaces,  such  ^  as 
sand,  will  evidently  have  the  greatest  influence  in  raising 
the  temperature  of  the  air,  for  the  simple  reason  'that  the 
heat  produced  by  the  sun's  rays  being  conveyed  downwards 
into  the  soil  with  extreme  slowness  must  necessarily  remain 
longer  on  the  surface,  in  other  words,  remain  in  immediate 
contact  with  the  atmosphere.  Similarly  at  night,  the 
cooling  effects  of  terrestrial  radiation  being  greatest  on 
sandy  surfaces,  the  climate  of  sandy  deserts  Ls  characters; 
by  nights  of  comparatively  great  cold. 


These    daily 


CLIMATE 


alternations  of  heat  and  cold  are  still  further  intensified  by 
the  great  dryness  of -the  air  over  extensive  tracts  of  sand. 
In  warm  countries  the  surface  temperature  of  sandy  deserts 
often  rises  to  120°,  140°,  or  even  to  200°,  and  the  shade 
temperature  has  been  observed  as  high  as  125°.  It  is  this 
hot  air,  loaded  with  particles  of  sand  still  notter,  and  driven 
onwards  by  furious  whirlwinds,  which  forms  the  dreaded 
simoon  of  the  desert  ;  and  the  irritating  and  enervating 
sirocco  of  the  regions  bordering  the  Mediterranean  is  to  be 
traced  to  the  same  cause.  It  is  in  the  deserts  of  Africa, 
Arabia,  Persia,  and  the  Punjab  that  the  highest  tempera 
ture  on  the  globe  occurs,  the  mean  summer  temperature  of 
these  regions  rising  to  and  exceeding  95°.  The  extreme 
surface  of  loam  and  clay  soils  is  not  heated  during  day 
nor  cooled  during  night  in  so  high  a  degree  as  that  of 
sandy  soils,  because,  the  former  being  better  conductors, 
the  heat  or  the  cold  is  more  quickly  conveyed  downward, 
and  therefore  not  allowed  to  accumulate  on  the  surface. 

When  the  ground  is  covered  with  vegetation  the  whole 
of  the  sun's  heat  falls  on  the  vegetable  covering,  and  as 
none  of  it  falls  directly  on  the  soil  its  temperature  does  not 
rise  so  high  as  that  of  land  with  no  vegetable  covering. 
The  temperature  of  plants  exposed  to  the  sun  does  not  rise 
so  high  as  that  of  soil,  because  a  portion  of  the  sun's  heat 
is  lost  in  evaporation,  and  the  heat  cannot  accumulate  on 
the  surface  of  the  leaves  as  it  does  on  the  soil.  Hence  the 
essential  difference  between  the  climates  of  two  countries, 
the  one  well  covered  with  vegetation,  the  other  not,  lies  in 
this,  that  the  heat  of  the  day  is  more  equally  distributed 
over  the  twenty-four  hours  in  the  former  case,  and  there 
fore  less  intense  during  the  warmest  part  of  the  day. 

But  the  effect  of  vegetation  on  the  distribution  of  the 
temperature  during  the  day  is  most  markedly  shown  in  the 
cuse  of  forests.  Trees,  like  other  bodies,  are  heated  and 
cojled  by  radiation,  but  owing  to  their  slow  conducting 
power  the  times  of  the  daily  maximum  and  minimum 
temperature  do  not  occur  till  some  hours  after  the  same 
phases  of  the  temperature  of  the  air.  Again,  the  effects 
of  radiation  are  in  the  case  of  trees  not  chiefly  confined  to 
a  surface  stratum  of  air  a  very  few  feet  in  thickness,  but 
as  already  remarked,  are  to  a  very  large  extent  diffused 
through  a  stratum  of  air  equalling,  in  thickness  at  least, 
the  height  of  the  trees.  Hence  the  conserving  influence 
of  forests  on  climate,  making  the  nights  warmer  and  the 
days  cooler,  imparting,  in  short,  to  the  climates  of  districts 
clad  with  trees  something  of  the  character  of  insular 
climates.  Evaporation  proceeds  slowly  from  the  damp 
soil  usually  found  beneath  trees,  since  it  is  more  or  less 
screened  from  the  sun.  Since,  however,  the  air  under  the 
trees  is  little  agitated  or  put  in  circulation  by  the  wind, 
the  vapour  arising  from  the  soil  is  mostly  left  to  accumu 
late  among  the  trees,  and  hence  it  is  probable  that  forests 
diminish  the  evaporation,  but  increase  the  humidity,  of 
climates  within  their  influence.  The  humidity  of  forests 
is  further  increased  by  the  circumstance  that  when  rain 
falls  less  of  it  passes  immediately  along  the  surface  into 
streams  and  rivers;  a  considerable  portion  is  at  once 
taken  up  by  the  leaves  of  the  trees  and  percolates  the  soil, 
owing  to  its  greater  friability  in  woods,  to  the  roots  of  the 
trees,  whence  it  is  drawn  up  to  the  leaves  and  there  eva 
porated,  thus  adding  to  the  humidity  of  the  atmosphere. 

Much  has  been  done  by  Ur  Marsh  and  others  in 
elucidation  of  the  influence  on  climate  of  forests  and  the 
denudation  of  trees,  in  so  far  as  that  can  be  done  by  the 
varying  depths  of  lakes  and  rivers  and  other  non- 
instrumental  observations.  Little  comparatively  has  been 
done  anywhere  in  the  examination  of  the  great  practical 
question  of  the  influence  of  forests  on  climate,  by  means 
of  carefully  devised  and  conducted  observations  made 
with  thermometers,  the  evaporating  dish,  or  the  rain 


gauge.  The  most  extensive  inquiry  on  the  subject  yet  set 
on  foot  has  been  for  some  years  conducted  in  the  forests 
of  Bavaria  under  the  direction  of  Professor  Ebermeyer, 
and  a  like  inquiry  was  begun  in  Germany  in  1875, — the 
more  important  results  being  that  during  the  day,  particu 
larly  in  the  warm  months,  the  temperature  in  the  forest  is 
considerably  lower  than  outside  in  the  open  country,  there 
being  at  the  same  time  a  slow  but  steady  outflow  of  air 
from  the  forest ;  and  that  during  the  night  the  tempera 
ture  in  the  forest  is  higher,  while  there  is  an  inflow  of  air 
from  the  open  country  into  the  forest.  The  mean  annual 
temperature  in  the  forest  increases  from  the  surface  of  the 
ground  to  the  tops  of  the  trees  (where  it  is  observed  to 
approximate  to  what  is  observed  in  the  open  country),  a 
result  evidently  due  to  the  facility  of  descent  to  the  surface 
of  the  cold  air  produced  by  terrestrial  radiation,  and  to 
the  obstruction  offered  by  the  trees  to  the  solar  influence 
at  the  surface.  The  mean  annual  temperature  of  the 
woodland  soil  from  the  surface  to  a  depth  of  4  feet  is  from 
2°  to  3°  lower  than  that  of  the  open  country.  A  series  of 
observations  was  begun  at  Carnwath,  Lanarkshire,  in 
Ih73,  at  two  stations,  one  outside  a  wood,  and  the  other 
inside  the  wood  in  a  small  grass  plot  of  about  50  feet 
diameter  clear  of  trees.  From  these  valuable  results  have 
been  obtained  relative  to  the  differences  in  the  daily  march 
of  temperature  and  the  different  rates  of  humidity,  the 
most  important  being  the  substantial  agreement  of  the 
mean  annual  temperature  of  the  two  places.  The  estab 
lishment  of  a  station,  with  underground  thermometers, 
which  it  is  proposed  to  erect  under  the  shade  of  the  trees 
close  to  the  station  in  the  cleared  space,  will  furnish  data 
which  will  not  only  throw  new  light  on  the  questions  raised 
in  this  inquiry,  but  also  on  the  movements  and  viscosity 
of  the  air  and  solar  and  terrestrial  radiation. 

When  the  sun's  rays  fall  on  water  they  are  not  as  in  the 
case  of  land  arrested  at  the  surface,  but  penetrate  to  a 
considerable  depth,  which,  judging  from  observations  made 
by  Sir  Robert  Christison  on  Loch  Lomond,  and  from  those 
made  on  board  the  "  Challenger,"  is  probably  in  clear 
water  about  600  feet.  Of  all  known  substances  water 
has  the  greatest  specific  heat,  this  being,  as  compared  with 
that  of  the  soil  and  rocks  composing  the  earth's  crust,  in  the 
proportion  of  about  4  to  1.  Hence  water  is  heated  much 
more  slowly  by  the  sun's  rays  and  cooled  more  slowly  by 
nocturnal  radiation  than  the  land.  It  is  owing  to  these 
two  essential  differences  between  land  and  water  with  respect 
to  heat  that  climates  come  to  be  grouped  into  the  three 
great  classes  of  oceanic,  insular,  and  continental  climates. 

The  maximum  densities  of  fresh  and  salt  water,  which 
are  respectively  39°"1  and  26°'2  (when  the  sea-water  is  the 
average  degree  of  saltness),  mark  an  essential  distinction 
between  the  effects  of  sheets  of  fresh  and  salt  water  on 
climate.  The  surface  temperature  of  sea-water  falls  very 
slowly  from  390ll  to  28°'4,  its  freezing  point,  because  as 
it  falls  the  temperature  of  the  whole  water  through  its 
depths  must  fall ;  whilst  from  39°'l  to  32°  the  surface 
temperature  of  fresh  water  falls  rapidly  because  it  is  only 
the  portion  floating  on  the  surface  which  requires  to  be 
cooled.  If  the  bottom  temperature  of  fresh  water  exceed 
39°'l  the  cooling  takes  place  also  very  slowly,  since  in  this 
case  the  water  through  all  its  depth  must  be  cooled  down 
to  39°'l  as  well  as  that  of  the  surface. 

The  temperature  at  the  greatest  depths  of  Loch  Lomond, 
which  is  practically  constant  at  all  seasons,  is  not  47° '8, 
the  mean  annual  temperature  of  that  part  of  Scotland,  but 
42",  which  happens  to  be  the  mean  temperature  of  the 
cold  .half  of  the  year,  or  that  half  of  the  year  when 
terrestrial  radiation  is  the  ruling  element  of  the  tempera 
ture.  Thus,  then,  there  is  an  immense  volume  of  wTater 
at  the  bottom  of  this  lake  at  a  constant  temperature  5° '8 


C  L  I  M  A  T  E 


below  that  of  the  mean  annual  temperature  of  the  locality. 
From  this  follow  two  important  consequences,  viz. — (1) 
during  each  winter  no  inconsiderable  portion  of  the  cold 
produced  by  terrestrial  radiation  is  conveyed  away  from 
the  surface  to  the  depths  of  the  lake,  where  it  therefore  no 
longer  exercises  any  influence  whatever  on  the  atmosphere 
or  on  the  climate  of  the  district  in  lowering  the  tem 
perature ;  and  (2)  this  annual  accession  of  cold  at  these 
depths  is  wholly  counteracted  by  the  internal  heat  of  the 
earth.  In  corroboration  of  this  view  it  may  be  pointed 
out  that  the  water  of  the  Rhone  as  it  issues  from  Lake 
Geneva  is  3° '7  higher  than  that  of  the  air  at  Geneva. 
Thus,  the  influence  of  lakes  which  do  not  freeze  over 
is  to  mitigate  in  some  degree  the  cold  of  winter  over  the 
district  where  they  are  situated.  This  is  well  illustrated 
ori  a  large  scale  by  the  winter  temperature  of  the  lake 
region  of  North  America.  The  influence  of  the  sea  is 
exactly  akin  to  that  of  lakes.  Over  the  surface  of  the 
ground  slanting  to  the  sea-shore  the  cold  currents  generated 
by  radiation  flow  down  to  the  sea,  and  the  surface-water 
being  thereby  cooled  sinks  to  lower  depths.  In  the  same 
manner  no  inconsiderable  portion  of  the  cold  produced  by 
radiation  in  all  latitudes  over  the  surface  of  the  ocean  and 
land  adjoining  is  conveyed  from  the  surface  to  greater 
depths.  The  enormous  extent  to  which  this  transference 
goes  -on  is  evinced  by  the  great  physical  fact  disclosed  to 
us  in  recent  years  by  deep  sea  observations  of  temperature, 
viz.,  that  the  whole  of  the  depths  of  the  sea  is  filled  with 
water  at  or  closely  approaching  to  the  freezing  point  of 
fresh  water,  which  in  the  tropical  regions  is  from  40°  to 
50°  lower  than  the  temperature  of  the  surface.  The  with 
drawal  from  the  earth's  surface  in  high  latitudes  of  such 
an  enormous  accumulation  of  ice-cold  water  to  the  depths 
of  the  sea  of  tropical  and  subtropical  regions,  rendered 
possible  by  the  present  disposition  of  land  and  water  over 
.the  globe,  doubtless  results  in  an  amelioration  to  some 
extent  of  the  climate  of  the  whole  globe,  so  far  as  that 
may  be  brought  about  by  a  higher  surface  temperature  in 
polar  and  temperate  regions. 

Oceanic  climates  are  the  most  equable  of  all  climates, 
showing  for  the  same  latitudes  the  least  differences  between 
the  mean  temperatures  of  the  different  hours  of  the  day 
and  the  different  months  of  the  year,  and  being  at  all  times 
the  least  subject  to  violent  changes  of  temperature.  So  far 
as  man  is  concerned,  oceanic  climates  are  only  to  be  met 
with  on  board  ship.  The  hygienic  value  of  these  climates 
in  the  treatment  of  certain  classes  of  chest  and  other 
complaints  is  very  great,  and  doubtless  when  better 
understood  in  their  curative  effects  they  will  be  more 
largely  taken  advantage  of.  It  is,  for  instance,  believed 
by  many  well  qualified  to  form  an  opinion  that  they  afford 
absolute,  or  all  but  absolute,  immunity  from  colds,  which 
are  so  often  the  precursors  of  serious  complicated  dis 
orders. 

The  nearest  approach  to  such  climates  on  land  is  on 
very  small  islands  such  as  Monach,  which  is  situated  about 
seven  miles  to  westward  of  the  Hebrides,  in  the  full  sweep 
of  the  westerly  winds  of  the  Atlantic  which  there  prevail. 
The  mean  January  temperature  of  this  island,  which  is 
nearly  in  the  latitude  of  Inverness,  is  43°-4,  being  1°'8 
higher  than  the  mean  of  January  at  Ventnor,  Isle  of 
Wight,  0°'8  higher  than  that  of  Jersey  and  Guernsey,  and 
almost  as  high  as  that  of  Truro.  Again,  Stornoway,  being 
situated  on  the  east  coast  of  Lewis  on  the  Minch,  an 
inland  arm  of  the  Atlantic,  has  thus  a  less  truly  insular 
position  than  Monach.  Its  climate  is  therefore  much  less 
insular,  and  accordingly  its  mean  temperature  in  January 
is  38°'7,  or  4°-7  lower  than  that  of  Monach.  From  its 
position  near  the  Moray  Firth,  on  the  east  of  Scotland, 
Culloden  occupies  a  position  still  less  insular ;  hence  its 


January  temperature  is  only  37°'l,  being  l°-6  less  than 
that  of  Stornoway,  and  6°-3  less  than  that  of  Monach. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  mean  temperature  of  July  is 
55°-0  at  Monach,  57°'8  at  Cullodeu,  GT'O  at  Guernsey, 
and  G2°'G  at  Ventnor.  Thus  the  conditions  of  temperature 
at  these  stations  are  completely  reversed  in  summer,  for 
while  in  January  Monach  is  l°-8  wanner  than  Ventuor,  in 
summer  it  is  7°'G  colder.  Since  the  prevailing  winds  in 
the  British  Isles  are  westerly,  places  on  the  east  coast  are 
less  truly  insular  than  are  places  similarly  situated  on  the 
west,  whence  it  follows  that  the  winter  and  summer  climates 
of  the  east  coast  approach  more  nearly  the  character  of  inland 
climates  than  do  those  of  the  west. 

The  facts  of  the  temperature  at  such  places  as  Monach 
in  Scotland  and  Valentia  in  Ireland  disclose  the  existence 
of  an  all  but  purely  oceanic  climate  along  the  coasts, 
particular^  of  the  west,  so  distinct  and  decided,  and 
extending  inland  so  short  a  distance,  that  it  would  be 
impossible  to  represent  it  on  any  map  of  land  isothermals 
of  ordinary  size.  The  only  way  in  which  it  can  be 
graphically  represented  is  by  drawing  on  the  same  map 
the  isothermals  of  the  sea  for  the  same  months,  as 
Petermann  has  done  on  his  chart  of  the  North  Atlantic 
and  continents  adjoining.  Such  maps  best  lead  to  a 
knowledge  of  the  true  character  of  our  seaside  climates. 

Though  it  is  Impossible  to  overestimate  the  climatological 
importance  of  seaside  climates,  as  evinced  by  their  curative 
effects  on  man,  and  their  extraordinary  influence  on  the 
distribution  of  animal  and  vegetable  life,  it  must  be  con 
fessed  that  we  are  yet  only  on  the  threshold  of  a  rational 
inquiry  into  their  true  character.  Undoubtedly  the  first 
step  in  this  large  inquiry  is  the  establishing  of  a  string  of 
about  six  stations  at  various  distances  from  a  point  close 
to  high-water  mark  to  about  two  miles  inland,  at  which 
observations  at  different  hours  of  the  day  would  be  made, 
particularly  at  9  A.M.  and  3  and  9  P.M.,  of  the  pressure,  tem 
perature,  humidity,  movements,  and  chemistry  of  the  air. 

Our  large  towns  have  climates  of  a  peculiar  character, 
which  may  be  said  to  consist  chiefly  in  certain  disturbances 
in  the  diurnal  and  seasonal  distribution  of  the  temperature, 
an  excess  of  carbonic  acid,  a  deficiency  of  ozone,  and  the 
presence  of  noxious  impurities.  Systematic  inquiries  into 
the  condition  and  composition  of  the  air  of  our  large  towns 
have  been  instituted  this  year  (1876)  in  Paris  and  Glasgow, 
in  which  the  ozone,  ammonia,  nitric  acid,  and  germs  present 
in  different  districts  of  these  cities  are  regularly  observed. 
There  yet  remain  to  be  devised  some  means  of  making 
truly  comparable  thermometric  and  hygrometric  observa 
tions  in  different  localities,  including  the  more  densely- 
peopled  districts,  for  the  investigation  of  what  we  may  call 
the  artificial  climates  peculiar  to  each  district.  While  such 
an  inquiry,  at  least  in  its  earlier  stages,  must  necessarily 
be  regarded  as  a  purely  scientific  one,  it  may  fairly  be 
expected  to  lead  sooner  or  later  to  a  knowledge  of  the 
causes  which  determine  the  course  of  many  epidemics- 
why,  for  instance,  diphtheria  is  more  frequent  and  more 
fatal  in  the  new  than  in  the  old  town  of  Edinburgh,  and 
why  in  some  parts  of  Leicester  diarrhoea  is  unknown  as  a 
fatal  disease,  while  in  other  parts  of  the  same  town  it  rages 
every  summer  as  a  terrible  pestilence  among  infants— and 
ultimately  suggest  the  means  by  which  they  may  be 
stamped  out  when  they  make  their  appearance. 

It  has  been  already  pointed  out  (see  ATMOSPHERE)  that 
prevailing  winds  are  the  simple  result  of  the  relative  distri 
bution  of  atmospheric  pressure,  their  direction  and  : 
being  the  flow  of  the  air  from  a  region  of  higher  towards  a 
region  of  lower  pressure,  or  from  where  there  is  a  surplus 
where  there  is  a  deficiency  of  air.     Since  climate  is  pract! 
cally  determined  by  the  temperature  and  moisture  of  t      wr, 
and  since  these  are  dependent  on  the  prevailing  winds  wmci 


6 


0  L  I  M  A  T  E 


come  charged  with  the  temperature  and  moisture  of  the 
regions  they  have  traversed,  it  is  evident  that  isobaric 
charts,  showing  the  mean  pressure  of  the  atmosphere,  form 
the  key  to  the  climates  of  the  different  regions  of  the  globe, 
particularly  those  different  climates  which  are  found  to 
prevail  in  different  regions  having  practically  the  same 
latitude  and  elevation.  This  principle  is  all  the  more 
important  when  it  is  considered  that  the  prevailing  winds 
determine  in  a  very  great  degree  the  currents  of  the  ocean, 
which  exercise  so  powerful  an  influence  on  climate. 

Since  winds  bring  with  them  the.  temperature  of  the 
regions  they  have  traversed,  southerly  currents  of  air  are 
warm  winds,  and  northerly  currents  cold  winds.  Also 
since  the  temperature  of  the  ocean  is  more  uniform  than 
that  of  the  land,  winds  coming  from  the  ocean  do  not  cause 
such  variations  of  temperature  as  winds  from  a  continent. 
As  air  loaded  with  vapour  obstructs  both  solar  and  terrestrial 
radiation,  when  clear  as  well  as  when  clouded,  moist  ocean 
winds  are  accompanied  by  a  mild  temperature  in  wintsr 
and  a  cool  temperatura  in  summer,  and  dry  winds  coming 
from  continents  by  cold  winters  and  hot  summers.  Lastly, 
equatorial  currents  of  air,  losing  heat  as  they  proceed  in 
their  course,  are  thereby  brought  nearer  the  point  of  satura 
tion,  and  consequently  become  moister  winds ;  whereas 
northerly  currents  acquiring  greater  heat  in  their  progress 
become  drier  winds. 

It  follows  from  these  relations  of  the  wind  to  temperature 
and  moisture  that  the  S.W.  wind  in  the  British  Isles  is  a 
very  moist  wind,  being  both  an  oceanic  and  equatorial 
current ;  whereas  the  N.E.  wind,  on  the  other  hand,  is 
peculiarly  dry  and  parching,  because  it  is  both  a  northerly 
and  continental  current.  Owing  to  the  circumstance  of 
atmospheric  pressure  diminishing  from  the  south  of  Europe 
northwards  to  Iceland,  it  follows  that  S.W.  winds  are  the 
most  prevalent  in  Great  Britain  ;  and  since  this  diminution 
of  pressure  reaches  its  maximum  amount  and  persistency 
during  the  winter  months,  S.W.  winds  are  in  the  greatest 
preponderance  at  this  season  ;  hence  the  abnormally  high 
winter  temperature  of  these  islands  above  what  is  due  to 
mere  latitude.  The  msan  winter  temperature  of  Lerwick, 
Shetland,  in  respect  of  latitude  alone  would  be  3°,  and  of 
London  17°,  bat  owing  to  the  heat  conveyed  from  the 
warm  waters  of  the  Atlantic  across  these  islands  by  the 
winds,  the  temperature  of  Shetland  is  39"  and  of  London 
38°.  In  Iceland  and  Norway  the  abnormal  increase  of 
temperature  in  winter  is  still  greater.  This  influence  of 
the  Atlantic  through  the  agency  of  the  winds  is  so  pre 
ponderating  that  the  winter  isothermals  of  Great  Britain 
lie  north  and  south,  instaad  of  the  normal  east  and  west 
direction. 

This  peculiar  distribution  of  the  winter  temperature  of 
the  British  Isles  has  important  bearings  on  the  treatment 
of  diseases.  Sinca  the  temperature  of  tha  whole  of  jthe 
eastern  slope  of  Great  Britain  is  the  same,  it  is  clear  that 
to  those  for  whom  a  milder  winter  climate  is  required  a 
journey  southward  is  attended  with  no  practical  advantage, 
unless  directed  to  the  west  coast.  As  the  temperature  on 
the  west  is  uniform  from  Shetland  to  Wales,  Scotland  is  as 
favourable  to  weak  constitutions  during  winter  as  any  part 
of  England,  except  the  south-west,  the  highest  winter 
temperatures  being  found  from  the  Isle  of  Wight  westward 
round  the  Cornish  peninsula  to  the  Bristol  Channel ;  and 
from  Carnsore  Point  in  Ireland  to  Galway  Bay  the  tempera 
ture  is  also  high. 

The  height  and  direction  of  mountain  ranges  form  an 
important  factor  in  determining  the  climatic  characteristics 
of  prevailing  winds.  If  the  ranga  be  perpendicular  to  the 
winds,  tha  effect  is  to  drain  the  winds  which  cross  them  of 
their  moisture,  thus  rendering  the  winters  colder  and  tha 
summers  hotter  at  all  places  to  leeward,  as  compared  with 


places  to  windward,  by  partially  removing  the  protecting 
screen  of  vapour  and  thus  exposing  them  more  effectually 
to  solar  and  terrestrial  radiation.  To  this  cause  much  of 
the  observed  difference  between  the  west  and  east  climates 
of  Great  Britain  is  due.  In  Ireland,  on  the  other  hand, 
where  the  mountains  are  not  grouped  in  ranges  running 
north  and  south,  but  in  isolated  masses,  the  difference 
between  the  climates  of  the  east  and  west  is  very  much 
less.  In  the  east  of  the  United  States  the  prevailing 
winds  in  summer  are  S.W.,  and  as  the  Alleghanies  lie  in 
the  same  direction  the  temperature  is  little  affected  by 
these  mountains,  and  the  rainfall  is  pretty  evenly  dis 
tributed  on  both  sides  of  the  range. 

In  its  climatological  relations  the  distribution  of  rain 
over  the  globe  presents  us  with  a  body  of  facts  which  lead, 
when  intelligently  interpreted,  to  a  knowledge  of  the  laws 
regulating  the  distribution  of  plants  more  quickly  and 
cartainly  than  do  the  facts  of  temperature.  It  is  to  the 
prevailing  winds  we  must  look  for  an  explanation  of  the 
rainfall,  the  broad  principles  of  the  connection  being  these: 
—  1,  The  rainfall  is  moderately  large  when  the  wind  has 
traversed  a  considerable  extent  of  ocean ;  2,  if  the  v.-inds 
advance  into  colder  regions  the  rainfall  is  largely  increased, 
and  if  a  range  of  mountains  lie  across  their  path  the 
amount  precipitated  on  the  side  facing  the  winds  is  greatly 
augmented,  but  diminished  over  regions  on  the  othej  side 
of  the  range  ;  3,  if  the  winds,  though  coming  from  the 
ocean,  have  not  traversed  a  considerable  extent  of  it,  the 
rainfall  is  not  large  ;  and  4,  if  the  winds,  even  though 
having  traversed  a  considerable  part  of  the  ocean,  yet  on 
arriving  on  the  land  proceed  into  lower  latitudes,  or 
regions  markedly  warmer,  the  rainfall  is  small  or  nil.  It 
is  this  last  consideration  which  accounts  for  the  rainless 
character  of  the  summer  climates  of  California,  of  Southern 
Europe,  and  of  Northern  Africa. 

The  region  extending  from  Alaska  to  Lower  California 
presents  more  sudden  transitions  of  climate,  and  climates 
more  sharply  contrasted  with  each  other,  than  any  other 
portion  of  the  globe,  this  arising  from  the  contour  of  its  sur 
face  and  the  prevailing  winds.  A  direct  contrast  to  this  is 
offered  by  the  United  States  to  the  east  of  the  Mississippi, 
a  region  characterized  by  a  remarkable  uniformity  in  the 
distribution  of  its  rainfall  in  all  seasons,  which,  taken  in 
connection  with  its  temparature,  affords  climatic  conditions 
admirably  adapted  for  a  vigorous  growth  of  trees  and  for 
the  great  staple  products  of  agriculture.  India  and  the 
region  of  tha  Caspian  Saa  and  the  Caucasus  Mountains 
also  present  extraordinary  contrasts  of  climate  in  all 
seasons,  due  to  the  prevailing  winds,  upper  as  well  as 
lower  winds,  tha  relative  distribution  of  land  and  water, 
and  the  physical  configuration  of  the  surface  of  the  land. 

In  tha  above  remarks  the  only  question  dealt  with 
has  been  the  average  climate  of  localities  and  regions. 
There  are,  however,  it  need  scarcely  be  added,  vital 
elements  of  climate  of  which  such  a  discussion  can  take  no 
cognizance.  These  are  the  deviations  which  occur  from 
the  seasonal  averages  of  climate,  such  as  periods  of  extreme 
cold  and  heat,  or  of  extreme  humidity  and  dryness  of  air, 
liability  to  storms  of  wind,  thunderstorms,  fogs,  and 
extraordinary  downfalls  of  rain,  hail,  or  snow.  An 
illustration  will  show  tha  climatic  difference  here  insisted 
on.  The  mean  wintar  temperature  of  the  Southern  States 
of  America  is  almost  the  same  as  that  of  Lower  Egypt. 
Lower  Egypt  is  singularly  free  from  violent  alternations  of 
temperature  as  well  as  frost,  whereas  these  are  marked 
features  of  the  winter  climate  of  the  States  bordering  on 
the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  Robert  Russell,  in  his  Climate  cf 
America,  gives  an  instance  of  the  temperature  falling  in 
Southern  Taxas  with  a  norther  from  81°  to  18°  in  41 
hours,  the  norther  blowing  at  the  same  time  with  great 


L  I  —  C  L  1 


violence.     A  temperature  of  18°  accompanying  a  violent 
wind  may  be  regarded  as  unknown  in  Great  Britain. 

It  is  to  the  cyclone  and  anticyclone  (see  ATMOSPHERE)  we 
must  look  for  an  explanation  of  these  violent  weather 
changes.  Climatically,  the  significance  of  the  anticyclone 
or  area  of  high  pressure  consists  in  the  space  covered  for 
the  time  by  it  being  on  account  of  its  dryness  and  clear 
ness  more  fully  under  the  influence  of  solar  and  terrestrial 
radiation,  and  consequently  exposed  to  great  cold  in  winter 
and  great  heat  in  summer ;  and  of  the  cyclone  or  area  of 
low  pressure,  in  a  moist  warm  atmosphere  occupying  its 
front  and  southern  half,  and  a  cold  dry  atmosphere  its 
rear  and  northern  half. 

The  low  areas  of  the  American  cyclones,  as  they  proceed 
eastward  a^ng  the  north  shores  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  are 
often  immediately  followed  to  west  and  north-westward  by 
areas  of  very  high  pressure,  the  necessary  consequence  of 
which  is  the  setting  in  of  a  violent  norther  over  the 
Southern  States.  Since  similar  barometric  conditions  do 
not  occur  in  the  region  of  Lower  Egypt,  its  climate  is  free 
from  these  sudden  changes  which  are  so  injurious  to  the 
health  even  of  the  robust.  Since  many  of  the  centres 
of  the  cyclones  of  North  America  follow  the  track  of  the 
lakes  and  advance  ou  the  Atlantic  by  the  New  England 
States  and  Newfoundland,  these  States  and  a  large  portion 
of  Canada  frequently  experience  cold  raw  easterly  and 
northerly  winds.  The  great  majority  of  European  storms 
travel  eastward  with  their  centres  to  northward  of  Faro,  and 
hence  the  general  mildness  of  the  winter  climate  of  the 
British  Isles.  When  it  happens,  however,  that  cyclonic 
centres  pass  eastwards  along  the  English  Channel  or  through 
Belgium  and  North  Germany,  while  high  pressure  prevails 
in  the  north,  the  winter  is  characterized  by  frosts  and 
snows.  The  worst  summer  weather  in  Great  Britain  is 
when  low  pressures  prevail  over  the  "North  Sea,  and  the 
hottest  and  most  brilliant  weather  when  anticyclones  lie 
over  Great  Britain  and  extend  away  to  south  and  eastward. 

Low  pressures  in  the  Mediterranean,  along  with  high 
pressures  to  northward,  are  the  conditions  of  the  worst 
winter  weather  in  the  south  of  Europe.  A  cyclone  in  the 
Gulf  of  Lyons  or  of  Genoa,  and  an  anticyclone  over  Germany 
and  Russia,  have  the  mistral  as  their  unfailing  attendant, 
blowing  with  terrible  force  and  dryness  on  the  Mediter 
ranean  coasts  of  Spain,  France,  and  North  Italy,  being 
alike  in  its  origin  and  in  its  climatic  qualities  the  exact 
counterpart  of  the  uorther  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  It 
follows  from  the  courses  taken  by  the  cyclones  of  the 
Mediterranean,  and  the  anticyclones  which  attend  on 
them,  that  also  Algeria,  Malta,  and  Greece  are  liable  to 
violent  alternations  of  temperature  during  the  cold  months. 

The  investigation  of  this  phase  of  climate,  which  can 
only  be  carried  out  by  the  examination  of  many  thousands 
of  daily  weather  charts,  is  as  important  as  it  is  difficult, 
since  till  it  be  done  the  advantages  and  hazards  offered  by 
different  sanataria  cannot  be  compared  and  valued.  It 
may  in  the  meantime  be  enough  to  say  that  no  phce  any 
where  in  Europe  or  even  in  Algeria  offers  an  immunity 
from  the  risks  arising  from  the  occurrence  of  cold  weather 
in  winter  at  all  comparable  to  that  afforded  by  the  climates 
of  Egypt  and  Madeira.  See  ATMOSPHERE,  METEOROLOGY, 
and  PHYSICAL  GEOGRAPHY.  (A.  B.) 

CLINTON,  a  city  of  the  United  States,  in  Clinton 
County,  Iowa,  about  42  miles  higher  up  than  Davenport, 
on  the  Mississippi,  which  is  crossed  at  this  point  by  an  iron 
drawbridge  upwards  of  4000  feet  long.  It  is  a  thriving 
place,  with  workshops  for  the  Chicago  and  North-Western 
Railway,  and  an  extensive  trade  in  timber.  Several  news 
papers  are  published  weekly.  Population  in  1870,  G129. 

CLINTON,  a  town  of  the  United  States,  in  Worcester 
county,  Massachusetts,  on  the  Nashua  River,  about  32 


miles  west  of  Boston,  at  the  junction  of  several  railway 
lines.  It  is  the  seat  of  extensive  manufacturing  activity, 
chiefly  expended  in  the  production  of  cotton  cloths,  woollen 
carpets,  boots  and  shoes,  combs,  and  machinery.  Tho 
Lancaster  mills  rank  as  perhaps  the  best  in  the  United 
States  ;  and  the  wire  cloth  company  has  the  credit  of  being 
the  first  to  weave  wire  by  the  power-loom.  Population  in 
1870,  5429. 

CLINTON,  DE  WITT  (1769-1828),  an  American  states 
man,  born  at  Little  Britain,  in  the  State  of  New  York,  waa 
the  son  of  a  gentleman  of  English  extraction  who  served  as 
brigadier-geiieral  in  the  war  of  independence,  and  of  a  lady 
belonging  to  the  famous  Dutch  family  of  De  Witts.     He 
was  educated  at  Colombia  College;  and  in  1788  he  was 
admitted  to  the  bar.     He  at  once  joined  the  republican 
party,  among  the  leaders  of  which  was  his  ui.cl  i,  George 
Clinton,  governor  of  New  York,  wrhose  secretary  ha  became. 
At  the  same  time  he  held  the  office  of  secretary  to  the 
board  of  regents  of  the  university,  and  to  the  commissioners 
of  fortifications.     In  1797  he  was  elected  member  of  tho 
Assembly,  in  1798  member  of  the  Senate  of  the  State  of 
New  York,    and  in  1801  member  of   the  Senate  of  the 
United  States.     For  twelve  years,  with  two  short  breaks, 
which   amounted   only   to   three   years,  he   occupied  the 
position  of   mayor   of   New   York.     He   was   also   again 
member  of  the  Senate  of  New  York  from  1803  to  1811, 
and  lieutenant-governor  of  the  State  from  1811  to  1813. 
In  1812  he  became  a  candidate  for  the  presidency  ;  but  he 
was  defeated  by  Madison,  and  lost   even   his  lieutenant- 
governorship.     Throughout  his  whole  career  Clinton  had 
been  distinguished  by  his  intelligent  support  of  all  schemes 
of  improvement,  and  he  now  devoted  himself  to  carrying 
out  the  proposal  for  the  construction  of  canals  from  Lakes 
Erie  and  Champlain  to  the  River  Hudson.     The  Federal 
Government  refused  to  undertake  the  work ;  but  some  time 
after,    in    1815,    the   year   in  which   he   finally  lost   the 
mayoralty,  he  presented  a  memorial  on  the  subject  to  the 
Legislature  of  New  York,  and  the  Legislature  appointed  a 
commission,  of  which  he  was  made  a  member,  to  make 
surveys  and  draw  up  estimates.     Having  thus  recovered 
his  popularity,  in    1816  Clinton    was   once  more   chosen 
governor  of   the  State;    in    1819  he  was  re-elected,  and 
again  in  1824  and  1826.     In  1825  the  Erie  Canal  was 
completed ;    and  he  afterwards  saw  the  work  which  ow  ed 
so  much    to  him  carried  on  by   the  construction   of   im 
portant  brunch  canals. 

Do  Witt  Clinton  published  a  Memoir  on  the  Antiquities  of  Western 
New  York  (1818),    Letters  on  the  Natural  History  and  Internal 


CLINTON,  HENRY  FYKES  (1781-1852),  an  English 
classical  scholar,  was  born  at  Gamstou,  in  Nottinghamshire, 
lie  was  descended  fixm  the  second  earl  of  Lincoln;  for 
pome  generations  the  name  of  his  family  was  Fynes,  but 
his  father  resumed  the  older  family  name  of  Clinton. 
Educated  at  Southwell  school  in  his  native  county,  at 
Westminster  school,  and  at  Christ  Church  College,  Oxford, 
he  devoted  himself  to  the  minute  and  almost  uninterrupted 
study  of  classical  literature  and  history.  From  1800  to 
1826  he  was  M.P.  for  Aldborough. 

His  chief  works  are-lfcs.'i  Hdlenici,  a  Civil  and  Library  Chrono 
logy  of  Greece,  which  also  contains  dissertations  on  points  of  Greci 
history  and  Scriptural  chronology  (4  vols.,  1824,  1827,  18oO,  1J 
and  Fasti  Xomani,  a  Civil  and  Literary  Chronology  of  Lome  am 


Pemains  of  II.  F.  Clinton  were  publish 
1S54. 

CLITHEROE,  a  manufacturing  town  and  a  municipal 
and  parliamentary  borough  of  England,  in  the  county  o 


8 


C  L  I  — C  L  I 


Lancashire,  situated  not  far  from  the  Kibble,  at  the  foot  of 
Pendle  Hills,  about  28  miles  by  railway  north  of 
Manchester.  It  has  several  suburbs,  known  as  Waterloo, 
Salford,  and  Bawdlands,  and  at  the  side  of  the  river  is  the 
little  village  of  Low  Moor.  Its  principal  buildings  are  the 
parish  church  of  St  Michael's,  a  grammar  school  founded 
in  1554,  the  moothnll,  and  the  county  court  erected  in 
1864  ;  and  its  industrial  establishments  comprise  cotton- 
mills,  extensive  print-works,  paper-mills,  foundries,  snd 
brick  and  lime  works.  The  cotton  manufacture  alone 
employed  upwards  of  2000  people  -in  1871.  Clitheroe 
was  a  borough  by  prescription  as  early  as  the  llth  century, 
and  in  1138  it  is  mentioned  as  the  scene  of  a  battle  be 
tween  the  Scotch  and  English.  Its  castle,  probably  built 
not  long  after,  was  a  fortress  of  the  Lacy  family,  and 
continued  a  defensible  position  till  1649,  when  it  was  dis 
mantled  by  the  Parliamentary  forces.  The  Honor  of  Cli 
theroe,  for  a  long  time  a  part  of  the  duchy  of  Lancaster,  and 
bestowed  by  Charles  II.  on  General  Monk,  is  now  in  the  pos 
session  of  the  Buccleuch  family.  Population  of  the  municipal 
borough  in  1871,  8208  ;  of  the  parliamentary,  11,786. 

CLITOMACHUS,  a  leader  of  the  New  Academy,  was  a 
Carthaginian  originally  named  Hasdrubal,  who  came  to 
Athens  about  the  middle  of  the  2d  century  B.C.  He 
made  himself  well  acquainted  with  Stoical  and  Peripatetic 
philosophy;  but  he  principally  studied  under  Carneades, 
whose  views  he  adopted,  and  whom  he  succeeded  as  chief 
representative  of  the  New  Academy  in  129  B.C.  His 
works  were  some  400  in  number ;  but  we  possess  scarcely 
anything  but  a  few  titles,  among  which  are  De  sustincndis 
ofensionilus,  vtpl  tVo^s  (on  suspension  of  judgment),  and 
Trepi  alptcrewv  (an  account  of  various  philosophical  sects). 
In  146  he  wrote  a  philosophical  treatise  to  console  his 
countrymen  after  the  ruin  of  their  city.  One  of  his  works 
was  dedicated  to  the  Latin  poet  Lucilius,  another  to  L. 
Cenf,orinus,  who  was  consul  in  149  B.C. 

CLITOR,  a  town  of  ancient  Greece,  in  that  part  of 
Arcadia  which  corresponds  to  the  modem  eparchy  of 
Kalavryta.  It  stood  in  a  fertile  plain  to  the  south  of 
Mount  Chelmos,  the  highest  peak  of  the  Aroanian  Moun 
tains,  and  not  far  from  a  stream  of  its  own  name,  which 
joined  the  Aroanius,  or  Katzana.  In  the  neighbourhood 
was  a  fountain,  the  waters  of  which  were  said  to  deprive 
those  who  drunk  them  of  the  taste  for  wine.  The  town 
was  a  place  of  considerable  importance  in  Arcadia,  and  its 
inhabitants  w  ere  noted  for  their  love  of  liberty.  It  extended 
its  territory  over  several  neighbouring  towns,  and  in  the 
Theban  war  fought  against  Orchomenos.  As  a  member  of 
the  Achaean  league  it  suffered  siege  at  the  hands  of  the 
vEtolians,  and  was  on  several  occasions  the  seat  of  the 
federal  assemblies.  The  ruins,  which  bear  the  common 
name  of  Paleopoli,  or  Old  City,  are  still  to  be  seen  about 
three  miles  from  a  village  that  preserves  the  ancient 
designation.  The  greater  part  of  the  walls  and  several  of 
the  circular  towers  with  which  they  were  strengthened  can 
be  clearly  made  out ;  and  there  are  ulso  remains  of  a  small 
Doric  temple,  the  columns  of  which  were  adorned  with 
strange  capitals. 

CLIVE,  ROBERT  (1725-1774),  Baron  Clive  of  Plassy,  in 
the  peerage  of  Ireland,  was  the  statesman  and  general  who 
founded  the  empire  of  British  India  before  ho  was  forty 
years  of  age.  He  is  now  represented  by  the  Powis  family, 
his  son  having  been  made  earl  of  Powis  in  the  peerage  of 
the  United  Kingdom.  Clive  was  born  on  the  29th 
September  1725  at  Styche,  the  family  estate  in  the  parish 
of  Moreton-Say,  Market-Drayton,  Shropshire.  We  learn 
from  himself,  in  his  second  speech  in  the  House  of  Commons 
in  1773,  that  as  the  estate  yielded  only  £500  a  year, 
his  father  followed  the  profession  of  the  law  also.  The 
Clives,  or  Clyves,  formed  one  of  the  oldest  families  in  the 


county  of  Shropshire,  having  held  the  marior  of  that  namo 
in  the  reign  of  Henry  II.  One  Clive  was  Irish  Chancellor 
of  the  Exchequer  under  Henry  VIII. ;  another  was  a 
member  of  the  Long  Parliament ;  Robert's  father  sat  for 
many  years  for  Montgomeryshire.  His  mother,  to  whom 
throughout  life  he  was  tenderly  attached,  and  who  had  a 
powerful  influence  on  his  career,  was  a  daughter,  and  with 
her  sister  Lady  Sempill  co-heir,  of  Nathaniel  Gaskell  of 
Manchester,  Robert  was  their  eldest  son.  With  his  five 
sisters,  all  of  whom  were  married  in  duo  time,  he  ever 
maintained  the  most  affectionate  relations.  His  only 
brother  survived  to  1825.  Young  Clive  was  the  despair 
of  his  teachers.  Sent  from  school  to  school,  and  for  only 
a  short  time  at  the  Merchant  Taylors'  school,  which  had 
then  a  high  reputation,  he  neglected  his  books  for  boyish 
adventures,  often  of  the  most  dangerous  kind.  But  he 
was  not  so  ignorant  as  it  is  the  fashion  of  his  biographers 
to  represent.  He  could  translate  Horace  in  after  life,  at 
the  opening  of  the  book  ;  and  he  must  have  laid  in  his 
youth  the  foundation  of  that  clear  and  vigorous  English 
style  which  marked  all  his  despatches,  and  made  Lord 
Chatham  declare  of  one  of  his  speeches  in  the  House  of 
Commons  that  it  was  the  most  eloquent  he  had  ever  heard. 
From  his  earliest  years,  however,  his  ambition  was  to  lead 
his  fellows  ;  but  ho  never  sacrificed  honour,  as  the  word 
was  then  understood,  even  to  the  fear  of  death.  At  eighteen 
he  was  sent  out  to  Madras  as  a  "  factor  "  or  "  writer  "  in 
the  civil  service  of  the  East  India  Company.  The  deten 
tion  of  the  ship  at  Brazil  for  nine  months  enabled  him  to 
acquire  the  Portuguese  language,  which,  at  a  time  when  few 
or  none  of  the  Company's  servants  learned  the  vernaculars 
of  India,  ho  often  found  of  use  during  his  service  there. 
For  the  first  two  years'  of  his  residence  he  was  miserable. 
He  felt  keenly  the  separation  from  home ;  he  was  always 
breaking  through  the  restraints  imposed  on  young  "  writers ;" 
and  he  was  rarely  out  of  trouble  with  his  fellows,  with  one 
of  whom  he  fought  a  duel.  Thus  early,  too,  the  effect  of 
the  climate  on  his  health  began  to  show  itself  in  those  fits 
of  depression  during  one  of  which  he  afterwards  pre 
maturely  ended  his  life.  The  story  is  told  of  him  by  his 
companions,  though  he  himself  never  spoke  of  it,  that  ho 
twice  snapped  a  pistol  at  his  head  in  vain.  His  one  solace 
was  found  in  tho  Governor's  library,  where  he  sought  to 
make  up  for  past  carelessness,  not  only  by  much  reading, 
but  by  a  course  of  study.  He  was  just  of  age,  when  in 
1746  Madras  was  forced  to  capitulate  to  Labourdonnais, 
during  the  war  of  the  Austrian  Succession.  The  breach 
of  that  capitulation  by  Dupleix,  then  at  the  head  of  the 
French  settlements  in  India,  led  Clive,  with  others,  to 
escape  from  the  town  to  the  subordinate  Fort  St  David, 
some  twenty  miles  to  the  south.  There,  disgusted  with 
the  state  of  affairs  and  the  purely  commercial  duties  of  an 
East  Indian  civilian,  as  they  then  were,  Clive  obtained  an 
ensign's  commission. 

At  this  time  India  was  ready  to  become  the  prize  of  the 
first  conqueror  who  to  the  dash  of  the  soldier  added  the 
skill  of  the  administrator.  For  the  forty  years  since  the 
death  of  the  Emperor  Aurungzebc,  the  power  of  the  Great 
Mogul  had  gradually  fallen  into  the  hands  of  his  provincial 
viceroys  or  soubadars.  The  three  greatest  of  these  were- 
the  nawab  of  the  Deccan,  or  South  and  Central  India,  who 
ruled  from  Hyderabad,  the  nawab  of  Bengal,  whoso 
capital  was  Moorshedabad,  and  the  nawab  or  vizier  of 
Oudh.  The  prize  lay  between  Dupleix,  who  had  the 
genius  of  an  administrator,  or  rather  intriguer,  but  was  no 
soldier,  and  Clive,  the  first  of  a  century's  brilliant  succes 
sion  of  those  "  soldier-politicals,"  as  they  are  called  in  tho 
East,  to  whom,  ending  with  Sir  Henry  Lawrence,  Great 
Britain  owes  the  conquest  and  consolidation  of  its  greatest 
deperdency.  Clive  successively  established  British  ascend- 


OLIVE 


encyaganist  French  influence  in  the  three  great  provinces 
under  these  nawabs.  But  his  merit  lies  especially  in  the 
ability  and  foresight  with  which  he  secured  for  his  country, 
and  for  the  good  of  the  natives,  the  richest  of  the 
three,  Bengal.  First,  as  to  Madras  and  the  Deccan,  Clive 
had  hardly  been  able  to  commend  himself  to  Major  Stringer 
Lawrence,  the  commander  of  the  British  troops,  by  his 
courage  and  skill  in  several  small  engagements,  when  the 
peace  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  forced  him  to  return  to  his  civil 
duties  for  a  short  time.  An  attack  of  the  malady  which 
so  severely  affected  his  spirits  led  him  to  visit  Bengal, 
where  he  was  soon  to  distinguish  himself.  On  his  return 
he  found  a  contest  going  on  between  two  s-jts  of  rival 
claimants  for  the  position  of  viceroy  of  the  Deccan,  and  for 
that  of  nawab  of  the  Carnatic,  the  greatest  of  the  subor 
dinate  states  under  the  Deccan.  Dupleix,  who  took  the 
part  of  the  pretenders  to  power  in  both  places,  was  carry 
ing  all  before  him.  The  British  had  been  weakened  by  the 
withdrawal  of  a  large  force  under  Admiral  Boscawen,  and 
by  the  return  home,  on  leave,  of  Major  Lawrence.  But 
that  officer  had  appointed  Clive  commissary  for  the  supply 
of  the  troops  with  provisions,  with  the  rank  of  captain. 
More  than  one  disaster  had  taken  place  on  a  small  scale, 
when  Clive  drew  up  a  plan  for  dividing  the  enemy's  forces, 
and  offered  to  carry  it  out  himself.  The  pretender,  Chunda 
Sahib,  had  been  made  nawab  of  the  Carnatic  with  Dupleix's 
assistance,  while  the  British  had  taken  up  the  cause  of  the 
more  legitimate  successor,  Mahomed  Ali.  Chunda  Sahib 
had  left  Arcot,  the  capital  of  the  Carnatic,  to  reduce 
Trichinopoly,  then  held  by  a  weak  English  battalion. 
Clive  offered  to  attack  Arcot  that  he  might  force  Chunda 
Sahib  to  raise  the  siege  of  Trichinopoly.  But  Madras  and 
Fort  St  David  could  supply  him  with  only  2^0  Europeans 
and  300  sepoys.  Of  the  eight  officers  who  led  them,  four 
were  civilians  like  Clive  himself,  and  six  had  never  been 
in  action.  His  force  had  but  three  field-pieces.  The  cir 
cumstance  that  Clive,  at  the  head  of  this  handful,  had  been 
seen  marching  during  a  storm  of  thunder  and  lightning, 
led  the  enemy  to  evacuate  the  fort,  which  the  British  at 
once  began  to  strengthen  against  a  siege.  Clive  treated 
the  great  population  of  the  city  with  so  much  considera 
tion  that  they  helped  him,  not  only  to  fortify  his  position, 
but  to  make  successful  sallies  against  the  enemy.  As 
the  days  passed  on,  Chunda  Sahib  sent  a  large  army  under 
his  son  and  his  French  supporters,  who  entered  Arcot  and 
closely  besieged  Clive  in  the  citadel.  An  attempt  to  relieve 
him  from  Madras  was  defeated.  Meanwhile  the  news  of 
the  marvellous  defence  of  the  English  reached  the  Mahratta 
allies  of  Mahomed  Ali,  who  advanced  to  dive's  rescue. 
This  led  the  enemy  to  redouble  their  exertions,  but  in  vain. 
After  for  fifty  days  besieging  the  fort,  and  offering  large 
sums  to  Clive  to  capitulate,  they  retired  from  Arcot.  The 
brave  garrison  had  been  so  reduced  by  the  gradual  failure 
of  provisions  that  the  sepoys  offered  to  be  content  with  the 
thin  gruel  which  resulted  from  the  boiling  of  the  rice, 
leaving  the  grain  to  their  European  comrades.  Of  the  200 
Europeans  45  had  been  killed,  and  of  the  300  sepoys  30  had 
fallen,  while  few  of  the  survivors  had  escaped  wounds.  In 
India,  we  might  say  in  all  history,  there  is  no  parallel  to 
this  exploit  of  1751  till  we  come  to  the  siege  of  Lucknow 
in  1857.  Clive.  now  reinforced,  followed  up  his  advan 
tage,  and  Major  Lawrence  returned  in  time  to  carry  the  war 
to  a  successful  issue.  In  1754  the  first  of  our  Carnatic 
treaties  was  made  provisionally,  between  Mr  T.  Saunders, 
the  Company's  resident  at  Madras,  and  M.  Godeheu,  the 
French  commander,  in  which  the  English  protege,  Mahomed 
Ali,  was  virtually  recognized  as  nawab,  and  both  nations 
agreed  to  equalize  their  possessions.  When  war  again 
broke  out  in  175G,  and  the  French,  during  Clive's  absence 
in  Bengal,  obtained  successes  in  the  northern  districts,  his 


efforts  helped  to  drive  them  from  their  settlements.  The 
Treaty  of  Paris  in  1763  formally  confirmed  Mahomed  Ali 
in  the  position  which  Clive  had  won  for  him.  Two  years 
after,  the  Madras  work  of  Clive  was  completed  by  a  firmaun 
from  the  emperor  of  Delhi,  recognizing  the  British  posses 
sions  in  Southern  India. 

The  siege  of  Arcot  at  once  gave  Clive  a  European  reputa 
tion.  Pitt  pronounced  the  youth  of  twenty-seven  who  had 
done  such  deeds  a  "  heaven-born  general,"  thus  endorsing 
the  generous  appreciation  of  his  early  commander,  Major 
Lawrence.  When  the  Court  of  Directors  voted  him  a  sword 
worth  £700,  he  refused  to  receive  it  unless  Lawrence 
was  similarly  honoured.  He  left  Madras  for  home,  after 
ten  years  absence,  early  in  1753,  but  not  before  marrying 
Miss  Margaret  Maskelyne,  the  sister  of  a  friend,  and  of 
one  who  was  afterwards  well  known  as  astronomer  royal. 
All  his  correspondence  proves  him  to  have  been  a  good 
husband  and  father,  at  a  time  when  society  was  far  from 
pure,  and  scandal  made  havoc  of  the  highest  reputations. 
In  after  days,  when  Clive's  uprightness  and  stern  reform  of 
the  Company's  civil  and  military  services  made  him  many 
enemies,  a  biography  of  him  appeared  under  the  assumed 
name  of  Charles  Carradoli,  Cent.  All  the  evidence  is 
against  the  probability  of  its  scandalous  stories  being  true. 
Clive's  early  life  seems  occasionally  to  have  led  him  to  yield 
to  one  of  the  vices  of  his  time,  loose  or  free  talk  among 
intimate  friends,  but  beyond  this  nothing  has  been  proved  to 
his  detriment.  After  he  had  been  two  years  at  home  tie 
state  of  affairs  in  India  made  the  directors  anxious  for  his 
return.  He  was  sent  out,  in  17 50,  as  governor  of  Fort  St 
David,  with  the  reversion  of  the  government  of  Madra^, 
and  he  received  the  commission  of  lieutenant-colonel  in  the 
king's  army.  He  took  Bombay  on  his  way,  and  there 
commanded  the  land  force  which  captured  Gheriah,  the 
stronghold  of  the  Mahratta  pirate,  Angria.  In  the  distribu 
tion  of  prize  money  which  followed  this  expedition  he 
showed  no  little  self-denial.  He  took  his  seat  as  goverm  r 
of  Fort  St  David  on  the  day  on  which  the  nawab  of  Bengil 
captured  Calcutta.  Thither  the  Madras  Government  at 
once  sent  him,  along  with  Admiral  Watson.  He  entered 
on  the  second  period  of  his  career. 

Since,  in  August  1690,  Job  Charnock  had  landed  at  tlio 
village  of  Chuttanutti  with  a  guard  of  one  officer  and  30 
men,  the  infant  capital  of  Calcutta  had  become  a  rich  centre 
of  trade.  The  successive  nawabs  or  viceroys  of  Bengal 
had  been  friendly  to  it,  till,  in  1756,  Suraj-ud-Dowlan 
succeeded  his  uncle  at  Moorshedabad.  His  predecessor's 
financial  minister  had  fled  to  Calcutta  to  escape  the  extor 
tion  of  the  new  nawab,  and  the  English  governor  refused 
to  deliver  up  the  refugee.  Enraged  at  this,  Suraj-ud- 
Dowlah  captured  the  old  fort  of  Calcutta  on  the  5t'i 
August,  and  plundered  it  of  more  than  two  millions 
sterling.  Many  of  the  English  fled  to  the  ships  and 
dropped  down  the  river.  The  146  who  remained,  were 
forced  into  "the  Black  Hole"  in  the  stifling  heat  of  the 
sultriest  period  of  the  year.  Only  23  came  out  alive. 
The  fleet  was  as  strong,  for  those  days,  as  the  land  force 
was  weak.  Disembarking  his  troops  some  miles  below  the 
city,  Clive  marched  through  the  jungles,  where  he_lost  his 
way  owing  to  the  treachery  of  his  guides,  but  soon  invested 
Fort  William,  while  the  fire  of  the  ships  reduced  it,  on  the 
2d  January  1757.  On  the  4th  February  he  defeated  the 
whole  army  of  the  riawab,  which  had  taken  up  a  strong 
position  just  beyond  what  is  now  the  most  northerly 
suburb  of  Calcutta.  The  nawab  hastened  to  conclude  a 
treaty,  under  which  favourable  terms  were  conceded  to  the 
Company's  trade,  the  factories  and  plundered  property 
were  restored,  and  an  English  mint  was  established.  In 
the  accompanying  agreement,  offensive  and  defensive,  C 
appears  under  the  name  by  which  J.e  was  dwn; 


10 


OLIVE 


the  natives  of  India,  Sabut  Jung,  or  the  daring  in  war. 
The  hero  of  Arcot  had,  at  Angria's  stronghold,  and  now 
again  under  the  walls  of  Calcutta,  established  his  reputa 
tion  as  the  first  captain  of  the  time.  With  600  British 
soldiers,  800  sepoys,  7  field-pieces  and  500  sailors  to  draw 
them,  he  had  routed  a  force  of  34,000  men  with  40  pieces 
of  heavy  cannon,  50  elephants,  and  a  camp  that  extended 
upwards  of  four  miles  in  length.  His  own  account,  in  a 
letter  to  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  gives  a  modest  but 
vivid  description  of  the  battle,  the  importance  of  which 
has  been  overshadowed  by  Plassy.  In  spite  of  his  double 
defeat  and  the  treaty  which  followed  it,  the  madness  of  the 
nawnb  burst  forth  again.  As  England  and  France  were 
once  more  at  war,  Clive  sent  the  fleet  up  the  river  against 
Chandernagore,  while  he  besieged  it  by  land.  After 
consenting  to  the  siege,  the  nawab  sought  to  assist  the 
French,  but  in  vain.  The  capture  of  their  principal  settle 
ment  in  India,  next  to  Pondicherry,  which  had  fallen  in 
the  previous  war,  gave  the  combined  forces  prize  to  the 
value  of  £130,000.  The  rule  of  Suraj-ud-Dowlah  became 
as  intolerable  to  his  own  people  as  to  the  English.  They 
formed  a  confederacy  to  depose  him,  at  the  head  of  which 
was  Jaffier  Ali  Khan,  his  commander-in-chief.  Associating 
with  himself  Admiral  Watson,  Governor  Drake,  and  Mr 
Watts,  Clive  made  a  treaty  in  which  it  was  agreed  to  give 
the  office  of  souba,  or  viceroy  of  Bengal,  Behar,  and 
Orissa,  to  Jaffier,  who  was  to  pay  a  million  sterling  to  the 
Company  for  its  losses  in  Calcutta  and  the  cost  of  its  troops, 
half  a  million  to  the  English  inhabitants  of  Calcutta, 
£200,000  to  the  native  inhabitants,  and  £70,000  to  its 
Armenian  merchants.  Up  to  this  point  all  is  clear.  Suraj 
ud-Duwlah  was  hopeless  as  a  ruler.  His  relations  alike 
to  his  master,  the  merely  titular  emperor  of  Delhi,  and  to 
the  people  left  the  province  open  to  the  strongest.  After 
"  the  Black  Hole,"  the  battle  of  Calcutta,  and  the  treachery 
at  Chandernagore  in  spite  of  the  treaty  which  follow  3d 
that  battle,  the  East  India  Company  could  treat  the  nawab 
only  as  an  enemy.  Clive,  it  is  true,  miglit  have  disregarded 
all  native  intrigue,  marched  on  Moorshedabad,  and  at  once 
held  the  delta  of  the  Ganges  in  the  Company's  name.  But 
the  time  was  not  ripe  for  this,  and  the  consequences,  with 
so  small  a  force,  might  have  been  fatal.  The  idea  of  acting 
directly  as  rulers,  or  save  under  native  charters  and  names, 
was  not  developed  by  events  for  half  a  century.  The 
political  morality  of  the  time  in  Europe,  as  well  as  the 
comparative  weakness  of  the  Company  in  India,  led  Clive 
not  only  to  meet  the  dishonesty  of  his  native  associate  by 
equal  dishonesty,  but  to  justify  his  conduct  by  the  declara 
tion,  years  after,  in  Parliament,  that  he  would  do  the  same 
again.  It  became  necessary  to  employ  the  richest  Bengalee 
trader,  Omichund,  as  an  agent  between  Jaffier  Ali  and  the 
English  officials.  Master  of  ths  secret  of  the  confederacy 
against  Suraj-ud-Dowlah,  the  Bengalee  threatened- to 
betray  it  unless  he  was  guaranteed,  in  the  treaty  itself, 
£300,000.  To  dupe  the  villain,  who  was  really  paid  by 
both  sides,  a  second,  or  fictitious  treaty,  was  shown  him 
with  a  clause  to  this  effect.  This  Admiral  Watson  refused 
to  sign;  "  but,"  Clive  deponed  to  the  House  of  Commons, 
"  to  the  best  of  his  remembrance,  he  gave  the  gentleman 
who  carried  it  leave  to  sign  his  name  upon  it ;  his  lordship 
never  made  any  secret  of  it ;  he  thinks  it  warrantable  in 
such  a  case,  and  would  do  it  again  a  hundred  times  ;  he 
had  no  interested  motive  in  doing  it,  and  did  it  with  a 
design  of  disappointing  the  expectations  of  a  rapacious  man," 
Such  is  dive's  own  defence  of  the  one  act  which,  in  a  long 
career  of  abounding  temptations,  stains  his  public  life. 

The  whole  hot  season  of  1757  was  spent  in  these 
negotiations,  till  the  middle  of  June,  when  Clive  began  his 
march  from  Chandernagore,  the  British  in  boats,  and  the 
sepoys  along  the  right  bank  of  the  Ilooghly.  That  river, 


above  Calcutta  is,  during  the  rainy  season,  fed  by  the 
overflow  of  the  Ganges  to  the  north  through  three  streams, 
which  in  the  hot  months  are  nearly  dry.  On  the  left 
bank  of  the  Bhagarutti,  the  most  westerly  of  these,  100 
miles  above  Chandernagore,  stands  Moorshedabad,  the 
capital  of  the  Mogul  viceroys  of  Bengal,  and  then  so  vast  that 
Clive  compared  it  to  the  London  of  his  day.  Some  miles 
farther  down  is  the  field  of  Plassy,  then  an  extensive  grove 
of  mango  trses,  of  which  enough  yet  remains,  in  spite  of 
the  changing  course  of  the  stream,  to  enable  the  visitor  to 
realize  the  scene.  On  the  21st  June  Clive  arrived  on 
the  bank  opposite  Plassy,  in  the  midst  of  that  outburst  of 
rain  which  ushers  in  the  south-west  monsoon  of  India. 
His  whole  army  amounted  to  1100  Europeans  and  2100 
native  troops,  with  10  field-pieces.  The  nawab  had  drawn 
up  18,000  horse,  50,000  foot,  and  53  pieces  of  heavy 
ordnance,  served  by  French  artillerymen.  For  once  in  his 
career  Clive  hesitated,  and  called  a  council  of  sixteen 
officers  to  decide,  as  he  put  it,  "  whether  in  our  present 
situation,  without  assistance,  and  on  our  own  bottom,  it 
would  be  prudent  to  attack  the  nawab,  or  whether  we 
should  wait  till  joined  by  some  country  power  ?  "  Clivo 
himself  headed  the  nine  who  voted  for  delay ;  Major 
(afterwards  Sir)  Eyre  Coote,  led  the  seven  who  counselled 
immediate  attack.  But,  either  because  his  daring  asserted 
itself,  or  because,  also,  of  a  letter  that  he  received  from 
Jaffier  Ali,  as  has  been  said,  Clive  was  the  first  to  change 
his  mind  and  to  communicate  with  Major  Eyre  Coote. 
One  tradition,  followed  by  Macaulay,  represents  him  as 
spending  an  hour  in  thought  under  the  shade  of  some  trees, 
while  he  resolved  the  issues  of  what  was  to  prove  one  of 
the  decisive  battles  of  the  world.  Another,  turned  into 
verse  by  an  Anglo-Indian  poet,  pictures  his  resolution  aa 
the  result  of  a  dream.  However  that  may  be,  he  did  well 
as  a  soldier  to  trust  to  the  dash  and  even  rashness  that  had 
gained  Arcot  and  triumphed  at  Calcutta,  and  as  a  states 
man,  since  retreat,  or  even  delay,  would  have  put  back  the 
civilization  of  India  for  years.  When,  after  the  heavy  rain, 
the  sun  rose  brightly  on  the  22d,  the  3200  men  and  the 
six  guns  crossed  the  river  and  took  possession  of  the  grove 
and  its  tanks  of  water,  while  Clive  established  his  head 
quarters  in  a  hunting  lodge.  On  the  23d  the  engagement 
took  place  and  lasted  the  whole  day.  Except  the  40 
Frenchmen  and  the  guns  which  they  worked,  the  enemy 
did  little  to  reply  to  the  British  cannonade  which,  with  the 
39th  Regiment,  scattered  the  host,  inflicting  on  it  a  loss  of 
500  men.  Clive  restrained  the  ardour  of  Major  Kirkpatrick, 
for  he  trusted  to  Jaffier  Ali's  abstinence,  if  not  desertion  to 
his  ranks,  and  knew  the  importance  of  sparing  his  own 
small  force.  He  lost  hardly  a  white  soldier ;  in  all  22 
sepoys  were  killed  and  50  wounded.  His  own  account, 
written  a  month  after  the  battle  to  the  secret  committee  of 
the  court  of  directors,  is  not  less  unaffected  than  that  in 
which  he  had  announced  the  defeat  of  the  nawab  at 
Calcutta.  Suraj-ud-Dowlah  fled  from  the  field  on  a  camel, 
secured  what  wealth  he  could,  and  came  to  an  untimely 
end.  Clive  entered  Moorshedabad,  and  established  Jaffier 
Ali  in  the  position  which  his  descendants  have  ever  since 
enjoyed,  as  pensioners,  but  have  not  unfrequently  abused. 
When  taken  through  the  treasury,  amid  a  million  and  a 
half  sterling's  worth  of  rupees,  gold  and  silver  plate,  jewels, 
and  rich  goods,  and  besought  to  ask  what  he  would,  Clive 
was  content  with  £160,000,  while  half  a  million  was  dis 
tributed  among  the  army  and  navy,  both  in  addition  to 
gifts  of  £24,000  to  each  member  of  the  Company's  com 
mittee,  and  besides  the  public  compensation  stipulated  for 
in  the  treaty.  It  was  to  this  occasion  that  he  referred  in 
his  defence  before  the  House  of  Commons,  when  he 
declared  that  he  marvelled  at  his  moderation.  He 
sought  rather  to  increase  the  shares  of  the  fleet  and  the 


0  L  I  V  E 


11 


troops  at  his  own  expense,  as  he  had  done  at  Gheriah,  and 
did  more  than  once  afterwards,  with  prize  of  war.  What 
ha  did  take  from  the  grateful  nawab  for  himself  was  Jess 
than  the  circumstances  justified  from  an  Oriental  point  of 
view,  was  far  less  than  was  pressed  upon  him,  not  only  by 
Jaffier  Ali,  but  by  the  hundreds  of  the  native  nobles  whose 
gifts  Clive  steadily  refused,  and  was  openly  acknowledged 
from  the  first.  He  followed  a  usage  fully  recognized  by 
the  Company,  although  the  fruitful  source  of  future  evils 
which  he  himself  was  again  sent  out  to  correct.  The 
Company  itself  acquired  a  revenue  of  £100,000  a  year, 
and  a  contribution  towards  its  losses  and  military  expendi 
ture  of  a  million  and  a  half  sterling.  Such  was  Jaffier 
Ali's  gratitude  to  Clive  that  he  afterwards  presented  him 
with  the  quit-rent  of  the  Company's  lands  in  and  around 
Calcutta,  amounting  to  an  annuity  of  £27,000  for  life, 
and  left  him  by  will  the  sum  of  £70,000,  which  Clivo 
devoted  to  the  army. 

While  busy  with  the  civil  administration,  the  conqueror 
of  Plassy  continued  to  follow  up  his  military  success.  He 
sent  Major  Coote  in  pursuit  of  the  French  almost  as  far  as 
Benares.  He  despatched  Colonel  Forde  to  Vizagapatam 
and  the  northern  districts  of  Madras,  where  that  officer 
gained  the  battle  of  Condore,  pronounced  by  Broome  "one 
of  the  most  brilliant  actions  on  military  record."  He  came 
into  direct  contact,  for  the  first  time,  with  the  Great  Mogul 
himself,  an  event  which  resulted  in  the  most  important 
consequences  during  the  third  period  of  his  career.  Shah 
Aalum,  when  Shahzada,  or  heir-apparent,  quarrelled  with 
his  father  Aalum  Geer  II.,  the  emperor,  and  united  with 
the  viceroys  of  Oudh  and  Allahabad  for  the  conquest  of 
Bengal.  He  advanced  as  far  as  Patna,  which  he  besieged 
with  40,000  men.  Jaffier  Ali,  in  terror,  sent  his  son  to  its 
relief,  and  implored  the  aid  of  Clive.  Major  Caillaud 
defeated  the  prince's  army  at  the  battle  of  Sirpore,  and  dis 
persed  it.  Finally,  at  this  period,  Clive  repelled  the 
aggression  of  the  Dutch,  and  avenged  the  massacre  of 
Amboyna,  on  that  occasion  when  he  wrote  his  famous 
letter,  "  Dear  Forde,  fight  them  immediately ;  I  will  send 
you  the  order  of  council  to-morrow."  Meanwhile  he  never 
ceased  to  improve  the  organization  and  drill  of  the  sepoy 
army,  after  a  European  model,  and  enlisted  into  it  many 
Mahometans  of  fine  physique  from  Upper  India.  He  re- 
fortified  Calcutta.  In  1760,  after  four  years  of  labour  so 
incessant  and  results  so  glorious,  his  health  gave  way  and 
he  returned  to  England.  "  It  appeared,"  wrote  a  con 
temporary  on  the  spot,  "  as  if  the  soul  was  departing  from 
the  government  of  Bengal."  He  had  beon  formally  made 
governor  of  Bengal  by  the  court  of  directors  at  a  time 
when  his  nominal  superiors  in  Madras  sought  to  recall  him 
to  their  help  there.  But  he  had  discerned  the  importance  of 
the  province  even  during  his  first  visit  to  its  rich  delta, 
mighty  rivers,  and  teeming  population.  It  should  ba 
noticed,  also,  that  he  had  the  kingly  gift  of  selecting  the 
ablest  subordinates,  for  even  thus  early  he  had  discovered 
the  ability  of  young  Warren  Hastings,  destined  to  be  his 
great  successor,  and,  a  year  after  Flassy,  made  him 
"  resident  "  at  the  nawab's  court. 

In  17 GO,  at  thirty-five  years  of  age,  Clive  returned  to 
England  with  a  fortune  of  at  least  £300,000  and  the  quit- 
rent  of  £27,000  a  year,  after  caring  for  the  comfort  of  his 
parents  and  sisters,  and  giving  Major  Lawrence,  his  old 
commanding  officer,  who  had  early  encouraged  his  military 
genius,  £500  a  year.  The  money  had  been  honourably 
and  publicly  acquired,  with  the  approval  of  the  Company. 
The  amount  might  have  been  four  times  what  it  was,  had 
Clive  been  either  greedy  after  wealth  or  ungenerous  to  the 
colleagues  and  the  troops  whom  In  led  to  victory.  In  the 
five  years  of  his  conquests  and  administration  in  Bengal, 
the  young  man  had  crowded  together  a  succession  of 


exploits  which  led  Lord  Macaulay,  in  what  that  historian 
termed  his  "  flashy  "  essay  on  the  subject,  to  compare  him 
to  Napoleon  Bonaparte.  But  there  was  this  difference  in 
Olive's  favour,  due  not  more  to  the  circumstances  of  the 
time  than  to  the  object  of  his  policy — he  gave  peace, 
security,  prosperity,  and  such  liberty  as  the  caso  allowed 
of  to  a  people  now  reckoned  at  240  millions,  who  had  for 
centuries  been  the  prey  of  oppression,  while  Napoleon 
warred  only  for  personal  ambition,  and  the  absolutism  ho 
established  has  left  not  a  wreck  behind.  During  the  three 
years  that  Clive  remained  in  England  he  sought  a  political 
position,  chiefly  that  he  might  influence  the  course  of 
events  in  India,  -which  he  had  left  full  of  promise.  He 
had  been  well  received  at  court,  had  been  made  Baron 
Clive  of  Plassy,  in  the  peerage  of  Ireland,  had  bought 
estates,  and  had  got  not  only  himself  but  his  friends 
returned  to  the  House  of  Commons  after  the  fashion  of  the 
time.  Then  it  was  that  he  set  himself  to  reform  the  home 
system  of  the  East  India  Company,  and  commenced  a 
bitter  warfare  with  Mr  Sulivan,  chair  man  of  the  court  of 
directors,  whom  finally  he  defeated.  In  this  he  was  aided 
by  the  news  of  reverses  in  Bengal.  Yansittart,  his  successor, 
having  no  great  influence  over  Jaffier  Ali  Khan,  had  put 
Kossim  Ali  Khan,  the  son-in-law,  in  his  place  in  considera 
tion  of  certain  payments  to  the  English  officials.  After  a 
brief  tenure  Kossim  Ali  had  fled,  had  ordered  Summers, 
or  Sumroo,  a  Swiss  mercenary  of  his,  to  butcher  the 
garrison  of  150  English  at  Patna,  and  had  disappeared 
under  the  protection  of  his  brother  viceroy  of.  Oudh.  The 
whole  Company's  service,  civil  and  military,  had  become 
demoralized  by  such  gifts,  and  by  the  monopoly  of  the 
inland  as  well  as  export  trade,  to  such  an  extent  that  the 
natives  were  pauperized,  and  the  Company  was  plundered 
of  the  revenues  which  Clive  had  acquired  for  them.  The 
court  of  proprietors,  accordingly,  who  elected  the  directors, 
forced  them,  in  spite  of  Sulivan,  to  hurry  out  Lord  Clive 
to  Bengal  with  the  double  powers  of  governor  and  com- 
mander-in-cliief. 

WThat  he  had  done  for  Madras,  what  he  had  accomplished 
for  Bengal  proper,  and  what  he  had  effected  in  reforming 
the  Company  itself,  he  was  now  to  complete  in  less  than 
two  years,  in  this  the  third  period  of  his  career,  by  putting 
his  country  politically  in  the  place  of  the  emperor  of 
Delhi,  and  preventing  forever  the  possibility  of  the  corrup 
tion  to  which  the  English  in  India  had  been  driven  by  an 
evil  system.  On  the  3d  May  17G5,  he  landed  at  Calcutta 
to  learn  that  Jaffier  Ali  Khan  had  died,  leaving  him 
personally  £70,000,  and  had  been  succeeded  by  his  son, 
though  not  before  the  Government  had  been  further 
demoralized  by  taking  £100,000  as  a  gift  from  the  new 
nawab  ;  while  Kossim  Ali  had  induced  not  only  the  viceroy 
of  Oudh,  but  the  emperor  of  Delhi  himself,  to  invade 
Behar.  After  the  first  mutiny  in  the  Bengal  army,  which 
was  suppressed  by  blowing  the  sepoy  ringleader  from  the 
guns,  Major  Munro,  "  the  Xapier  of  those  times,"  scattered 
the  united  armies  on  the  hard-fought  field  of  Bttxar.  The 
emperor,  Shah  Aalum,  detached  himself  from  the  league, 
while  the  Oudh  viceroy  threw  himself  on  the  mercy  of  the 
English.  Clive  had  now  an  opportunity  of  repeating  in 
Hindustan,  or  Upper  India,  what  he  had  accomplished  for 
the  good  of  Bengal.  He  might  have  secured  what  are  now 
called  the  Xjrth- Western  Provinces  and  Oudh,  and  have 
rendered  unnecessary  the  campaigns  of  Wellesley  and 
Lake.  But  he  had  other  work  in  the  consolidation  of  rich 
Bengal  itself,  making  it  a  base  from  which  the  mighty  fabric 
of  British  India  could  afterwards  steadily  and  proportionally 
(rrow.  Hence  he  returned  to  the  Oudh  viceroy  all  his 
territory  save  the  provinces  of  Allahabad  and  Corah,  which 
he  made  over  to  the  weak  emperor.  But  from  that  emperor 
he  secured  the  most  important  document  in  the  wlioJe  of 


12 


OLIVE 


our  Indian  history  up  to  that  time,  which  appears  in  the 
records  as  "  firmauud  from  the  King  Shah  Aalum,  granting 
the  dewany  of  Bengal,  Behar,  and  Orissa  to  the  Company, 
1765."  The  date  was  the  12th  August,  the  place  Benares, 
the  throne  an  English  dining-table  covered  with  embroidered 
cloth  and  surmounted  by  a  chair  in  Olive's  tent.  It  is  all 
pictured  by  a  Mahometan  contemporary,  who  indignantly 
exclaims  that  so  great  a  "  transaction  was  done  and  finished 
in  less  time  than  would  have  been  taken  up  in  the  sale  of 
a  jackass."  By  this  deed  the  Company  became  the  real 
sovereign  rulers  of  thirty  millions  of  people,  yielding  a 
revenue  of  four  millions  sterling.  All  this  had  been  ac 
complished  by  Olive  in  the  few  brief  years  since  he  had 
a/enged  "  the  Black  Hole"  of  Calcutta.  This  would  be  a 
email  matter,  or  might  even  be  a  cause  of  reproach,  were  it 
not  that  the  Company's,  now  the  Queen's,  undisputed 
sovereignty  proved,  after  a  sore  period  of  transition,  the 
salvation  of  these  millions.  The  lieutenant-governorship 
of  Bengal,  with  some  additions  since  Olive's  time,  now 
contains  sixty  millions  of  people,  and  yields  an  annual 
revenue  of  twelve  millions  sterling,  of  which  eight  goes 
every  year  to  assist  in  the  good  government  of  the  rest  of 
India.  But  Olive,  though  thus  moderate  and  even 
generous  to  an  extent  which  called  forth  the  astonishment 
of  the  natives,  had  all  a  statesman's  foresight.  On  the  same 
date,  he  obtained  not  only  an  imperial  charter  for  the 
Company's  possessions  in  the  Carnatic  also,  thus  completing 
the  work  he  began  at  Arcot,  but  a  third  firmaun  for  the 
highest  of  all  the  lieutenancies  or  soubaships  of  the 
empire,  that  of  the  Deccan  itself.  The  fact  has  only 
recently  been  discovered,  by  distinct  allusion  to  it  in  a 
letter  from  the  secret  committee  of  the  court  of  directors 
to  the  Madras  Government,  dated  27th  April  1768.  Still 
so  disproportionate  seemed  the  British  force,  not  only  to 
the  number  and  strength  of  the  princes  and  people  of 
India,  but  to  the  claims  and  ambition  of  French,  Dutch, 
and  Danish  rivals,  that  Olive's  last  advice  to  the  directors, 
as  he  finally  left  India  in  1777,  was  this,  given  in  a  remark 
able  state  paper  but  little  known  :  "  We  are  sensible  that, 
since  the  acquisition  of  the  dewany,  the  power  formerly 
belonging  to  the  soubali  of  those  provinces  is  totally,  in 
fact,  vested  in  the  East  India  Company.  Nothing  remains 
to  him  bat  the  name  and  shadow  of  authority.  This  name, 
however,  this  shadow,  it  is  indispensably  necessary  we 
should  seem  to  venerate."  On  a  wider  arena,  even  that  of 
the  Great  Mogul  himself,  the  shadow  was  kept  up  till  it 
obliterated  itself  in  the  massacre  of  English  people  in  the 
Delhi  palace  in  1857  ;  and  the  Queen  was  proclaimed,  first, 
direct  ruler  on  the  1st  November  1858,  and  then  empress 
of  ludia  on  the  1st  January  1377 

Having  thus  founded  the  empire  of  British  India, 
Olive's  painful  duty  was  to  create  a  pure  and  strong 
administration,  such  as  alone  would  justify  its  possession.by 
foreigners.  The  civil  service  was  de-orientalized  by 
raising  the  miserable  salaries  which  had  tempted  its 
members  to  be  corrupt,  by  forbidding  the  acceptance  of 
gifts  from  natives,  and  by  exacting  covenants  under  which 
participation  in  the  inland  trade  was  stopped.  Not  less 
important  were  his  military  reforms.  With  his  usual  tact 
and  nerve  he  put  down  a  mutiny  of  the  English  officers,  who 
chose  to  resent  the  veto  against  receiving  presents  and  the 
reduction  of  batta  at  a  time  when  two  Mahratta  armies  were 
marching  on  Bengal.  His  reorganization  of  the  army,  on  the 
lines  of  that  which  he  had  begun  after  Plassy,  and  which 
was  neglected  during  his  second  visit  to  England,  has  since 
attracted  the  admiration  of  the  ablest  Indian  officers.  He 
divided  the  whole  into  three  brigades,  so  as  to  make  each 
a  complete  force,  in  itself  equal  to  a>jy  single  native  army 
that  could  be  brought  against  it.  His  one  fault  was  that 
of  his  age  and  his  position,  with  so  small  a  number  of  men. 


He  lacked  a  sufficient  number  of  British  artillerymen,  and 
would  not  commit  the  mistake  of  his  successors,  who  trained 
natives  to  work  the  guns,  which  were  turned  against  us 
with  such  effect  in  1857.  It  is  sufficient  to  say  that 
Government  has  returned  to  his  policy,  for  not  a  native 
gunner  is  now  to  be  found  save  in  a  few  unhealthy  and 
isolated  frontier  posts. 

Olive's  final  return  to  England,  a  poorer  man  than  he 
went  out,  in  spite  of  still  more  tremendous  temptations,  was 
the  signal  for  an  outburst  of  his  personal  enemies,  exceeded 
only  by  that  which  the  malice  of  Sir  Philip  Francis  after 
wards  excited  against  Warren  Hastings.  Every  civilian, 
whose  illicit  gains  he  had  cut  off,  every  officer  whose  con 
spiracy  he  had  foiled,  every  proprietor  or  director,  like 
Sulivan,  whose  selfish  schemes  he  had  thwarted,  now 
sought  their  opportunity.  He  had,  with  consistent 
generosity,  at  once  made  over  the  legacy  of  £70,000  from 
the  grateful  Jaffier  AH,  as  the  capital  of  what  has  since 
been  known  as  "  the  Olive  Fund,"  for  the  support  of 
invalided  European  soldiers,  as  well  as  officers,  and  their 
widows,  and  the  Company  had  allowed  8  per  cent,  on  the 
Bum  for  an  object  which  it  was  otherwise  bound  to  meet. 
Burgoyne,  of  Saratoga  memory,  did  his  best  to  induce  the 
House  of  Commons,  in  which  Lord  Olive  was  now  member 
for  Shrewsbury,  to  impeach  the  man  who  gave  his  country 
an  empire,  and  the  people  of  that  empire  peace  and  justice, 
and  that,  as  we  have  seen,  without  blot  on  the  gift,  save  in 
the  matter  of  Omichund.  The  result,  after  the  brilliant 
and  honourable  defences  of  his  career  which  will  be  found 
in  Almon's  Debates  for  1773,  was  a  compromise  that  saved 
England  this  time  from  the  dishonour  which,  when  Warren 
Hastings  had  to  run  the  gauntlet,  put  it  in  the  same 
category  with  France  in  the  treatment  of  its  public  bene 
factors  abroad.  On  a  division  the  House,  by  155  to  95, 
carried  the  motion  that  Lord  Olive  "did  obtain  and  possess 
himself "  of  £234,000  during  his  first  administration  of 
Bengal ;  but,  refusing  to  express  an  opinion  on  the  fact,  it 
passed  unanimously  the  second  motion,  at  five  in  the 
morning,  "  that  Robert,  Lord  Olive,  did  at  the  same  time 
render  great  and  meritorious  services  to  his  country."  The 
one  moral  question,  the  one  stain  of  all  that  brilliant  and 
tempted  life — the  Omichund  treaty — was  not  touched. 

Only  one  who  can  personally  understand  what  Olive's 
power  and  services  were  will  rightly  realize  the  effect  on 
him,  though  in  the  prime  of  life,  of  the  discussions  through 
which  he  had  been  dragged.  We  have  referred  to  Warren 
Hastings's  impeachment,  but  there  is  a  more  recent  parallel. 
The  marquis  of  Dalhousie  did  almost  as  much  to  complete 
the  territorial  area  and  civilized  administration  of  British 
India  in  his  eight  years'  term  of  office  as  Lord  Olive  to  found 
the  empire  in  a  similar  period.  As  Olive's  accusers  sought  a 
new  weapon  in  the  great  famine  of  1770,  for  which  he  was 
in  no  sense  responsible,  so  there  were  critics  who  accused  Dal 
housie  of  having  caused  that  mutiny  which,  in  truth,  he  would 
have  prevented  had  the  British  Government  listened  to  his 
counsel  not  to  reduce  the  small  English  army  in  the 
country,  Clive  tells  us  his  own  feelings  in  a  passage  of 
first  importance  when  we  seek  to  form  an  opinion  on  the 
fatal  act  by  which  he  ended  his  life.  In  the  greatest  of  his 
speeches,  in  reply  to  Lord  North,  he  said, — "  My  situation, 
sir,  has  not  been  an  easy  one  for  these  twelve  months 
past,  and  though  my  conscience  could  never  accuse  me,  yet 
I  felt  for  my  friends  who  were  involved  in  the  same  censure 

as  myself I  have  been  examined  by  the  select 

committee  more  like  a  sheep-stealer  than  a  member  of  this 
House."  Fully  accepting  that  statement,  and  believing 
him  to  have  been  purer  than  his  accusers  in  spite  of 
temptations  unknown  to  them,  we  see  in  Olive's  end  the 
result  merely  of  physical  suffering,  of  chronic  disease 
which  opium  failed  to  abate,  while  the  worry  and  chagrin 


C  L  0  —  0  L  0 


lij 


caused  by  his  enemies  gave  it  full  scope.  This  great  man, 
who  fell  short  only  of  the  highest  form  of  moral  greatness 
on  one  supreme  occasion,  but  who  did  more  for  his  country 
than  any  soldier  till  Wellington,  and  more  for  the  people 
and  princes  of  India  than  any  statesman  in  history,  died  by 
his  own  hand,  November  22,  1774,  in  his  fiftieth  year. 

The  portrait  of  Olive,  by  Dance,  in  the  Council  Chamber 
of  Government  House,  Calcutta,  faithfully  represents  him. 
He  was  slightly  above  middle-size,  with  a  countenance 
rendered  heavy  and  almost  sad  by  a  natural  fulness  above 


the  eyes.  Reserved  to  the  many,  he  was  beloved  by  his 
own  family  and  friends.  His  encouragement  of  scientific 
undertakings  like  Major  Rennell's  surveys,  and  of  philo 
logical  researches  like  Mr  Gladwin's,  was  marked  by  the 
two  honorary  distinctions  of  F.R.S.  and  LL.D. 

The  Lest  authorities  for  his  life,  which  has  yet  to  be  worthily 
written,  are— article  "Clive,"  in  the  second  or  Kippis's  edition 
of  the  Biographia  Urilamnca,  from  materials  supplied  by  his  brother, 
Archdeacon  Clive,  by  Henry  Beaufoy,  M.P.  ;  Broome's  History  oj 
the  Bengal  Army;  Aitchison's  Treaties,  second  edition,  1876"- 
Orme's  History  ;  and  Malcolm's  Life.  (G.  SM.) 


CLOCKS 


rilHE  origin  of  clock  work  is  involved  in  great  obscurity. 
I  Notwithstanding  the  statements  by  many  writers  that 
clocks,  horologia,  were  in  use  so  early  as  the  9th  century, 
and  that  they  were  then  invented  by  an  archdeacon  of 
Verona,  named  Pacificus,  there  appears  to  be  no  clear 
evidence  that  they  were  machines  at  all  resembling 
those  which  have  been  in  use  for  the  last  five  or  six 
centuries.  But  it  may  be  inferred  from  various  allusions 
to  horologia,  and  to  their  striking  spontaneously,  in  the 
12th  century,  that  genuine  clocks  existed  then,  though 
there  is  no  surviving  description  of  any  one  until  the  13th 
century,  when  it  appears  that  a  horologiuni  was  sent  by  the 
sultan  of  Egypt  in  1 232  to  the  Emperor  Frederick  II.  "  It 
resembled  a  celestial  globe,  in  which  the  sun,  moon,  and 
planets  moved,  being  impelled  by  weights  and  wheels,  so 
that  they  pointed  out  the  hour,  day,  and  night  with  cer 
tainty."  A  clock  was  put  up  in  a  former  clock  tower  at 
Westminster  with  some  great  bells  in  1288,  out  of  a  fine 
imposed  on  a  corrupt  chief-justice,  and  the  motto  Discite 


FIG.  1. — Section  of  House  Clock. 

justiliam,  moniti,  inscribed  upon  it.      The  bells  were  sold 
or  rather,  it  is  said,  gambled  away,  by  Henry  VIII.     In 


1292  one  is  mentioned  in  Canterbury  Cathedral  as  costing 
£30.  And  another  at  St  Albans,  by  R.  Wallingford  the 
abbot  in  1326,  is  said  to  have  been  such  as  there  was  not 
in  all  Europe,  showing  various  astronomical  phenomena. 
A  description  of  one  in  Dover  Castle  with  the  date  1348  on 
it  was  published  by  the  late  Admiral  Smyth,  P.R.A.S., 
in  1851,  and  the  clock  itself  was  exhibited  going,  in  the 
Scientific  Exhibition  of  1876.  In  the  early  editions  of 
this  Encyclopaedia  there  was  a  picture  of  a  very  similar 
one,  made  by  De  Vick  for  the  French  king  Charles  V. 
about  the  same  time,  much  like  our  common  clocks  of  the 
last  century,  exeept  that  it  had  a  vibrating  balance,  but 
no  spring,  instead  of  a  pendulum,  for  pendulums  were  not 
invented  till  three  centuries  after  that. 

The  general  construction  of  the  going  part  of  all  clocks, 
except  large  or  turret  clocks,  which  we  shall  treat  separ 
ately,  is  substantially  the  same,  and  fig.  1  is  a  section  of 
any  ordinary  house  clock.  B  is  the  barrel  with  the  rope 
coiled  round  it,  generally  16  times  for  the  8  days  ;  the  barrel 
is  fixed  to  its  arbor  K,  which  is  prolonged  into  the  winding 
square  coming  up  to  the  face  or  dial  of  the  clock ;  the 
dial  is  here  shown  as  fixed  either  by  small  screws  x,  or  by 
a  socket  and  pin  z,  to  the  prolonged  pillars  p,  p,  which  (4  or 
5  in  number)  connect  the  plates  or  frame  of  the  clock 
together,  though  the  dial  is  commonly,  but  for  no  good 
reason,  set  on  to  the  front  plate  by  another  set  of  pillars  of 
its  own.  The  great  wheel  G  rides  on  the  arbor,  and  is 
connected  with  the  barrel  by  the  ratchet  R,  the  action  of 
which  is  shown  more  fully  in  fig  1 4.  The  intermediate 
wheel  r  in  this  drawing  is  for  a  purpose  which  will  be  de 
scribed  hereafter,  and  for  the  present  it  may  be  considered 
as  omitted,  and  the  click  of  the  ratchet  R  as  fixed  to  the 
great  wheel.  The  great  wheel  drives  the  pinion  c  which 
is  called  the  centre  pinion,  on  the  arbor  of  the  centre  whee.1 
C,  which  goes  through  to  the  dial,  and  carries  the  long,  or 
minute-hand;  this  wheel  always  turns  in  an  hour,  and 
the  great  wheel  generally  in  12  hours,  by  having  12  times 
as  many  teeth  as  the  centre  pinion.  The  centre  wheel  drives 
the  "  second  wheel "  D  by  its  pinion  d,  and  that  again 
drives  the  scape-wheel  E  by  its  pinion  e.  If  the  pinions  d 
and  e  have  each  8  teeth  or  leaves  (as  the  teeth  of  pinions 
are  usually  called),  C  will  have  64  teeth  and  D  60,  in  a 
clock  of  which  the  scape-wheel  turns  in  a  minute,  so  that 
the  seconds  hand  may  be  set  on  its  arbor  prolonged  to  the 
dial.  A  represents  the  pallets  of  the  escapement,  which 
will  be  described  presently,  and  their  arbor  a  goes  through 
a  large  hole  in  the  back  plate  near  F,  and  its  back  pivot 
turns  in  a  cock  OFQ  screwed  on  to  the  back  plate.  From 
the  pallet  arbor  at  F  descends  the  crutch  F/,  ending  ic 
the /or/;/,  which  embraces  the  pendulum  F,  so  that  as  the 
pendulum  vibrates,  the  crutch  and  the  pullets  necessarily 
vibrate  with  it.  The  pendulum  is  hung  by  a  thin  spring 
S  from  the  cock  Q,  so  that  the  bending  point  of  the  spring 
may  be  just  opposite  the  end  of  the  pallet  arbor,  and  the 
edge  of  the  spring  as  close  to  the  end  of  that  arbor  aa 
possible — a  point  too  frequently  neglected. 


14 


CLOCKS 


We  may  now  go  to  the  front  (or  left  hand)  of  the  clock, 
and  describe  the  dial  or  "  motion-work."  The  minute  hand 
fits  on  to  a  squared  end  of  a  brass  socket,  which  is  fixed  to 
the  wheel  M,  and  fits  close,  but  not  tight,  on  the  pro 
longed  arbor  of  the  centre  wheel.  Behind  this  wheel  is  a 
bent  spring  which  is  (or  ought  to  be)  set  on  the  same  arbor 
with  a  square  hole  (not  a  round  one  as  it  sometimes  is) 
in  the  middle,  so  that  it  must  turn  with  the  arbor;  the 
wheel  is  pressed  up  against  this  spring,  and  kept  there,  by  a 
cap  and  a  small  pin  through  the  end  of  the  arbor.  •  The 
consequence  is,  that  there  is  friction  enough  between  the 
spring  .and  the  wheel  to  carry  the  hand  round,  but  not 
enough  to  resist  a  moderate  push  with  the  finger  for  the 
purpose  of  altering  the  time  indicated.  This  wheel  M,  which 
is  sometimes  called  the  minute-wheel,  but  is  better  called 
the  hour-wheel  as  it  turns  in  an  hour,  drives  another  wheel 
N,  of  the  same  number  of  teeth,  which  has  a  pinion  attached 
to  it;  and  that  pinion  drives  the  twelve-hour  tcheel  H, 
which  is  also  attached  to  a  large  socket  or  pipe  carrying  the 
hour  hand,  and  riding  on  the  former  socket,  or  rather  (in 
order  to  relieve  the  centre  arbor  of  that  extra  weight)  on  an 
intermediate  socket  fixed  to  the  bridge  L,  which  is  screwed 
to  the  front  plate  over  the  hour-wheel  M.  The  weight  W, 
which  drives  the  train  and  gives  the  impulse  to  the  pendu 
lum  through  the  escapement,  is  generally  hung  by  a  catgut 
line  passing  through  a  pulley  attached  to  the  weight,  the 
other  end  of  the  cord  being  tied  to  some  convenient  place 
in  the  clock  frame  or  seat-board,  to  which  it  is  fixed  by 
screws  through  the  lower  pillars.  It  has  usually  been  the 
practice  to  make  the  case  of  house  clocks  and  astronomical 
clocks  not  less  than  6  feet  high ;  but  that  is  a  very 
unnecessary  waste  of  space  and  materials  ;  for  by  either 
diminishing  the  size  of  the  barrel,  or  the  number  of  its 
turns,  by  increasing  the  size  of  the  great  wheel  by  one-half, 
or  hanging  the  weights  by  a  treble  instead  of  a  double  line; 
a  case  just  long  enough  for  the  pendulum  will  also  be  long 
enough  for  the  fall  of  the  weights  in  7|  or  8  days.  Of 
courso  the  weights  have  to  be  increased  in  the  same  ratio, 
and  indeed  ratharmore,  to  overcome  the  increased  friction; 
but  that  is  of  no  consequence. 

PENDULUM. 

The  claim  to  the  invention  of  the  pendulum,  like  the  claim  to 
most  inventions,  is  disputed ;  and  we  have  no  intention  of  trying 
to  settle  it.  It  was,  like  many  other  discoveries  and  inventions, 
probably  made  by  various  persons  independently,  and  almost  simul 
taneously,  when  the  state  of  science  had  become  ripe  for  it.  The 
discovery  of  that  peculiarly  valuable  property  of  the  pendulum  called 
isochronism,  or  the  disposition  to  vibrate  different  arcs  in  very 
nearly  the  same  time  (provided  the  arcs  are  none  of  them  large), 
is  commonly  attributed  to  Galileo,  in  the  well-known  story  of  his 
being  struck  with  the  isochronism  of  a  chandelier  hung  by  a  long 
chain  from  the  roof  of  the  church,  at  Florence.  And  Galileo's  son 
appears  as  a  rival  of  Avicenna,  Huyghens,  Dr  Hooke,  and  a  London 
clockmaker  named  Harris,  for  the  honour  of  having  first  applied  the 
pendulum  to  regulate  the  motion  of  a  clock  train,  all  in  the  early 
part  of  the  17th  century.  Be  this  as  it  may,  there  seems 
little  doubt  that  Huyghens  was  the  first  who  mathematically  investi 
gated,  and  therefore  really  knew,  the  true  nature  of  those  properties 
of  the  pendulum  which  may  now  be  found  explained  in  any  mathe 
matical  book  on  mechanics.  He  discovered  that  if  a  simple  pen 
dulum  (i.e.,  a  weight  or  lob  consisting  of  a  single  point,  and  hung 
by  a  rod  or  string  of  no  weight)  can  be  made  to  describe,  not  a 
circle,  but  a  cycloid  of  which  the  string  would  be  the  radius  of  cur 
vature  at  the  lowest  point,  all  its  vibrations,  however  large,  will  be 
performed  in  the  same  time.  For  a  little  distance  near  the  bottom, 
the  circle  very  nearly  coincides  with  the  cycloid  ;  and  hence  it  is 
that,  for  small  arcs,  a  pendulum  vibrating  as  usual  in  a  circle  is 
nearly  enough  isochronous  for  the  purposes  of  horology ;  more  espe 
cially  when  contrivances  are  introduced  either  to  compensate  for 
the  variations  of  the  arc,  or,  better  still,  to  destroy  them  altogether, 
by  making  the  force  on  the  pendulum  so  constant  that  its  arc  may 
never  sensibly  vary. 

The  difference  between  the  time  of  any  small  arc  of  the  circle  an 
any  arc  of  the  cycloid  varies  nearly  as  the  square  of  the  circular 
arc  ;  and  again,  the  difference  between  the  times  of  any  two  smal 


and  nearly  equal  circular  arcs  of  the  same  pendulum,  varies  nearly 
as  the  arc  itself.  If  a,  the  arc,  is  increased  by  a  small  amount  da, 
the  pendulum,  will  lose  IQSOOada  seconds  a  day,  which  is  rather 
more  than  1  second,  if  a  is  2°  (from  zero)  and  da  is  10',  since  the 
numerical  value  of  2°  is  '035.  If  the  increase  of  arc  is  considerable, 
t  will  not  do  to  reckon  thus  by  differentials,  but  we  must  take  the 
difference  of  time  for  the  day  as  5400  (a,2 — a2),  which  will  be  j'ist 

seconds  if  a  =  2°  and  at  —  '6°.  For  many  years  it  wag  thought  of 
great  importance  to  obtain  cycloidal  vibrations  of  clock  pendulums, 
ind  it  was  done  by  making  the  suspension  string  or  spring  vibrate 
Between  cycloidal  checks,  as  they  were  called.  But  it  was  in  time 
discovered  that  all  this  is  a  delusion, — first,  because  there  is  and 
can  be  no  such  thing  in  reality  as  a  simple  pendulum,  and  cycloidal 
cheeks  will  only  make  a  simple  pendulum  vibrate  isochronously  ; 
secondly,  because  a  very  slight  error  in  the  form  of  the  cheeks  (as 
Huyghens  himself  discovered)  would  do  more  harm  than  the  circular 
error  uncorrected,  even  for  an  arc  of  1 0°,  which  is  much  larger  than 
the  common  pendulum  arc  ;  thirdly,  because  there  was  always  some 
friction  or  adhesion  between  the  cheeks  and  the  string ;  and 
fourthly  (a  reason  which  applies  equally  to  all  the  isochronous 
contrivances  since  invented),  because  a  common  clock  escapement 
itself  generally  tends  to  produce  an  error  exactly  opposite  to  the 
circular  error,  or  to  make  the  pendulum  vibrate  quicker  the  farther 
it  swings  ;  and  therefore  the  circular  error  is  actually  useful  for  the 
purpose  of  helping  to  counteract  the  error  due  to  the  escapement, 
and  the  clock  goes  better  than  it  would  with,  a  simple  pendulum, 
describing  the  most  perfect  cycloid.  At  the  same  time,  the  thin 
spring  by  which  pendulums  are  always  suspended,  except  in  some 
French  clocks  where  a  silk  string  is  used  (a  very  inferior  plan), 
causes  the  pendulum  to  deviate  a  little  from  circular  and  to  approxi 
mate  to  cycloidal  motion,  because  the  bend  does  not  take  place  at 
one  point,  but  is  spread  over  some  length  of  the  spring. 

The  accurate  performance  of  a  clock  depends  so  essentially  on  the 
pendulum,  that  we  shall  go  somewhat  into  detail  respecting  it. 
First  then,  the  time  of  vibration  depends  entirely  on  the  length  of 
the  pendulum,  the  effect  of  the  spring  being  too  small  for  considera 
tion  until  we  come  to  differences  of  a  higher  order.  But  the  time 
does  not  vary  as  the  length,  but  only  as  the  square  root  of  the 
length  ;  i.e.,  a  pendulum  to  vibrate  two  seconds  must  be  four- 
times  as  long  as  a  seconds  pendulum.  The  relation  between  the 
time  of  vibration  and  the  length  of  a  pendulum  is  expressed  thus  : — 

t  —  TT\/-,    where   t  is   the   time    in  seconds,    it    the  well-known 

9 

symbol  for  3 '141 59,  the  ratio  of  the  circumference  of  a  circle  to  ita 
diameter,  I  the  length  of  the  pendulum,  and  g  the  force  of  gravity 
at  the  latitude  where  it  is  intended  to  vibrate.  This  letter  g,  in 
the  latitude  of  London,  is  the  symbol  for  32 '2  feet,  that  being  the 
velocity  (or  number  of  feet  per  second)  at  which  a  body  is  found  by 
experiment  to  be  moving  at  the  end  of  the  first  second  of  its  fall, 
being  necessarily  equal  to  twice  the  actual  number  of  feet  it  has 
fallen  in  that  second.  Consequently,  the  length  of  a  pendulum  to 
beat  seconds  in  London  is  39 '14  inches.  But  the  same  pendulum 
carried  to  the  equator,  where  the  force  of  gravity  is  less,  would  lose 
2J  minutes  a  day. 

The  seconds  we  are  here  speaking  of  are  the  seconds  of.  a  common 
clock  indicating  mean  solar  time.  But  as  clocks  are  also  required  for 
sidereal  time,  it  may  be  as  well  to  mention  the  proportions  between  a 
mean  and  a  sidereal  pendulum.  A  sidereal  day  is  the  interval  between 
two  successive  transits  over  the  meridian  of  a  place  by  that  imagin 
ary  point  in  the  heavens  called  T,  the  first  point  of  Aries,  at  the 
intersection  of  the  equator  and  the  ecliptic  ;  and  there  is  one 
more  sidereal  day  than  there  are  solar  days  in  a  year,  since  the  earth 
has  to  turn  more  than  once  round  iii  space  before  the  sun  can  coma 
a  second  time  to  the  meridian,  on  account  of  the  earth's  own  motion 
in  its  orbit  during  the  day.  A  sidereal  day  or  hour  is  shorter  than 
a  mean  solar  one  in  the  ratio  of  '99727,  and  consequently  a  sidereal 
pendulum  must  be  shorter  than  a  mean  time  pendulum  in  the  squaro 
of  that  ratio,  or  in  the  latitude  of  London  the  sidereal  seconds  pen 
dulum  is  38 '87  inches.  As  we  have  mentioned  what  is  0  or  24 
o'clock  by  sidereal  time,  we  may  as  well  add,  that  the  mean  day  is 
also  reckoned  in  astronomy  by  24  hours,  and  not  from  midnight  as 
in  civil  reckoning,  but  from  the  following  noon  ;  thus,  what  wo 
call  11  A.M.  May  1  in  common  life  is  23  h.  April  30  with 
astronomers. 

It  must  be  remembered  that  the  pendulums  whose  lengths  _we 
have  been  speaking  of  are  simple  pendulums  ;  and  as  that  is  a  thing 
which  can  only  exist  in  theory,  the  reader  may  ask  how  the  length 
of  a  real  pendulum  to  vibrate  in  any  required  time  is  ascertained. 
In  every  pendulum,  that  is  to  say,  in  every  body  hung  so  as  to  be 
capable  of  vibrating  freely,  there  is  a  certain  point,  always  some 
where  below  the  centre  of  gravity,  which  possesses  these  remarkable 
properties — that  if  the  pendulum  were  turned  upside  down,  and  set 
vibrating  about  this  point,  it  would  vibrate  in  the  same  time  as 
before,  and  moreover,  that  the  distance  of  this  point  from  the  point  of 
suspension  is  exactly  the  length  of  that  imaginary  simple  pendulum 
which  would  vibrate  in  the  same  time.  This  point  is  therefore 
,  called  the  centre  of  oscillation.  The  rules  for  finding  it  by  calcula- 


CLOCKS 


tbn  are  too  complicated  for  ordinary  use,  except  in  bodies  of 
certain  simple  and  regular  forms  ;  but  they  are  fortunately  not 
requisite  in  practice,  because  in  all  clock  pendulums  the  centre  of 
oscillation  is  only  a  short  distance  below  the  centre  of  gravity  of 
the  whole  pendulum,  and  generally  so  near  to  the  centre  of  gravity 
of  the  bob— in  fact  a  little  above  it — that  there  is  no  difficulty  in 
making  a  pendulum  for  any  given  time  of  vibration  near  enough  to 
the  proper  length  at  once,  and  then  adjusting  it  by  screwing  the 
bob  up  or  down  until  it  is  found  to  vibrate  in  the  proper  time. 


Revolving  or  Conical  Pendulum. 
Thus  far  we  have  been  speaking  of  vibrating  pendulums 


but 


now  useu  universally,  in  all  but  some  interior  foreign  clocks,  which 
have  strings  instead,  is  a  thin  and  short  spring,  with  one  end  let 
into  the  top  of  the  pendulum,  and  the  other  screwed  between  two 


luiu  me  lujj  vi  uic  peuuiuum,  iinu  uie  inner  screwed  ueiwecn  two 
chops  ot  metal  with  a  pin  through  them,  which  rests  firmly  in  n 
nick  in  the  cock  which  carries  the  pendulum  as  shown  in  fig.  2  a 
little  farther  on  ;  and  the  steadiness  of  this  cock,  and  its  firm 
Qxing  to  a  wall,  are  essential  to  the  accurate  performance  of  the 

rlnc'V.       Tlio  thinner  flip  Qnrinrr  flip    1^o<fnT«.    -rn^t-i.!*./!      f\f    isMii*cr>     if 


lilUS    I UT    We    nave    uccll    suettmiig    ui     \iuianii^    ^/CUILIUIUUO  ,    L>uii 

the  notice  of  pendulums  would  be  incomplete  without  some  allusion 
to  revolving  or  conical  pendulums,  as  they  are  called,  because  they 
describe  a  cone  in  revolving.  Such  pendulums  are  used  where  a 
continuous  instead  of  an  intermittent  motion  of  the  clock  train  is 
required,  as  in  the  clocks  for  keeping  an  equatorial  telescope 
directed  to  a  star,  by  driving  it  the  opposite  way  to  the  motion  of 
the  earth,  to  whose  axis  the  axis  on  which  the  telescope  turns  is 
made  parallel.  Clocks  with  such  pendulums  may  also  be  used  in 
bedrooms  by  persons  who  cannot  bear  the  ticking  of  a  common 
clock.  The  pendulum,  instead  of  being  hung  by  a  flat  spring,  is 
hung  by  a  thin  piece  of  piano-forte  wire  ;  and  it  should  be  under 
stood  that  it  has  no  tendency  to  twist  on  its  own  axis,  and  so  to 
twist  off  the  wire,  as  may  be  apprehended  ;  in  fact,  it  would  require 
some  extra  force  to  make  it  twist,  if  it  were  wanted  to  do  so.  The 
time  of  revolution  of  such  a  pendulum  may  be  easily  ascertained  as 
follows :— Let  Z  be  its  length  ;  a  the  angle  which  it  makes  with 
the  vertical  axis  of  the  cone  which  it  describes  ;  w  the  angular 
velocity  ;  then  the  centrifugal  force  =  u>2  I  sin.  a  ;  and  as  this  is  the 
force  which  keeps  the  pendulum  away  from  the  vertical,  it  must 
balance  the  force  which  draws  it  to  the  vertical,  which  is  g  tan.  a  : 

and  therefore      /— 2 —  =  the    angular  velocity,    or  the   angle    de- 

v/  i  cos.  6 

scribed  in  a  second  of  time  ;  and  the  time  of  complete  revolution 
through  the  angle  360°  or  2w  is^=2ir^/L£2L£  ;  that  is  to 

say,  the  time  of  revolution  of  a  pendulum  of  any  given  length  is 
less  than  the  time  of  a  double  oscillation  of  the  same  pendulum,  in 
the  proportion  of  the  cosine  of  the  angle  which  it  makes  with  the 
axis  of  revolution  to  unity. 

A  rotary  pendulum  is  kept  in  motion  by  the  train  of  the  clock 
ending  in  a  horizontal  wheel  with  a  vertical  axis,  from  which  pro 
jects  an  arm  pressing  against  a  spike  at  the  bottom  of  the  pendu 
lum  ;  and  it  has  this  disadvantage  that  any  inequality  in  the  force 
of  the  train,  arising  from  variations  of  friction  or  any  other  cause, 
is  immediately  transmitted  to  the  pendulum  ;  whereas  it  will  be 
seen  that  in  several  kinds  of  escapements  which  can  be  applied  to  a 
vibrating  pendulum,  the  variations  of  force  can  be  rendered  nearly 
or  quite°insensible.  And  it  is  a  mistake  to  imagine  that  there  is 
any  self-correcting  power  in  a  conical  pendulum  analogous  to  that 
of  the  governor  of  a  steam-engine  ;  for  that  apparatus,  though  it  is 
a  couple  of  conical  pendulums,  has  also  a  communication  by  a 
system  of  levers  with  the  valve  which  supplies  the  steam.  _  The 
governor  apparatus  has  itself  been  applied  to  telescope-driving 
clocks,  with  a  lever  ending  in  a  spring  which  acts  by  friction  on 
some  revolving  plate  in  the  clock,  increasing  the  friction,  and  so 
diminishing  the  force  as  the  balls  of  the  governor  fly  out  farther 
under  any  increase  in  the  force .  And  with  the  addition  of  some 
connection  with  the  hand  of  the  observer,  by  which  the  action  can 
be  farther  moderated,  the  motion  can  be  made  sufficiently  uniform 
for  that  purpose. 

Various  other  contrivances  have  been  invented  for  producing  a 
continuous  clock-motion.  The  great  equatorial  telescope  at  Green 
wich  is  kept  in  motion  by  a  kind  of  water  clock  called  in  books 
on  hydrostatics  Barker's  Mill,  in  which  two  horizontal  pipes 
branching  out  from  a  vertical  tubular  axis  have  each  a  hole  near 
their  ends  on  opposite  sides,  from  which  water  flows,  being  poured 
constantly  into  the  tubular  axis,  which  revolves  on  a  pivot, 
resistance  of  the  air  to  the  water  issuing  from  the  holes  drives  the 
mill  round,  and  there  are  means  of  regulating  it.  Another  plan  is 
to  connect  a  clock  train  having  a  vibrating  pendulum  with  another 
clock  havin"  a  conical  pendulum  by  one  of  the  lower  wheels  in  the 
train,  with  °a  spring  connection  ;  the  telescope  is  driven  by  the 
revolving  clock  train,  and  the  other  pendulum  keeps  it  sufficiently 
in  order,  though  allowing  it  to  expatiate  enough  for  each  beat  ot 
the  pendulum  The  more  complicated  plan  of  Wagner  of  I  ans 
described  in  Sir  E.  Beckett's  Rudimentary  Treatise  on  Clocks  and 
JFatches  and  Bdls  does  not  appear  to  have  ever  come  i 
and  therefore  it  is  now  omitted. 


Pendulum  Suspension, 

The  suspension  of  the  pendulum  on  what  are  called £™ 
like  those  of  a  scale-beam,  has  often  been  advocated.  But 
it  may  do  well  enough  for  short  experiments,  in  which  th 


iiii.iv  in  me  LUIIV  nuivii  lituTieH  uiu  pciKimuiii  as  snown  in  rig.  z  a 
little  farther  on  ;  and  the  steadiness  of  this  cock,  and  its  firm 
Gxing  to  a  wall,  are  essential  to  the  accurate  performance  of  the 
clock.  The  thinner  the  spring  the  better ;  provided,  of  course,  it 
is  strong  enough  to  carry  the  pendulum  without  being  bent  beyond 
its  elasticity,  or  bent  short ;  not  that  there  is  much  risk  of  that  in 
practice.  Pendulum  springs  are  much  oftener  too  thick  than  too 
thin  ;  and  it  is  worth  notice  that,  independently  of  their  greater 
effect  on  the  natural  time  of  vibration  of  the  pendulum,  thick  and 
narrow  springs  are  more  liable  to  break  than  thin  nnd  broad  ones 
of  the  same  strength.  It  is  of  great  importance  that  the  spring 
should  be  of  uniform  thickness  throughout  its  breadth  ;  and  the 
bottom  of  the  chops  which  carry  it  should  be  exactly  horizontal  ; 
otherwise  the  pendulum  will  swing  with  a  twist,  as  they  may  he 
often  seen  to  do  in  ill-made  clocks.  If  the  bottom  of  the 
chops  is  left  sharp,  where  they  clip  the  spring,  it  is  very  likely 
to  break  there  ;  and  therefore  the  sharp  edges  should  be  taken  off. 

The  bob  of  the  pendulum  used  to  be  generally  made  in  the  shape 
of  a  lens,  with  a  view  to  its  passing  through  the  air  with  the  least 
resistance.  But  after  the  importance  of  making  the  bob  heavy  was 
discovered,  it  became  almost  necessary  to  adopt  a  form  of  more 
solid  content  in  proportion  to  its  surface.  A  sphere  has  beOn  occa 
sionally  used,  but  it  is  not  a  good  shape,  because  a  slight  error  in 
the  place  of  the  hole  for  the  rod  may  make  a  serious  difference  in 
the  amount  of  weight  on  each  side,  and  give  the  pendulum  a  ten 
dency  to  twist  in  motion.  The  mercurial  jar  pendulum  suggested 
the  cylindrical  form,  which  is  now  generally  adopted  for  astronomical 
clocks,  and  in  the  best  turret  clocks,  with  a  round  top  to  prevent 
any  bits  of  mortar  or  dirt  falling  and  resting  upon  it,  which  would 
alter  the  time  ;  it  also  looks  better  than  a  flat-topped  cylinder.  There 
is  no  rule  to  be  given  for  the  weight  of  pendulums.  It  will  be 
shown  hereafter  that,  whatever  escapement  may  be  used,  the  errors 
due  to  any  variation  of  force  are  expressed  in  fractions  which  inva 
riably  have  the  weight  and  the  length  of  the  pendulum  in  the 
denominator,  though  some  kind  of  escapements  require  a  heavy 
pendulum  to  correct  their  errors  much  less  than  others.  And  as  a 
heavy  pendulum  requires  very  little  more  force  to  keep  it  in  motion 
than  a  light  one,  being  less  affected  by  the  resistance  of  the  air,  we 
may  almost  say  that  the  heavier  and  longer  a  pendulum  can  be 
made  the  better  ;  at  any  rate,  the  only  limit  is  one  of  convenience  ; 
for  instance,  it  would  obviously  be  inconvenient  to  put  a  large  pen 
dulum  of  100  lb  weight  in  the  case  of  an  astronomical  or  common 
house  clock.  It  may  perhaps  be  laid  down  as  a  rule,  that  no 
astronomical  clock  or  regulator  (as  they  are  also  called)  will  go 
as  well  as  is  now  expected  of  such  clocks  with  a  pendulum  of 
less  than  28  lb  weight,  and  no  turret  clock  with  less  than  1 
cwt.  Long  pendulums  are  generally  made  with  heavier  bobs 
than  short  ones  ;  and  such  a  clock  as  that  of  the  Houses  of  Par 
liament,  with  a  two-seconds  pendulum  of  6  cwt.,  ought  to  go  44 
times  as  well  as  a  small  turret  clock  with  a  one-second  pendulum 
of  60  lb.  Pendulums  longer  than  14  feet  (2  seconds)  are  incon 
venient,  liable  to  be  disturbed  by  wind,  and  expensive  to  compen 
sate,  and  they  are  now  quite  disused,  and  most  or  all  of  the  old  ones 
removed,  with  their  clocks,  for  better  ones. 

Pendulum  Regulation. 

The  regulation  of  pendulums,  or  their  exact  adjustment  to  the 
proper  length,  is  primarily  effected  by  a  nut   on  the   end  of  the 
rod   by  which  the  bob  can  be  screwed  up  or  down.     In  the  best 
clocks  the  rim  of  this  nut  is  divided,  with  an  index  over  it  ;  so  the 
exact    quantity    of   rise    or    fall,    or    the    exact    acceleration    or 
retardation,    may  be  known,  the  amount  due  to  one  turn  ot  tlic 
nut  being  previously  ascertained.     By  the  calculation  used  below 
for  compensation  of  pendulums,  it  may  be  seen  that  if  the  J     gtfl 
of  the  pendulum  rod  is  I,  and    the    breadth    of   one  thread   of 
the  screw  is  called  dl,  then  one  turn  of  the  nut  will  alte 
rate  of  the  clock   by   43200  y  seconds  a  day ;  which  would  be 
iust  80  seconds,   if  the  pendulum  rod  is  45  inches  long  and  the 
screw  has  32  threads  in  the  inch.     To  accelerate  the  clock  the  nut 
has  always  to  be  turned  to  the  right,  as  it  is  called,  and  ««  t 
But  in   astronomical  and  in  large  turret  clocks,    it    i 
to  avoid  stopping,  or  in  any  way  disturbing  the  pendulum  ;  and  f 
the  finer  adjustments  other  methods   of  regu  ation  are  adopted 
The  best  is  that  of  fixing  a  collar,  as  shown  in  fig  2,  capable  o 
having  very  small  weights  laid  upon  it,  half-way  down  th 
dulunf,  this  being  the  place  where  the  addition  of  any  smal  1  « eig ht 
produces  the  greatest  effect,  and  where,    it  may  be  added    aiij 
moving  of  that  weight  up  or  down  on  the  rod  produces 


CLOCKS 


effect  If  M  is  the  weight  of  the  pendulum  and  I  its  length  (down 
to  the  centre  of  oscillation),  and  m  a  small  weight  added  at  the 
distance  d  below  the  centre  of  suspension  or  above  the  c.o.  (since  they 
are  reciprocal),  I  the  time  of  vibration,  and  -  dt  the  acceleration  due 
to  adding  m  ;  then 

-dt          m_   id         d*\. 

~T~    ~   2M  V    "    I'1)' 
from  which  it  is  evident  that  if  d  =    i,    then  -  d  T  the  daily 

acceleratioij    :=    1080°  m  ;  or  if  m  is  the  10800th  of  the  weight  of 

M 

the  pendulum  it  will  accelerate  the  clock  a  second  a  day,  or  10 
grains  will  do  that  on  a  pendulum  of  15  Ib.  weight  (7000  gr.  being 
=  1  Ib.),  or  an  ounce  on  a  pendulum  of  6  cwt.  In  like  manner  if 

d   =  -    from  either   top   or  bottom,  m  must  =  ,—  —  -  to  accelerate 
3  7200 

the  clock  a  second  a  day.  The  higher  up  the  collar  is  the  less  risk 
there  is  of  disturbing  the  pendulum  in  putting  on  or  taking  oft  the 
regulating  weights.  The  weights  should  be  made  in  a  series,  and 
marked  £  4,  1,  2,  according  to  the  number  of  seconds  a  day  by 
which  they  will  accelerate;  and  the  pendulum  adjusted  at  first 
to  lose  a  little,  perhaps  a  second  a  day,  when  there  are  no  weights 
on  the  collar,  so  that  it  may  always  have  some  weight  on,  which 
can  be  diminished  or  increased  from  time  to  time  with  certainty,  as 
the  rate  may  vary. 

Compensation  of  Pendulums. 

Soon  after  pendulums  began  to  be  generally  used  in  clocks,  it 
was  discovered  that  they  contained  within  themselves  a  source  of 
error  independent  of  the  action  of  the  clock  upon  them,  and  that  they 
lost  time  in  the  hot  weather  and  gained  in  cold,  in  consequence 
of  all  the  substances  of  which  they  could  be  made  expanding  as 
the  temperature  increases.  If  I  is  the  length  of  a  pendulum, 
and  dl  the  small  increase  of  it  from  increased  heat,  t  time  of  the 
pendulum  I,  and  t  +  d'  that  of  the  pendulum  l  +  dl  ;  then 


t  +  dt 


VI 


dl 

+  2  J  ' 


since  (  —  )  may  be  neglected  as  very  small  ;  or  dt  =  !—  •  and 
the  daily  loss  of  the  clock  will  be  43200^  seconds  The  following 
is  a  table  of  the  values  of  ^  for  1000°  Fahr.  of  heat  in  different  sub 

stances,  and  also  the  weight  of  a  cubic  inch  of  each  : 

ft 

White  deal  .....................................  '0024  '036 

Flint  glass  ...........................................  '0048  '116 

Steel  rod  .........................................  '0064  '28 

Iron  rod  .............................................  '007  '26 

Brass  ...............................................  '010  '30 

Lead  ................................................  -016  '41 

Zinc      ............................................  -017  '25 

Mercury  (iu  bulk,  not  in  length)   .............  '100  '49 

Thus  a  common  pendulum  with  an  iron  wire  rod  would  lose 
43200  x  -00007  =  3  seconds  a  day  for  10°  of  heat  ;  and  if  adjusted 
for  the  winter  temperature  it  would  lose  about  a  minute  a  week  in 
summer,  unless  something  in  the  clock  happened  to  produce  a 
counteracting  effect,  as  we  shall  see  may  be  the  case  when  we 
come  to  escapements.  We  want  therefore  some  contrivance  which 
will  always  keep  that  point  of  the  pendulum  on  which,  its  time 
depends,  viz.,  the  centre  of  oscillation,,  at  the  same  distance  from  the 
point  of  suspension.  A  vast  number  of  such  contrivances  have 
been  made,  but  there  are  only  three  which  can  be  said  to  be  at  all 
in  common  use  ;  and  the  old  gridiron  pendulum,  made  of  9  alter 
nate  bars  of  brass  and  steel  is  not  one  of  them,  having  been  super 
seded  by  one  of  zinc  and  iron,  exactly  on  the  same  principle,  but 
requiring  much  fewer  bars  on  account  of  the  greater  expansion  of 
zinc  than  brass.  The  centre  of  oscillation  so  nearly  coincides  in 
most  clock  pendulums  with  the  centre  of  the  bob  that  we  may  prac 
tically  say  that  the  object  of  compensation  is  to  keep  the  bob  always 
at  the  same  height.  For  this  purpose  we  must  hang  the  bob  from 
the  top  of  a  column  of  some  rnetal  which  has  so  much  more  expan 
sion  than  the  rod  that  its  expansion  upwards  will  neutralize  that  of 
the  rod,  and  of  the  wires  or  tube  by  which  the  bob  is  hung,  down 
wards.  The  complete  calculation,  taking  into  account  the  weight 
of  all  the  rods  and  tubes  is  too  long  and  complicated  to  be  worth  going 
through,  especially  as  it  must  always  be  finally  adjusted  by  trial 
either  of  that  very  pendulum  or  of  one  exactly  similar.  For  prac 
tical  purposes  it  is  found  sufficient  to  treat  the  expansion  of  zinc  as 
being  "016  to  steel  "0064,  instead  of  "017  as  it  is  really  ;  and  for 
large  pendulums  with  very  heavy  tubes  even  the  '016  is  a  little 


too  much.     Moreover  the  c.o.  is  higher  above  the  e.g.  of  the  bob 
in  such  large  pendulums  than  in  small  ones  with  light  rods  and 

But  neglecting  these  minutiae  for  the  first  approximation,  and 
supposing  the  bob  either  to  be  of  iron,  in  which  case  it  may  be  con 
sidered 'fixed  anywhere  to  the  iron  tube  which  hangs  from  the  top 
of  the  zinc  tube,  or  a  lead  bob  attached  at  its  own  centre,  which 
obviates  the  slowness  of  the  transmission  of  a  change  of  temperature 
through  it,  the  following  calculation  will  hold.  Letr  be  the  length 
of  the°steel  rod  and  spring,  z  that  of  the  zinc  tube,  b  half  the  height 
of  the  bob  ;  the  length  of  the  iron  tube  down  the  centre  of  the  bob  is 
%  -  b.  If  the  iron  tube  is  of  steel  for  simplicity  of  calculation,  we 

2 
must  evidently  have  -064(r  +  z-i)  =    I6z     :  z  -  g(r-J).     It  is 

practically  found  that  for  a  seconds  pendulum  with  a  lead  cylindrical 
bob  9  in.  x  3  hung  by  its  middle  r  has  to  be  about  44  inches, 
and  2  nearly  27.  At  any  rate  it  is  safest  to  make  it  27  at  first, 
especially  if  the  second  tube  is  iron,  which  expands  a  little  more 
than  steel;  and  the  tube  can  be  shortened  after  trial  but  not 
lengthened.  The  rod  of  the  standard  sidereal  pendulum  at  Green 
wich  (down  to  the  bottom  of  the  bob,  which  is  such 
as  has  been  described  and  weighs  26  ft),  is  43| 
and  z  is  26  inches,  the  descending  wires  being  steel. 
A  solar  time  pendulum  is  about  %  inch  longer,  as 
stated  above.  If  the  bob  were  fixed  at  its  bottom 
to  the  steel  tube  the  zinc  would  have  to  be  4 '88 
longer.  Fig.  2  is  a  section  of  the  great  West 
minster  pendulum.  The  iron  rod  which  runs  from 
top  to  bottom,  ends  in  a  screw,  with  a  nut  N,  for 
adjusting  the  length  of  the  pendulum  after  it  was 
made  by  calculation  as  near  the  right  length  as 
possible.  On  this  nut  rests  a  collar  M,  which  can 
slide  up  the  rod  a  little,  but  is  prevented  from 
turning  by  a  pin  through  the  rod.  On  a  groove 
or  annular  channel  in  the  top  of  this  collar  stands 
a  zinc  tube  10  feet  6  inches  long,  and  nearly  half 
an  inch  thick,  made  of  three  tubes  all  drawn 
together,  so  as  to  become  like  one  (for  it  should 
be  observed  that  cast  zinc  cannot  be  depended  on  ; 
it  must  be  drawn).  On  the  top  of  this  tube  or 
hollow  column  fits  another  collar  with  an  annulai 
groove  much  like  the  bottom  one  M.  The  object 
of  these  grooves  is  to  keep  the  unc  column  in  its 
place,  not  touching  the  rod  within  it,  as  contact 
might  produce  friction,  which  would  interfere  with 
their  relative  motion  under  expansion  and  con 
traction.  Round  the  collar  C  is  screwed  a  large 
iron  tube,  also  not  touching  the  zinc,  and  ita 
lower  end  fits  loosely  on  the  collar  M  ;  and  round 
its  outside  it  has  another  collar  D  of  its  own  fixed 
to  it,  on  which  the  bob  rests.  The  iron  tube  has 
a  number  of  large  holes  in  it  down  each  side,  to 
let  the  air  get  to  the  zinc  tube ;  before  that  was 
done,  it  was  found  that  the  compensation  lagged 
a  day  or  two  behind  the  changes  of  temperature, 
in  consequence  of  the  iron  rod  and  tube  being 
exposed,  while  the  zinc  tube  was  enclosed  without 
touching  the  iron.  The  bottom  of  the  bob  is  14 
feet  11  inches  from  the  top  of  the  spring  A,  and 
the  bob  itself  is  18  inches  high,  with  a  dome- 
shaped  top,  and  twelve  inches  in  diameter.  As 

it  is  a  2-seconds  pendulum,  its  centre  of  oscilla-  _ „    , .        . 

tion  is  13  feet  from  the  top  A,  which  is  higher       '    '  t  m.  't°n- 
than  usual  above  the  centre  of  gravity  of  the  bob,        t      p     i  i 
on  account  of  the  great  weight  of  the  compensa 
tion  tubes.     The  whole  weighs  very  nearly  700  ft,  and  is  probably 
the  heaviest  pendulum  in  the  world. 

The  second  kind  of  compensation  pendulum  in  use  is  still  more 
simple,  but  not  so  effective  or  certain  in  its  action  ;  and  that  is 
merely  a  wooden  rod  with  a  long  lead  bob  resting  on  a  nut  at  the 
bottom.  According  to  the  above  table,  it  would  appear  that  this 
bob  ought  to  be  14  inches  high  in  a  1-second  pendulum  ;  but  the 
expansion  of  wood  is  so  uncertain  that  this  proportion  is  not 
found  capable  of  being  depended  on,  and  a  somewhat  shorter  bob 
is  said  to  be  generally  more  correct  in  point  of  compensation •.  All 
persons  who  have  tried  wooden  pendulums  severely  have  come  to 
the  same  conclusion,  that  they  are  capricious  in  their  action,  and 
consequently  unfit  for  the  highest  class  of  clocks. 

The  best  of  all  the  compensations  was  long  thought  to  be  the 
mercurial,  which  was  invented  by  Graham,  a  London  clock- 
maker,  above  a  century  ago,  who  also  invented  the  well-known 
dead  escapement  for  clocks,  which  will  be  hereafter  explained,  and 
the  horizontal  or  cylinder  escapement  for  watches.  And  the  best 
form  of  the  mercurial  pendulum  is  that  which  was  introduced  by 
the  late  E.  J.  Dent,  in  which  the  mercury  is  enclosed  in  a  cast 
iron  jar  or  cylinder,  into  the  top  of  which  the  steel  rod  is 
screwed,  with  its  end  plunged  into  the  mercury  itself.  For  by 


CLOCKS 


17 


this  means  the  mercury,  the  rod,  and  the  jar  all  acquire  the  new 
temperature  at  any  change  more  simultaneously  than  when  the 
mercury  is  in  a  glass  jar  hung  by  a  stirrup  (as  it  is  called)  at  the 
bottom  of  the  rod  ;  and  moreover  the  pendulum  is  safe  to  carry 
about,  and  the  jar  can  be  made  perfectly  cylindrical  by  turning, 
and  also  air-tight,  so  as  protect  the  mercury  from  oxidation  ;  and, 
if  necessary,  it  can  be  heated  in  the  jar  so  as  to  drive  off  any 
moisture,  without  the  risk  of  breaking.  The  height  of  mercury 
required  in  a  cast-iron  jar,  2  inches  in  diameter,  is  about  6 '8  inches; 
for  it  must  be  remembered,  in  calculating  the  rise  of  the  mercury, 
that  the  jar  itself  expands  laterally,  and  that  expansion  has  to  be 
deducted  from  that  of  the  mercury  in  bulk. 

The  success  of  the  Westminster  clock  pendulum,  however,  and 
of  smaller  zinc  and  steel  pendulums  at  Greenwich  and  elsewhere, 
has  established  the  conclusion  that  it  is  unnecessary  to  incur  the 
expense  of  a  heavy  mercurial  pendulum,  which  has  become  more 
serious  from  the  great  rise  in  the  price  of  mercury  and  the  admitted 
necessity  for  much  heavier  bobs  than  were  once  thought  sufficient 
for  astronomical  clocks.  The  complete  calculation  for  a  compen 
sated  pendulum  in  which  the  rods  and  tubes  form  any  considerable 
proportion  of  the  whole  weight,  as  they  must  in  a  zinc  pendulum, 
is  too  complicated  to  be  worth  undertaking  generally,  especially  as 
it  is  always  necessary  to  adjust  them  finally  by  trial,  and  for  that 
purpose  the  tubes  should  be  made  at  first  a  little  longer  than  they 
ought  to  be  by  calculation,  except  where  one  is  exactly  copying 
pendulums  previously  tried. 

BAROMETRICAL  ERROR. 

It  has  long  been  known  that  pendulums  are  affected  by  varia 
tions  of  density  of  the  air  as  well  as  of  temperature,  though  in  a  much 
less  degree, — in  fact,  so  little  as  to  be  immaterial,  except  in  the  best 
clocks,  where  all  the  other  errors  are  reduced  to  a  minimum.  An 
increase  of  density  of  the  air  is  equivalent  to  a  diminution  of  the 
specific  gravity  of  the  pendulum,  and  that  is  equivalent  to  diminu 
tion  of  the  force  of  gravity  while  the  inertia  remains  the  same. 
And  as  the  velocity  of  the  pendulum  varies  directly  as  the  force  of 
gravity  and  inversely  as  the  inertia,  an  increase  of  density  must 
diminish  the  velocity  or  increase  the  time.  The  late  Francis  Baily, 
P.  R.A.S.,  also  found  from  some  elaborate  experiments  (See  Phil. 
Trans,  of  1832)  that  swinging  pendulums  carry  so  much  air  with 
them  as  to  affect  their  specific  gravity  much  beyond  that  due  to 
the  mere  difference  of  stationary  weight,  and  that  this  also  varies 
with  their  shape, — a  rod  with  a  flat  elliptical  section  dragging  more 
air  with  it  than  a  thicker  round  one  (which  is  not  what  one  would 
expect),  though  a  lens-shaped  bob  was  less  affected  than  a  spherical 
one  of  the  same  diameter,  which  of  course  is  much  heavier.  The 
frictional  effect  of  the  air  is  necessarily  greater  with  its  increased 
density,  and  that  diminishes  the  arc.  In  the  ll.A.S.  Memoirs  of 
1853  Mr  Bloxam  remarked  also  that  the  current  produced  in  the 
descent  of  the  pendulum  goes  along  with  it  in  ascending,  and  there 
fore  does  not  retard  the  ascent  as  much  as  it  did  the  descent,  and 
therefore  the  two  effects  do  not  counteract  each  other  as  Baily 
assumed  that  they  did.  He  also  found  the  circular  error  always 
less  than  its  theoretical  value,  and  considered  that  this  was  due  to 
the  resistance  of  the  air.  The  conclusions  which  were  arrived  at  by 
several  eminent  clockmakers  as  to  the  effect  of  the  pendulum  spring 
on  the  circular  error  about  40  years  ago  were  evidently  erroneous, 
and  the  effect  due  to  other  causes. 

It  appears  from  further  investigation  of  the  subject  in  several 
papers  in  the  R.A.S.  Notices  of  1872  and  1873,  that  the  barometri 
cal  error  also  varies  with  the  nature  of  the  escapement,  and  (as  Baily 
had  before  concluded  from  calculation)  with  the  arc  of  the  pendulum, 
so  that  it  can  hardly  be  determined  for  any  particular  clock  a  priori, 
except  by  inference  from  a  similar  one.  The  barometrical  error  of  an 
ordinary  astronomical  clock  with  a  dead  escapement  was  said  to  be 
a  loss  of  nearly  a  second  a  day  for  an  inch  rise  of  barometer,  but 
with  a  gravity  escapement  and  a  very  heavy  pendulum  not  more 
than  '3  second.  Dr  Robinson  of  Armagh  (seeR.A.S.  Mem.,  vol.  v.) 
suggested  the  addition  of  a  pair  of  barometer  tubes  to  the  sides  of 
the  pendulum,  with  a  bulb  at  the  bottom,  and  such  a  diameter  of  tube 
as  would  allow  a  sufficient  quantity  of  mercuiy  to  be  transposed  to 
the  top  by  the  expansion  under  heat,  to  balance  the  direct  effect  of 
the  heat  upon  the  pendulum.  But  it  is  not  necessary  to  have  two 
tubes.  In  a  paper  in  the  R.A.S.  Notices  of  January  1873  Mr. 
Denison  (now  Sir  E.  Beckett)  gave  the  calculations  requisite  for 
the  barometrical  compensation  of  pendulums  of  various  lengths  and 
weights,  the  principle  of  which  is  just  the  same  as  that  above  given 
for  regulating  a  pendulum  by  adding  small  weights  near  the  middle 
of  its  length.  The  formula  is  also  given  at  p.  69  of  the  sixth  edition 
of  his  Rudimentary  Treatise  on  Clocks.  A  barometrical  correction 
of  a  different  kind  has  been  applied  to  the  standard  clock  at  Green 
wich.  An  independent  barometer  is  made  to  raise  or  lower  a  magnet 
so  as  to  bring  it  into  more  or  less  action  on  the  pendulum  and  so  to 
accelerate  or  retard  it.  But  we  do  not  see  why  that  should  be  better 
than  the  barometer  tube  attached  to  the  pendulum.  The  necessity 
for  this  correction  seems  to  be  obviated  altogether  by  giving  the 


pendulum  a  sufficient  arc  of  vibration.  Baily  calculated  that  if  the 
arc  (reckoned  from  0)  is  about  2°  45'  the  barometrical  error  will  W 
self-corrected.  And  it  is  remarkable  that  the  Westminster  clock 
pendulum,  to  which  that  large  arc  was  given  for  other  reasons, 
appears  to  be  free  from  any  barometric  error,  after  trying  the  results 
of  the  daily  rate  as  automatically  recorded  at  Greenwich  for  the 
whole  of  the  year  1872.  We  shall  see  presently  that  all  the  escape 
ment  errors  of  clocks  are  represented  by  fractions  which  have  the 
square  or  the  cube  of  the  arc  in  the  denominator,  and  therefore  if 
the  arc  can  be  increased  and  kept  constant  without  any  objectionably 
increase  of  force  and  friction,  this  is  an  additional  reason  for  pre 
ferring  a  large  arc  to  a  small  one,  though  that  is  contrary  to  the 
usual  practice  in  astronomical  clocks. 

ESCAPEMENTS. 

The  escapement  is  that  part  of  the  clock  in  which  the  rotary 
motion  of  the  wheels  is  converted  into  the  vibratory  motion  of  the 
balance  or  pendulum,  which  by  some  contrivance  or  other  is  made 
to  let  one  tooth  of  the  quickest  wheel  in  the  train  escape  at  each 
vibration;  and  hence  that  wheel  is  called  the  "  scape  77heel. " 
Fig.  3  shows  the  form  of  the  earliest  clock  escapement,  if  it  is  held 
sideways,  so  that  the  arms  on  which  the  two  balls  are  set  may 
vibrate  on  a  horizontal  plane.  In  that  case  the  arms  and  weights 
form  a  balance,  and  the  farther  out  the  weights  are  set,  the  slower 
would  be  the  vibrations.  If  we  now  turn  it  as  it  stands  here,  and 
consider  the  upper  weight  left  out, 
it  becomes  the  earliest  form  of  the 
pendulum  clock,  with  the  crown- 
ivheel  or  vertical  escapement.  CA 
and  CB  are  two  flat  pieces  of  steel, 
called  pallets,  projecting  from  the 
axis  about  at  right  angles  to  eacli 
other,  one  of  them  over  the  front 
of  the  wheel  as  it  stands,  and  the 
other  over  the  back.  The  tooth 
D  is  just  escaping  from  the  front 
pallet  CA,  and  at  the  same  time 
the  tooth  at  the  back  of  the  wheel 
falls  on  the  other  pallet  CB,  a  little 
above  its  edge.  But  the  pendulum 
which  is  now  moving  to  the  right 
does  not  stop  immediately,  but 
swings  a  little  further  (otherwise 
the  least  failure  in  the  force  of  the 
train  would  stop  the  clock,  as  the 
escape  would  not  take  place),  and 
in  so  doing  it  is  evident  that  the 
pallet  B  will  drive  the  wheel  back 
a  little,  and  produce  what  is  called 
the  recoil;  which  is  visible  enough 
in  any  common  clock  with  a 


FIG.  3. — Recoil  Escapement. 


seconds-hand,  either  with  this  escapement  or  the  one  which  will  be- 
next  described. 

It  will  be  seen,  on  looking  at  figure  3,  that  the  pallet  B  must 
turn  through  a  considerable  angle  before  the  tooth  can  escape  ;  in 
other  words,  the  crown-wheel  escapement  requires  a  long  vibration 
of  the  pendulum.  This  is  objectionable  on  several  accounts, — first, 
because  it  requires  a  great  force  in  the  clock  train,  and  a  great 
pressure,  and  therefore  friction,  on  the  pallets  ;  and  besides  that, 
any  variation  in  a  large 
arc,  as  was  explained  be 
fore,  produces  a  much 
greater  variation  of  time 
due  to  the  circular  error 
than  an  equal  variation  of 
a  small  arc.  The  crown 
wheel  escapement  may  in 
deed  be  made  so  as  to  allow 
a  more  moderate  arc  of  the 
pendulum,  though  not  so 
small  as  the  2°  usually 
adopted  in  the  best  clocks, 
by  putting  the  pallet  arbor 
a  good  deal  higher  above 
the  scape-wheel,  and  giv 
ing  a  small  number  of  teeth 
to  the  wheel ;  and  that  also 
diminishes  the  length  of 
the  run  of  the  teeth,  and 
consequently  the  friction, 
on  the  pallets,  though  it 
makes  the  recoil  very  great 
and  sudden  ;  but,  oddly  FlG-  4. _ Anchor  Escapement, 

enough,   it  never   appears 

to  have  been  resorted  to  until  long  after  the  escapement  had  be 
come  superseded  by  the  "anchor"  escapement,  which  we  shall  now 

VT  3 


18 


CLOCKS 


describe,  and  which  appears  to  have  been  invented  by  the  celebrated 
Dr  Hooke  as  early  as  the  year  1656,  very  soon  after  the  invention 
of  pendulums. 

]n  fig.  4  a  tooth  of  the  scape-wheel  is  just  escaping  from  the  left 
pallet,  arid  another  tooth  at  the  same  time  falls  upon  the  right  hand 
pallet  at  some  distance  from  its  point.  As  the  pendulum  moves  on 
in  the  same  direction,  the  tooth  slides  farther  up  the  pallet,  thus  pro 
ducing  a  recoil,  as  in  the  crown-wheel  escapement.  The  acting  faces 
of  the  pallets  should  be  convex,  and  not  Hat,  as  they  are  generally 
made,  much  less  concave,  as  they  have  sometimes  been  made,  with 
a  view  of  checking  the  motion,  of  the  pendulum,  which  is  more 
likely  to  injure  the  rate  of  the  clock  than  to  improve  it.  But  when 
they  are  flat,  and  of  course  still  more  when  they  are  concave,  the  points 
of  the  teeth  always  wear  a  hole  in  the  pallets  at  the  extremity  of 
their  usual  swing,  and  the  motion  is  obviously  easier  and  therefore 
better  when  the  pallets  are  made  convex  ;  in  fact  they  then 
approach  more  nearly  to  the  "dead"  escapement,  which  will  be 
described  presently.  We  have  already  alluded  to  the  effect  of  some 
escapements  in  not  only  counteracting  the  circular  error,  or  the 
natural  increase  of  the  time  of  a  pendulum  as  the  arc  increases,  but 
overbalancing  it  by  an  error  of  the  contrary  kind.  The  recoil 
escapement  does  so  ;  for  it  is  almost  invariably  found  that  whatever 
may  be  the  shape  of  these  pallets,  the  clock  loses  as  the  arc  of 
the  pendulum  falls  off,  and  vice  versa.  It  is  unfortunately 
impossible  so  to  arrange  the  pallets  that  the  circular  error  may  be 
thus  exactly  neutralized,  because  the  escapement  error  depends,  in  a 
manner  reducible  to  no  law,  upon  variations  in  friction  of  the  pallets 
themselves  and  of  the  clock  train,  which  produce  different  effects ; 
and  the  result  is  that  it  is  impossible  to  obtain  very  accurate  time 
keeping  from  any  clock  of  this  construction. 

But  before  we  pass  on  to  the  dead  escapement,  it  may  be  proper 
to  notice  an  escapement  of  the  recoiling  class,  which  was  invented 
for  the  purpose  of  doing  without  oil,  by  the  famous  Harrison,  who 
was  at  first  a  carpenter  in  Lincolnshire,  but  afterwards  obtained  the 
first  Government  reward  for  the  improvement  of  chronometers.  We 
shall  not  however  stop  to  describe  it,  since  it  never  came  into 
general  use,  and  it  is  said  that  nobody  but  Harrison  himself  could 
make  it  go  at  all.  It  was  also  objectionable  on  account  of  its  being 
directly  affected  by  all  variations  in  the  force  of  the  clock.  It  had 
the  peculiarity  of  being  very  nearly  silent,  though  the  recoil  was 
very  great.  Those  who  are  curious  about  such  things  will  find  it 
described  in  the  seventh  edition  of  this  Encyclopaedia.  The  recorded 
performance  of  one  of  these  clocks,  which  is  given  in  some  accounts 
of  it,  is  evidently  fabulous. 

Dead  Escapements. 

The  escapement  which  has  now  for  a  century  and  a  half  been  con 
sidered  the  best  practical  clock  escapement  (though  there  have  been 
constant  attempts  to  invent  one  free  from  the  defects  which  it 
must  be  admitted  to  pos 
sess)  is  the  dead  escapement, 
or,  as  the  French  call  it 
with  equal  expressiveness, 
I' echappement  d  repos, — bu- 
cause  instead  of  the  recoil 
of  the  tooth  upon  the  pallet, 
which  took  place  in  the  pre 
vious  escapements,  it  falls 
dead  upon  the  pallet,  and 
reposes  there  until  the  pen 
dulum  returns  and  lets  it  off 
again.  It  is  represented  in 
fig.  5.  It  will  be  observed 
that  the  teeth  of 'the  scape- 
wheel  have  their  points  set 
the  opposite  way  to  those  of 
the  recoil  escapement  in  fig. 
4,  the  wheels  themselves 
both  turning  the  same  way ; 
or  (as  our  engraver  has  re 
presented  it),  vice  versa. 
The  tooth  B  is  here  also 
represented  in  the  act  of 
dropping  on  to  the  right 
hand  pallet  as  the  tooth  A 
/•scapes  from  the  left  pallet. 


FIG.  5. — Dead  Escapement. 
But  instead  of  the  pallet  having  a  con 


tinuous  face  as  in  the  recoil  escapement,  it  is  divided  iiito~two,  of 
which  BE  on  the  right  pallet,  and  FA  on  the  left,  are  called  the  im 
pulse  faces,  and  BD,  FG,  the  dead  faces.  The  dead  faces  are  portions 
of  circles  (not  necessarily  of  the  same  circle),  having  the  axis  of  the 
pallets  C  for  their  centre;  and  the  consequence  evidently  is,  that  as 
the  pendulum  goes  on,  carrying  the  pallet  still  nearer  to  the  wheel 
than  the  position  in  which  a  tooth  falls  on  to  the  corner  A  or  B  of 
the  impulse  and  the  dead  faces,  the  tooth  still  rests  on  the  dead  faces 
without  any  recoil,  until  the  pendulum  returns  and  lets  the  tooth  slide 
down  the  impulse  face,  giving  the  impulse  to  the  pendulum  as  it  goes. 


The  great  merit  of  this  escapement  is  that  a  moderate  variation 
in  the  force  of  the  clock  train  produces  a  very  slight  effect  in  the 
time  of  the  pendulum.  This  may  be  shown  in  a  general  w~ay, 
without  resorting  to  mathematics,  thus  : — Since  the  tooth  B  drops 
on  to  the  corner  of  the  pallet  (or  ought  to  do  so)  immediately  after 
the  tooth  A  has  escaped,  and  since  the  impulse  will  begin  at  B 
when  the  pendulum  returns  to  the  same  point  at  which  the  impulse 
ceased  on  A,  it  follows  that  the  impulse  received  by  the  pendulum 
before  and  after  its  vertical  position,  is  very  nearly  the  same.  l\ow 
that  part  of  the  impulse  which  takes  place  before  zero,  or  while  the 
pendulum  is  descending,  tends  to  augment  the  natural  force  of 
gravity  on  the  pendulum,  or  to  make  it  move  faster  ;  but  in  the  de 
scending  arc  the  impulse  on  the  pallets  acts  against  the  gravity  of  the 
pendulum,  and  prevents  it  from  being  stopped  so  soon  ;  and  so  the 
two  parts  of  the  impulse  tend  to  neutralize  each  other's  disturbing 
effects  on  the  times  of  the  pendulum,  though  they  both  concur  in. 
increasing  the  arc,  or  (what  is  the  same  thing)  maintaining  it  against 
the  loss  from  friction  and  resistance  of  the  air.  However,  on  the 
whole,  the  effect  of  the  impulse  is  to  retard  the  pendulum  a  little, 
because  the  tooth  must  fall,  not  exactly  on  the  corner  of  the  pallet, 
but  (for  safety)  a  little  above  it ;  and  the  next  impulse  does  not  bt-gin 
until  that  same  corner  of  the  pallet  has  come  as  far  as  the  point  of 
the  tooth  ;  in  other  words,  the  retarding  part  of  the  impulse,  or 
that  which  takes  place  after  zero,  acts  rather  longer  than  the  accel 
erating  part  before  zero.  Again,  the  friction  on  the  dead  part  of  the 
pallets  tends  to  produce  the  same  effect  on  the  time  ;  the  arc  of 
course  it  tends  to  diminish.  For  in  the  descent  of  the  pendulum 
the  friction  acts  against  gravity,  but  in  the  ascent  with  gravity,  and 
so  shortens  the  time ;  and  there  is  rather  less  action  on  the  dead 
part  of  the  pallets  in  the  ascent  than  in  the  descent.  For  these 
reasons  the  time  of  vibration  of  a  pendulum  driven  by  a  dead 
escapement  is  a  little  greater  than  of  the  same  pendulum  vibrating 
the  same  arc  freely  ;  and  when  you  come  to  the  next  difference,  the 
variation  of  time  of  the  same  pendulum  with  the  dead  escapement, 
under  a  moderate  variation  in  the  force,  is  very  small  indeed, 
which  is  not  the  case  in  the  recoil  escapement,  for  there  the  impulse 
begins  at  each  end  of  the  arc,  and  there  is  much  more  of  it  duiing 
the  descent  of  the  pendulum  than  during  the  ascent  from  zero  to  the 
arc  at  which  the  escape  takes  place  and  the  recoil  begins  on  the 
opposite  tooth  ;  and  then  the  recoil  itself  acts  on  the  pendulum  in 
its  ascent  in  the  same  direction  as  gravity,  and  so  shortens  the 
time.  And  hence  it  is  that  an  increase  of  the  arc  of  the  pendulum 
with  a  recoil  escapement  is  always  accompanied  with  a  decrease 
of  the  time.  Something  more  than  this  general  reasoning  is  re 
quisite  in  order  to  compare  the  real  value  of  the  dead  escapement  with 
others  of  equal  or  higher  pretensions,  or  of  the  several  contrivances 
that  have  been  suggested  for  remedying  its  defects.  But  we 
must  refer  to  the  Rudimentary  Treatise  on  Clocks  for  details  of 
the  mathematical  calculations  by  which  the  numerical  results  are 
obtained,  and  the  relative  value  of  the  different  kinds  of  escape 
ments  determined. 

It  camiot  be  determined  a  priori  whether  cleaning  and  oiling 
a  dead  escapement  clock  will  accelerate  or  retard  it,  for  reasons 
explained  in  those  calculations ;  but  it  may  be  said  conclusively 
that  the  larger  the  arc  is  for  any  given  weight  x  the  fall  per  day,  the 
better  the  clock  will  be  ;  and  in  order  to  diminish  the  friction  and 
the  necessity  for  using  oil  as  far  as  possible,  the  best  clocks  are 
made  with  jewels  (sapphires  are  the  best  for  the  purpose)  let  into 
the  pallets. 

The  pallets  are  generally  made  to  embrace  about  one-third  of  the 
circumference  of  the  wheel,  and  it  is  not  at  all  desirable  that  they 
should  embrace  more ;  for  the  longer  they  are,  the  longer  is  the 
run  of  the  teeth  upon  them,  and  the  greater  the  friction.  There  is 
a  good  deal  of  difference  in  the  practice  of  clockmakcrs  as  to  the 
length  of  the  impulse,  or  the  amount  of  the  angle  7  +  £  if  the  im 
pulse  begins  at  /8  before  zero  and  at  y  after  zero.  Sometimes  you 
see  clocks  in  which  the  seconds  hand  moves  very  slowly  and  rests 
a  very  short  time,  showing  that  7  +  /3  is  large  in  proportion  to  2a  ; 
and  in  others  the  contrary.  The  late  Mr  Dent  was  decidedly  of 
opinion  that  a  short  impulse  was  the  best,  probably  because  there  is 
less  of  the  force  of  the  impulse  wasted  in  friction  then.  It  is  not  to 
be  forgotten  that  the  scape-wheel  tooth  docs  not  overtake  the  face 
of  the  pallet  immediately,  on  account  of  the  menu-lit  of  inertia  of 
the  wheel.  The  wheels  of  astronomical  clocks,  and  indeed  of  all 
English  house-clocks,  are  generally  made  too  heavy,  especially  the 
scape-wheel,  which,  by  increasing  the  moment  of  inertia,  requires 
a  larger  force,  and  consequently  has  more  friction.  We  shall  see 
presently,  from  another  escapement,  how  much  of  the  force  is 
really  wasted  in  friction  in  the  dead  escapement. 

But  before  proceeding  to  other  escapements,  it  is  proper  to 
notice  a  very  useful  form  of  the  dead  escapement,  which  is  adopted  in 
many  of  the  best  turret  clocks,  called  the  pin-wheel  escapement. 
Fig.  6  will  sufficiently  explain  its  action  and  construction.  Its 
advantages  are — that  it  does  not  require  so  much  accuracy  as 
the  other;  if  a  pin  gets  broken  it  is  easily  replaced,  whereas  in  the 
oth^r  the  wheel  is  ruined  if  the  point  of  a  tooth  is  injured  ;  a  wheel 
of  given  size  will  work  with  more  pins  than  teeth,  and  therefore  a 


CLOCKS 


train  of  less  velocity  will  do,  and  that  sometimes  amounts  to  a  savin<? 
of  one  wheel  in  the  train,  and 
a  good  deal  of  friction ;  and 
the  blow  on  both  pallets  being 
downwards,  instead  of  one  up 
and  the  other  down,  the  action 
is  more  steady ;  all  which 
things  are  of  more  conse 
quence  in  the  heavy  and  rough 
work  of  a  turret  clock  than 
in  an  astronomical  one.  The 
details  of  the  construction  are 
given  in  the  Rudimentary 
Treatise.  It  has  been  found 
expedient  to  make  the  dead 
faces  not  quite  dead,  but  with 
a  very  slight  recoil,  which 
rather  tends  to  check  the 
variations  of  arc,  and  also  the 
general  disposition  to  lose 
time  if  the  arc  is  increased ; 
when  so  made  the  escape 
ment  is  generally  called  "half-  T^  a  D.  . 
^g^j  "  6  Fio.  6.-  Pin- Wheel  Escapement. 

Passing  by  the  various  other  modifications  of  the  dead  escapement 
which  have  been  suggested  and  tried  with  little  or  no  success,  we 
proceed  to  describe  one  of  an  entirely  different  form,  which  was 
patented  in  1851  by  Mr  C.  Macdowall,  though  it  appeared  afterwards 
that  one  very  similar  had  been  tried  before,  but  failed  from  the 
proportions  being  badly  arranged.  It  is  represented  in  fig.  7. 
The  scape-wheel  is  only  a  small  disc  with  a 
single  pin  in  it,  made  of  ruby,  parallel  and  very 
near  to  the  arbor.  The  disc  turns  half  round  at 
every  beat  of  the  pendulum,  and  the  pin  gives  the 
impulse  on  the  vertical  faces  of  the  pallets,  and 
the  dead  friction  takes  place  on  the  horizontal 
faces.  Its  advantages  are — that  the  greatest  part 
of  the  impulse  is  given  directly  across  the  line  of 
centres,  and  consequently  with  very  little  friction; 
and  therefore  also,  the  friction  on  the  dead  faces  is 
less  than  usual,  and  scarcely  any  oil  is  required  ; 
moreover,  it  is  very  easy  to  make.  But  there 
must  be  two  more  wheels  in  the  train,  consuming 
a  good  deal  of  the  force  of  the  clock-weight  by 
their  friction,  which  rather  more  than  makes 
up  for  the  friction  saved  in  the  escapement.  It 
was  applied  successfully  to  watches,  but  the 
expense  of  the  additional  wheels  prevented 
their  adoption.  In  order  to  make  the  angle 
of  escape  not  more  than  1°,  the  distance  of  the 
pin  from  the  centre  of  the  disc  must  not  be 
more  than  ^th  of  the  distance  of  centres 
of  the  disc  and  pallets. 

With  the  view  of  getting  rid  of  one  of  these 
extra  wheels  in  the  train,  and  that  part  of  the 
impulse  which  is  least  effective  and  most  oblique, 
Mr  Denison  shortly  afterwards  invented  the 
three-legged  dead  escapement ;  which,  though 
afterwards  superseded  by  his  three-legged  grainty 
escapement,  is  still  worth  notice  on  account  of 
the  exceedingly  small  force  which  it  requires, 
thereby  giving  a  practical  proof  of  the  large 
proportion  of  the  force  which  is  wasted  in  friction 
in  all  the  other  impulse  escapements. 


Fio.  7. 

Macdowall's  Es 
capement. 


In  fig.  8,  the  three  long  teeth  of  the  scape- wheel  are  only  used 
for  locking  on  the  dead  pallets  D  and  E,  which  are  set  on  the  front 
of  the  pallet  plate  ;  A  and  B  are 
impulse  pallets,  being  hard  bits 
of  steel  or  jewels  set  in  the  pallet 
plate,  and  they  are  acted  upon 
by  the  three  sharp-edged  pins 
which  are  set  in  the  scape-wheel 
and  point  backwards.  As  soon 
as  the  pendulum  moves  a  little 
further  to  the  left  than  is  here 
shown,  the  long  tooth  will  slip 
past  the  dead  pallet  or  stop  D, 
and  the  pin  at  B  will  run  after 
and  catch  the  corner  of  that 
impulse  pallet  and  drive  it  until 
the  wheel  has  turned  through 
60°,  and  then  it  will  escape ; 
and  by  that  time  the  uppermost 
tooth  will  anive  at  the  stop  E, 
and  will  slide  along  it  as  in  the 
common  dead  escapement,  but  FlQ.  8.- 
with  a  pressure  as  much  less  than 


Denison's  Three-Legged 
Escapement. 


ID 

that  which  gives  the  impulse  as  the  points  of  the  teeth  are  farther 
rom  the  centre  of  the  wheel  than  the  impulse  pins  are.  But  the 
impulse  is  here  given  with  so  little  friction,  that  even  where  the 
ts  01  the  teeth  were  made  identical  with  the  pins,  the  clock-weight 
required  to  keep  the  same  pendulum  with  the  same  train  (a  common 
urret-cloek  movement),  swinging  to  2°,  was  only  one-lifth  of  what 
had  been  required  with  the  pin-wheel  escapement  ;  and  the  scape- 
wheel  which  kept  the  6  cwt.  pendulum  of  the  Westminster  clock 
going  for  half-a-year,  until  superseded  by  the  gravitv  escapement, 
weighed  only  a  sixth  of  an  ounce.  It  appears  also  that  it  would  be 
possible  so  to  adjust  the  recoil  of  the  half-dead  pallets  that  the  time 
would  not  be  affected  by  any  small  variation  of  the  force  and  the  arc ; 
since  it  was  found  that,  when  a  certain  amount  of  recoil  was  given 
the  clock  gamed  instead  of  losing,  under  an  increase  of  arc  due  to 
an  increase  of  clock-weight.  And  if  the  force  were  kept  constant  by 
a  tram  remontoire,  such  as  will  be  described  hereafter,  there  would 
in  fact  be  nothing  capable  of  altering  the  arc  or  the  time.  But  on 
account  of  the  small  depth  of  intersection  of  the  circles  of  the 
pins  and  the  pallets,  on  which  its  action  depends,  this  escape 
ment  requires  very  careful  adjustment  of  the  pallets,  except  where 
they  are  on  a  large  scale  ;  and  considering  the  superior  qualities  of 
the  corresponding  gravity  escapement,  it  is  not  likely  to  be  used, 
except  perhaps  in  clocks  required  to  go  a  long  time,  in  which 
economy  of  force  is  a  matter  of  consequence.  The  pallets  should  be 
connected  with  the  pendulum  by  a  spring  fork  (which  indeed  is 
advisable  in  the  common  dead  escapement  with  a  heavy  pendulum, 
especially  the  pin-wheel  escapement),  to  prevent  the  risk  of  their 
driving  backwards  against  the  scape-wheel  when  it  is  not  in  motion, 
as  it  will  not  clear  itself.  The  distance  of  the  centres  should  be 
not  less  than  25  times  the  radius  of  the  circle  of  the  edges  of  the 
impulse  pins.  * 

DetacJicd  Escapements. 

In  all  the  escapements  hitherto  described  the  pallets  are  never  out 
of  moving  contact  with  the  scape-wheel,  and  there  have  been  several 
contrivances  for  keeping  them  detached  except  during  the  impulse 
and  at  the  moment  of  passing  a  click  which  is  to  release  the  wheel 
to  give  the  impulse.  This  is  an  imitation  of  the  chronometer 
escapement  in  watches  which  is  sometimes  called  the  "detached." 
There  are  only  two  of  such  contrivances  which  appear  worth  special 
notice.  One  was  proposed  by  Sir  G.  Airy  in  vol.  ii.  of  the  Cam 
bridge  Transactions,  but  not  executed  (so  far  as  we  know)  till  a  few 
years  ago  in  the  standard  sidereal  clock  at  Greenwich,  which  is 
reported  to  go  extremely  well.  Suppose  a  dead  escapement  consist 
ing  of  a  single  pallet  only,  say  the  right  hand  one  of  the  pin-wheel 
escapement  (fig.  6),  for  the  Greenwich  clock  has  a  pin  escapement, 
and  that  the  wheel  is  locked  generally  by  a  spring  detent  hooking 
into  any  one  of  its  teeth,  and  capable  of  being  lifted  or  pushed 
aside  by  the  pendulum,  i.e.,  by  a  pin  somewhere  on  the  single 
pallet  as  it  passes  to  the  right,  but  also  capable  of  being  passed 
without  being  lifted  as  the  pendulum  goes  to  the  left.  We  shall 
see  afterwards  how  this  is  done,  in  the  article  WATCHES.  Then  as 
the  pendulum  goes  .to  the  right,  it  first  lifts 
the  detent  at  about  1°  before  zero,  and  then  a  fo} 

tooth  or  a  pin  drops  on  to  the  pallet  and  gives 
the  impulse,  exactly  as  in  the  dead  pin-wheel 
escapement,  and  with  exactly  the  same  amount 
of  friction,  substituting  only  for  the  dead 
friction  the  resistance  and  friction  of  passing 
the  detent  one  way  and  lifting  it  the  other. 

A  different  escapement  on  the  same  principle 
but  involving  less  friction  was  adopted  by 
Sir  E.  Beckett  in  a  clock  described  in  the 
later  editions  of  his  book  as  having  gone  for 
above  ten  years  very  satisfactorily,  except 
that,  like  all  direct  impulse  escapements,  in 
cluding  Sir  G.  Airy's,  it  must  vary  with  the 
force  of  the  clock  train,  due  to  different  states 
of  the  oil.  The  scape-wheel  (fig.  9)  is  five- 
legged,  and  has  five  sharp-edged  pins  which 
give  the  impulse  to  the  hard  steel  pallet  P 
whenever  it  passes  to  the  right,  provided  the 
wheel  is  then  free  to  move.  It  is  stopped  by 
the  detent  UEF,  which  turns  on  a  pivot  F,  not 
in  the  pen  luluin  crutch,  as  it  looks  in  the 
drawing,  but  on  the  clock-frame.  When  the 
pendulum  going  to  the  right  arrives  at  the 
position  here  drawn,  the  click  (JE  on  the  crutch 
pushes  the  detent  aside  and  so  unlocks  the 
wheel,  which  then  gives  the  impulse,  moving 
through  72°  until  another  tooth  arrives  at  the 
detent  and  is  stopped,  the  click  having  then 
got  far  beyond  it.  When  the  pendulum  re 
turns  the  click  lightly  trips  over  the  top  of 
the  detent.  Here  there  is  practically  no  friction 
in  giving  the  impulse,  as  it  is  directly  across  the  line  of  crnfres. 
as  in  the  three-legged  dead  escapement,  and  the  friction  of  passing 


Fig.  0. 


'20 


CLOCKS 


and  unlocking   is  as  little   as  possible,    for  the   pressure  on  the 
locking  teeth  is  less  than  half  of  that  of  the  impulse  pins. 

In  practice  the  pallet  P  is  a  separate  bit  of  steel,  screwed  on,  and 
therefore  adjustable.  The  locking  teeth  are  about  6  inches  long 
from  the  centre,  and  the  impulse  pin-edges  |  in.  from  the  centre, 
which  is  7  in.  below  the  top  of  the  pendulum  and  crutch, 
so  that  the  impulse  begins  1°  before  zero  and  ends  1°  after, 
corresponding  each  to  36°  turn  of  the  scape-wheel.  If  r  is  the 
distance  of  the  pins  from  the  centre  and  p  the  length  of  the 
crutch  down  to  the  centre,  rsin.  36°must=^)sin.  1°,  if  you  want  an 
impulse  of  1°  on  each  side  of  0  ;  which  makes  p  =  33 '7r.  BB  are 
eccentric  beat  pins  for  adjusting  the  beat  to  whatever1  position  of 
the  pendulum  you  please,  i.e.,  you  can  make  it  less  than  1° 
before  or  after  zero  as  you  please.  In  some  respects  it  would  be 
better  to  have  no  crutch,  but  it  would  be  very  difficult  to  make  the 
adjustments.  This  escapement  should  evidently  be  at  the  bottom 
of  the  clock-frame  instead  of  the  top,  as  in  the  gravity  escapements 
which  will  be  described  presently.  The  back  part  of  the  scape- 
wheel  is  carried  by  a  long  cock  or  bridge  within  which  the  crutch 
also  moves. 

Remontoire  or  Gravity  Escapements. 

A  remontoire  escapement  is  one  in  which  the  pendulum  does 
not  receive  its  impulse  from  the  scape-wheel,  but  from  some  small 
•weight  or  spring  which  is  lifted  or  wound  up  by  the  scape-wheel 
at  every  beat,  and  the  pendulum  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  scape- 
wheel  except  unlocking  it.  When  this  impulse  is  received  from  a 
weight  the  escapement  is  also  called  a  gravity  escapement ;  and  in 
asmuch  as  all  the  remontoire  clock  escapements  that  are  worth 
notice  have  been  gravity  escapements,  we  may  use  that  term  for 
them  at  once.  The  importance  of  getting  the  impulse  given  to  the 
pendulum  in  this  way  was  recognized  long  before  all  the  properties 
of  the  dead  escapement,  as  above  investigated,  were  known.  For 
it  was  soon  discovered  that,  however  superior  to  the  old  recoil 
escapement,  it  was  far  from  perfect,  and  that  its  success  depended 
on  reducing  the  friction  of  the  train  and  the  pallets  as  far  as  possible, 
which  involves  the  necessity  of  high-numbered  pinions  and  wheels, 
small  pivots,  jewelled  pallets,  and  a  generally  expensive  style  of 
workmanship.  Accordingly  the  invention  of  an  escapement  which 
will  give  a  constant  impulse  to  the  pendulum,  and  be  nearly  free 
from  friction,  has  been  for  a  century  the  great  problem  of  clock- 
making.  We  can  do  no  more  than  shortly  notice  a  very  few  of  the 
attempts  which  have  been 
made  to  solve  it.  The 
most  simple  form  of  gra 
vity  escapement,  and  the 
one  which  will  serve  the 
best  for  investigating  their 
mathematical  properties 
(though  it  fails  in  some 
essential  mechanical  con 
ditions),  is  that  invented 
by  Mudge.  The  tooth  A 
of  the  scape-wheel  in  fig. 
10  is  resting  against  the 
stop  or  detant  a  at  the  end 
of  the  pallet  OA,  from  the 
axis  or  arbor  of  which  de 
scends  the  half  fork  CP 
to  touch  the  pendulum. 
From  the  other  pallet  CB 
descends  the  other  half 
fork  CO.  The  two  arbors 
are  set  as  near  the  point 
of  suspension,  or  top  of 
the  pendulum  spring,  as 
possible.  The  pendulum,  ,,  ,A 
as  here  represented,  must  Mudge  s  Gravity  Escapement. 

be  moving  to  the  right,  and  just  leaving  contact  with  the  left  pallet 
in.   going  to  take  up  the  right  one  ;  as  soon  as  it  has  raised  that 
3t  a  little  it  will  evidently  unlock  the  wheel  and  let  it  turn,  and 
then  the  tooth  B  will  raise  the  left  pallet  until  it  is  caught  by  the 
.top  b  on  that  pallet  and  then  it  will  stay  until  the  pendulum  re- 
urns  and  releases  it  by  raising  that  pallet  still  higher!    Each  pallet 

!vW •?'    tT"  Jh?  ITlulum  to  a  lo™  Point  than  that 

where  it  is  taken  up,  and  the  difference  between  them  is  supplied  by 

B  lifting  of  each  pallet  by  the  clock,  which  does  not  act  on  the 
pendulum  at  all  ;  so  that  the  pendulum  is  independent  of  all  varia 
tions  of  force  and  friction  in  the  train. 

Again  referring  to  the  Rudimentary  Treatise  on  Clocks  for  the 
mathematical  investigation  of  the  errors  of  this  class  of  escapements, 
or  to  a  paper  by  the  late  J.  M  Bloxam,  in  the  R.  A.  S.  M^unrs  of 
Io3,  we  may  say  it  is  proved  that  though  the  time  of  a  crravitv 
escapement  pendulum  differs  from  that  of  a  free  r.endulum  more 
than  from  that  of  a  dead  escapement,  yet  the  variations  of  that 
hflerence  (which  are  the  real  variations  of  the  dock)  may  be  made 
much  less  than  m  any  kind  of  dead  escapement 


The  difficulty  which  long  prevented  the  success  of  gravity 
escapements  was  their  liability  to  what  is  called  (ripping.  .Referring 
again  to  fig.  10,  it  will  be  seen  at  once  that  if  the  scape-wheel 
should  happen  to  move  too  fast  when  it  is  released,  the  left  pallet 
will  not  be  raised  gradually  by  the  tooth  B,  but  be  thrown  up 
with  a  jerk,  perhaps  so  high  that  the  tooth  slips  past  the  hook  ; 
and  then  not  only  will  that  tooth  slip,  but  several  more,  and  at 
last  when  the  wheel  is  stopped  it  will  be  running  fast,  and  the 
points  of  some  of  the  teeth  will  probably  be  bent  or  broken  by 
catching  against  the  pallets.  And  even  if  the  pallet  is  not  raised 
high  enough  for  the  tooth  to  get  past  or  completely  trip,  it  may 
still  be  raised  so  high  that  the  point  of  the  tooth  does  not  rest  on 
the  hook  exactly  where  the  slope  of  the  pallet  ends,  but  lowerv 
and  the  friction  between  them  is  quite  enough  to  keep  the  pallet 
there  ;  and  consequently  the  pendulum  does  not  begin  to  lift  it  at 
the  proper  angle  7,  but  at  some  larger  angle  ;  and  as  the  pallet 
always  descends  with  the  pendulum  to  the  same  point,  the  duration 
of  the  impulse  is  increased,  and  the  pendulum  made  to  swing  farther. 
Sir  E.  Beckett  called  this  approximate  tripping,  and  though  not  so 
injurious  to  the  clock  as  actual  tripping,  it  is  obviously  fatal  to  its 
accurate  performance,  though  it  appears  never  to  have  been  noticed 
before  he  pointed  it  out  in  1851.  Various  contrivances  have  been 
resorted  to  for  preventing  tripping.  But  on  account  of  the  delicacy 
required  in  all  of  them,  and  other  objections,  none  of  them  ever  came 
into  use  until  the  invention  of  the  three-legged  and  four-legged 
escapements  to  be  mentioned  presently.  The  only  one  which 
approached  near  enough  to  satisfying  all  the  requisite  conditions 
to  be  worth  description  is  Mr  Bloxam's,  and  we  accordingly  give 
a  sketch  of  it  in  fig.  11,  which  is  copied  (with  a  little  alteration  for 
distinctness)  from  his  own  de 
scription  of  it,  communicated  in 
1853  to  the  Astronomical.  Society, 
some  years  after  he  had  had  it  in 
action  in  a  clock  of  his  own.  This 
drawing  will  enable  any  one  con 
versant  with  these  matters  to  un 
derstand  its  action.  He  made  the 
pallet  arbors  cranked,  to  embrace 
the  pendulum-spring,  so  that  then- 
centres  of  motion  might  coincide 
with  that  of  the  pendulum  as 
nearly  as  possible, — perhaps  an 
unnecessary  refinement  ;  at  least 
the  three-legged  and  four-legged 
gravity  escapements  answer  very 
well  with  the  pallet  arbors  set  A' 
on  each  side  of  the  top  of  the 
spring.  The  size  of  the  wheel 
determines  the  length  of  the 
pallets,  as  they  must  be  at  such 
an  angle  to  each  other  that  the 
radii  of  the  wheel  when  in 
contact  with  each  stop  may  be 
at  right  angles  to  the  pallet 
arm ;  and  therefore,  for  a  wheel 
of  this  size,  the  depth  of  lock 
ing  can  only  be  very  small.  The 
pinion  in  Mr  Bloxam's  clock 
only  raises  the  pallet  through  40'  at  each  beat;  i.e.,  the  angle 
which  we  called  7  is  only  20' ;  and  probably,  if  it  were  increased  to 

anything  like  -r-,    the  escapement  would  trip  immediately.      The 

two  broad  pins  marked  E,  F.  are  the  fork-pins.  The  clock  which 
Mr  Bloxam  had  went  very  well  ;  but  it  had  an  extremely  fine 
train,  with  pinions  of  18  ;  and  nobody  else  appears  to  have  been 
able  to  make  one  to  answer.  In  short  Bloxam's  was  not  a  practical 
solution  of  the  gravity  escapement  problem,  any  more  than  those 
of  Captain  Kater,  or  Hardy,  or  various  other  inventors.  A  few 
clocks  of  Hardy's  alone  still  exist. 

The  only  gravity  escapement  or  escapements  that  really  have 
come  into  common  use  are  the  "four-legged"  and  the  "double  three- 
legged"  escapements  of  Sir  E.  Beckett.  They  passed  through 
various  phases  before  settling  into  the  present  form,  ot  which  it  is 
unnecessary  to  say  more  now  than  that  the  first  was  the  single 
three-legs  described  in  the  last  edition  of  this  Encyclopaedia,  which 
was  suggested  by  his  three-legged  dead  escapement.  A  five-legged 
one  was  also  tried ;  but  though  it  had  some  slight  advantages  they 
are  quite  overbalanced  by  disadvantages,  and  it  requires  much  more 
delicacy  of  construction  than  either  the  double  three-legs  or  the 
four-legs  which  we  shall  now  describe,  remarking  that  the  latter  is 
the  best  for  "regulators,"  and  the  formei  in  large  clocks.  Fig.  12 
is  a  back  view  of  the  escapement  part  of  an  astronomical  clock  with 
the  four-legged  wheel ;  seen  from  the  front  the  wheel  would  turn 
the  other  way.  The  long  locking  teeth  are  made  about  2  inches 
loi.g  from  the  centre,  and  the  lifting  pins,  of  which  there  are  four 
pointing  forwards  and  the  other  four  intermediate  pointing  back 
wards,  are  at  not  more  than  one-30th  of  the  distance  between  tr.< 


FIG.  11. — Bloxam's  Gravity 
Escapement. 


C  L  O  0  K  S 


21. 


FIG.  12. 

Four- Legged  Gravity 
Escapement. 


centres  EC,  of  the  wheel  and  pallets  ;  or  rather  C  is  the  top  of 
the  pendulum  spring  to  which  the  pallets  CS,  CS'  converge,  though 
their  actual  action  are  a  little  below  C.  It  is  not  worth  while  to  crank 
them  as  Mr  Bloxam  did,  in  order  to  make  them  coincide  exactly  with 
the  top  of  the  pendulum,  as  the  friction  of 
the  beat  pins  on  the  pendulum  at  P  is  in 
significant,  and  even  then  would  not  be 
quite  destroyed.  The  pallets  are  not  in  the 
sime  plane,  but  one  is  behind  and  the  other 
in  front  of  the  wheel,  with  one  stop  pointing 
backwards  and  the  other  forwards  to  receive 
the  teeth  alternately, — it  does  not  matter 
which ;  in  this  figure  the  stop  S  is  behind 
and  the  stop  S'  forward.  The  pendulum  is 
now  going  to  the  right,  and  just  beginning 
to  lift  the  right  pallet  and  free  the  stop  S' ; 
then  the  wheel  will  begin  to  turn  and  lift 
the  other  pallet  by  one  of  the  pins  which  is 
now  lowest,  and  which  moves  through  45° 
across  the  line  of  centres,  and  therefore  lifts 
with  very  little  friction.  It  goes  on  till  the 
tooth  now  below  S  reaches  S  and  is  stopped 
there.  Meanwhile  the  pallet  CS'  goes  on 
with  the  pendulum  as  far  as  it  may  go,  to 
the  end  of  the  arc  which  we  have  through 
out  called  a,  starting  from  7  ;  but  it  falls 
with  the  pendulum  again,  not  only  to  7  but 
to  -  7  on  the  other  side  of  0,  so  that  the 
impulse  is  due  to  the  weight  of  each  pallet 
alternately  falling  through  2y ;  and  the 
magnitude  of  the  impulse  also  depends  on 
the  obliqueness  of  the  pallet  on  the  whole, 
i.e.,  on  the  distance  of  its  centre  of  gravity 
from  the  vertical  through  C.  The  defect  of 
the  original  three-legged  escapement  was  that  the  pallets  were  too 
nearly  vertical. 

Another  most  material  element  of  these  escapements  with  very 
few  teeth  is  that  they  admit  of  a  fly  KK  on  the  scape- wheel  arbor  to 
moderate  its  velocity,  which  both  obviates  all  risk  of  tripping, 
wholly  or  partially,  and  also  prevents  the  bang  which  goes  all 
through  the  clock  where  there  is  no  ny.  The  fly  is  set  on  with  a 
friction  spring  like  the  common  striking-part  fly,  and  should  be  as 
long  as  there  is  room  for,  length  being  much  more  effective  than 
width.  For  this  purpose  the  second  wheel  arbor  is  shortened  and 
set  in  a  cock  fixed  on  the  front  plate  of  the  clock,  which  leaves 
room  for  a  fly  with  vanes  2  inches  long.  The  back  pivot  of  the 
scape-wheel  is  carried  by  a  long  cock  behind  the  back  plate,  so  that 
the  escapement  is  entirely  behind  it,  close  to  the  pendulum.  The 
pallet  arbors  are  short,  as  they  come  just  behind  the  centre  wheel, 
which  is  here  also  necessarily  above  the  escapement,  and  the  great 
wheel  arbor  on  a  level  with  it,  and  at  the  left  hand  (from  the  front) 
or  the  string  would  be  in  the  way  of  the  fly.  No  beat  screws  are 
required,  as  the  pallets  end  in  mere  wires  which  are  easily  bent. 
It  is  found  better  to  make  the  tails  of  the  pallets  long,  rather  than 
short  as  Mr  Bloxam  did.  It  is  essential,  too,  that  the  angle  CSE 
formed  by  the  tooth  and  the  pallet  which  is  struck  upwards 
should  not  the  least  fall  short  of  a  right  angle,  nor  the  other  angle 
CS'E  be  the  least  obtuse,  or  the  escapement  may  very  likely  trip. 
Practically,  therefore,  it  is  safer  to  let  CSE  be  just  greater  than 
90°  and  CS'E  a  little  less,  so  that  there  may  not  be  the  least  tend 
ency  in  the  blow  on  the  stops  to  drive  the  pallets  outwards.  For 
the  purpose  of  calculation,  however,  we  must  make  them  both  90° 
and  then  it  follows  that,  calling  the  length  of  the  teeth  r,  and  the 
distance  of  centres  d,  and  the  length  of  the  pallets  from  C  down  to 
the  stops  p,  r  must  —  d  sin.  22^J  and  _p  -  d  cos.  22  JD.  Therefore 
if  r  is  made  2  inches  CE  or  d  will  bo  5 '22,  say  5j  inches,  and  p  = 
4 "82.  The  distance  of  the  lifting  pins  from  the  centre  will  be  |  of  an 
inch  to  make  the  angle  7  =  1°.  It  is  certainly  not  desirable 
to  make  it  more,  and  even  that  requires  such  light  pallets  for  a 
pendulum  of  30  or  40  lb,  that  J-  inch  distance  from  the  centre  is 
more  convenient  as  giving  the  smaller  lift,  assuming  the  scape-wheel 
to  be  from  2  to  2j  inches  in  diameter. 

Gravity  escapements  require  more  weight  than  a  direct  impulse 
escapement  with  an  equally  fine  train  ;  and  they  try  the  accuracy 
of  the  wheelcutting  more  severely.  If  there  is  a  weak  place  in  the 
train  of  a  common  clock  the  scape-wheel  only  follows  the  pendulum 
more  weakly ;  but  in  a  gravity  escapement  it  always  has  to  raise  the 
pallets,  and  ought  to  raise  them  quickly,  and  especially  in  clocks 
for  astronomical  purposes  where  you  take  its  exact  time  from  the 
sound  of  the  beats,  and  so  the  lifting  must  not  lag  and  sound 
uneven.  Therefore  although  a  fine  train  of  high  numbers  is  not 
requisite  it  must  be  perfectly  well  cut.  And  as  the  force  of  the 
weight  does  not  reach  the  pendulum  its  increase  is  of  no  consequence, 
within  reasonable  limits.  It  is  worth  while  to  put  large  friction 
wheels  under  the  arbor  of  the  great  wheel  in  all  astronomical  clocks, 
and  it  makes  a  material  dilference  in  the  friction  on  account  of  the 
necessary  thickness  of  the  winding  arbor.  A  variation  of  arc  iu 


dead  escapement  clocks  is  sometimes  visible  between  the  beginning 
and  the  end  of  the  week  according  as  the  string  is  nearest  to  the 
thick  or  the  thin  end  of  the  great  arbor,  when  there  are  no  friction 

wheels. 

The  other  form  of  the  gravity  escapement,  which  is  now  adopted 

for  large  clocks  by  all  the  best  makers,  having  been  first  used  in  the 

great  Westminster   clock,   is  the  double 

three-legged  which  is  shown  'in   fig.   13. 

The  principle  of  it  is  the  same  as  of  the 

four-legs ;  but  instead  of  the  pallets  being 

one  behind  and  the  other  in  front  of  the 

wheel,  with  two  sets  of  lifting  pins,  there 

are  two  wheels  ABC,  abc,  with  the  three 

lifting  pins  and  the  two  pallets  between 

them  like  a  lantern  pinion.     One  stop  B 

points  forward  and  the  other  A  backward. 

The  two  wheels  have  their  teeth  set  inter 
mediately  or  60°  apart,  though  that  is  not 

essential,  and  the  angle  of  1203  may  be 

divided   between  them  in  any  other  pro 
portions,  as  70°  and  50°,  and  in  that  way 

the  pallets  may  be  still  more  oblique  than 

30°  from  the  vertical,  which  however  is 

found  enough  to  prevent  tripping  even  if 

the  fly  gets  loose,  which  is  more  likely 

to  happen  from  carelessness  in  large  clocks 

than   in  astronomical  ones.     The  West 
minster  one  was  once  found  to  have  been 

left  with  the  spring  loose  for  several  days,  -,       ,  „      T. 

and  it  had  not  gained  a  second,  and  there-  FlQ;  L  ~  ?**' 

fore  had  never  tripped.      The  two  wheels        legged  EscaPe™»t. 

must  be  both  squared  on  the  arbor,  or  on  a  collar  common  to  them 

both,  and  must  not  depend  upon  the  three  pins  or  they  will  shake 

loose.  If  the  wheels  are  set  with  the  teeth  equidistant,  their  centre 
is  evidently  twice  the  length  of  the  teeth  below  C,  the  theoretical 
centre  of  the  pallets.  The  pins  should  not  be  farther  from  the 
centre  than  one-24th  of  the  radius  of  the  wheel ;  and  they  should  be 
so  placed  that  the  one  which  is  going  to  lift  next  may  be  vertically 
over  the  one  which  has  just  lifted,  and  is  then  holding  up  the  other 
pallet.  The  third  will  then  be  level  with  the  centre;  i.e.,  they 

will  stand  on  the  radii  which  form  the  acting  faces  of  the  teeth  of 
one  of  the  wheels,  and  half  way  between  those  of  the  other. 

Of  course  the  fly  for  those  escapements  in  large  clocks,  with 
weights  heavy  enough  to  drive  the  hands  in  all  weather,  must  be 
much  larger  than  in  small  ones.  For  average  church  clocks  with 
1\  sec.  pendulum  the  legs  of  the  scape-wheels  are  generally  made 
4  inches  long  and  the  fly  from  6  to  7  inches  long  in  each  vane  by 
lj  orl^  wide.  For  1^  sec.  pendulums  the  scape-wheels  are  generally 
made  4^  radius.  At  Westminster  they  are  6  inches. 

Sir  E.  Beckett  has  come  to  the  conclusion  that  these  escapements 
act  better,  especially  in  regulators,  if  the  pallets  do  not  fall  quite 
on  the  lifting  pins,  but  on  a  banking,  or  stops  at  any  conveni 
ent  place,  so  as  to  leave  the  wheel  free  at  the  moment  of  starting ; 
just  as  the  striking  of  a  common  house  clock  will  sometimes  fail  to 
start  unless  the  wheel  with  the  pins  has  a  little  run  before  a  pin 
begins  to  lift  the  hammer.  The  best  way  to  manage  the  banking 
is  to  make  the  beat-pins  long  enough  to  reach  a  little  way  behind 
the  pendulum,  and  let  the  banking  be  a  thin  plate  of  any  metal 
screwed  adjustably  to  the  back  of  the  case.  This  plate  cannot  well 
be  shown  in  the  drawings  together  with  the  pendulum,  which,  it  may 
be  added,  should  take  up  one  pallet  just  when  it  leaves  the  other. 

It  is  no  longer  doubtful  that  these  two  escapements  are  far  the 
best  of  all  for  large  clocks,  the  three-legs  for  very  large  ones,  while 
the  four-legs  does  very  well  for  smaller  turret  clocks.  And  they 
cost  no  more  to  make,  though  rather  more  is  charged  for  them 
by  some  makers  under  the  pretence  that  they  do.  It  is 
absolutely  impossible  for  any  large  clock  exposed  to  the  variations 
of  weather  and  dust  to  keep  as  good  time  as  an  ordinary  good  house 
clock  unless  it  has  either  a  gravity  escapement,  or  a  train  remontoire, 
which  last  is  much  more  expensive,  to  intercept  the  variations  of 
force  before  they  reach  the  pendulum.  And  though  a  detached 
escapement  clock  while  kept  clean  and  the  oil  in  good  condition 
is  as  good  as  a  gravity  one  and  perhaps  better,  the  gravity  one  is 
less  affected  by  variations  of  the  oil,  and  its  rate  is  altogether  more 
constant.  They* seem  also  to  have  a  smaller  barometric  error. 

GOING  BARRELS. 

A  clock  which  is  capable  of  going  accurately  must  have  some 
contrivance  to  keep  it  going  while  you  are  winding  it  up.  In  the 
old-fashioned  house  clocks,  which  were  wound  up  by  merely  pulling 
one  of  the  strings,  and  in  which  one  such  winding  served  for  both  the 
going  and  striking  parts,  this  was  done  by  what  is  called  the  end 
less  chain  of  Huygheus,  which  consists  of  a  string  or  chain  with  the 
ends  joined  together,  and  passing  over  two  pulleys  on  the  arbors  of 
the  great  wheels,  with  deep  grooves  and  spikes  in  them,  to  prevent 
the  chain  from  slipping.  In  one  of  the  two  loops  or  festoons 
which  hang  from  the  upper  pulleys  is  a  loose  pulley  without  spikes, 


22 


CLOCKS 


carrving  the  clock-weight,  and  in  the  other  a  small  weight  only 
heavy  enough  to  keep  the  chain  close  to  the  upper  pulleys.  Now, 
suppose  one  of  those  pulleys  to  be  on  the  arbor  of  the  great  wheel 
of  the  striking  part,  with  a  ratchet  and  click,  and  the  other  pulley 
fixed  to  the  arbor  of  the  great  wheel  of  the  going  part ;  then  (when 
ever  the  clock  is  not  striking)  you  may  pull  up  the  weight  by  pulling 
down  that  part  of  the  string  which  hangs  from  the  other  side  of  the 
striking  part ;  and  yet  the  weight  will  be  acting  on  the  going  part 
all  the  time.  And  it  would  be  just  the  same  if  you  wound  up  the 
striking  part  and  its  pulley  with  a  key,  instead  of  pulling  the  string, 
and  also  the  same,  if  there  were  no  striking  part  at  all,  but  the  second 
pulley  were  put  on  a  blank  arbor,  except  that  in  that  case,  the  weight 
would  take  twice  as  long  to  run  down,  supposing  that  the  striking 
part  generally  requires  the  same  weight  x  full  as  the  going  part. 

This  kind  of  going  barrel,  however,  is  evidently  not  suited  to 
the  delicacy  of  an  astronomi 
cal  clock  ;  and  Harrison's 
going  ratchet  is  now  univer 
sally  adopted  in  such  clocks, 
and  also  in  chronometers 
and  watches  for  keeping  the 
action  of  the  train  on  the 
escapement  during  the  wind 
ing.  Fig.  14  (in  which  the 
same  letters  are  used  as 
in  the  corresponding  parts  of 
fig.  1)  shows  its  construction. 
The  click  of  the  barrel-rat 
chet  R  is  set  upon  another 
largerratchet-wheel,  with  its 
teeth  pointing  the  opposite 
way,  and  its  click  rT  is  set 
in  the  clock-frame.  That 
ratchet  is  connected  with 
the  great  wheel  by  a  spring 
ss'  pressing  against  the  two 
pins  s  in  the  ratchet  and  s' 
in  the  wheel.  When  you  FIG.  14. — Harrison's  Going-Ratchet, 
wind  up  the  weight  (which  is  equivalent  to  taking  it  off),  the  click 
IV  prevents  that  ratchet  from  turning  back  or  to  the  right;  and 
as  the  spring  ss'  is  kept  by  the  weight  in  a  state  of  tension  equi 
valent  to  the  weight  itself  it  will  drive  the  wheel  to  the  left  for 
a  short  distance,  when  its  end  s  is  held  fast,  with  the  same  force 
as  if  that  end  was  pulled  forward  by  the  weight ;  and  as  the  great 
wheel  has  to  move  very  little  during  the  short  time  the  clock  is 
winding,  the  spring  will  keep  the  clock  going  long  enough. 

In  the  commoner  kind  of  turret  clocks  a  more  simple  apparatus 
is  used,  which  goes  by  the  name  of  the  bolt  and  shutter,  because  it 
consists  of  a  weighted  lever  with  a  broad  end,  which  shuts  up  the 
winding-hole  until  you  lift  it,  and  then  a  spring-bolt  attached  to 
the  lever,  or  its  arbor,  runs  into  the  teeth  of  one  of  the  wheels,  and 
the  weight  of  the  lever  keeps  the  train  going  until  the  bolt  has 
run  itself  out  of  gear.  In  the  common  construction  of  this  apparatus 
there  is  nothing  to  ensure  its  being  raised  high  enough  to  keep  in 
gear  the  whole  time  of  winding,  if  the  man  loiters  over  it. 
For  this  purpose  Sir  E.  Beckett  has  the  arbor  of  the  bolt  and 
shutter  made  to  pump  in  and  out  of  gear  ;  and,  instead  of  the 
Fhutter  covering  the  winding-hole,  it  ends  in  a  circular  arc  advanced 
just  far  enough  to  prevent  the  key  or  winder  from  being  put  on, 
by  obstructing  a  ring  set  on  the  end  of  the  pipe.  In  order  to  get 
the  winder  on,  you  must  raise  the  lever  high  enough  for  the  arc  to 
clear  the  ring.  During  the  two  or  three  minutes  which  the  clock 
may  take  to  wind,  the  arc  will  be  descending  again  behind  the 
ring,  so  that  now  you  cannot  get  the  winder  off  again  without  also 
pulling  the  maintaining  power  out  of  gear;  so  that  even  if 'it  is 
constructed  to  keep  in  action  ten  minutes,  if  required,  still  it  will 
never  remain  in  action  longer  than  the  actual  time  of  winding. 
The  circular  arc  must  be  thick  enough,  or  have  a  projecting  flange 
added  to  it  deep  enough,  to  prevent  the  winder  being  put  on  by 
merely  pushing  back  the  maintaining  power  lever  without  lifting  it. 
In  large  clocks  with  a  train  remontoire,  or  even  with  a  gravity 
escapement,  it  is  hardly  safe  to  use  a  spring  going  barrel,  because 
is  very  likely  to  be  exhausted  too  much  to  wind  up  the  remon 
toire,  or  raise  the  gravity  pallets,  before  the  winding  is  finished,  if 
t  takes  more  than  two  or  three  minutes  ;  whereas,  with  the  common 
escapements,  the  wheel  has  only  to  escape,  as  the  pendulum  will 
keep  itself  going  for  some  time  without  any  impulse. 

EQUATIOX  CLOCKS. 

It  would  occupy  too  much  space  to  describe  the  various  contriv 
ances  for  making  clocks  show  the  variations  of  solar  compared  with 
mean  time  (called  equation  clocks),  the  days  of  the  month,  periods 
of  the  moon,  and  other  phenomena.  The  old  day  of  the  month  clocks 
required  setting  at  the  end  of  every  month  which  has  not  31  days, 
and  have  long  been  obsolete.  Clocks  are  now  made  even  to  provide  for 
leap  year.  But  we  doubt  whether  practically  anybody  ever  takes 
his  day  of  the  month  from  a  clock  lace,  especially  as  the  figures 


are  too  small  to  be  seen  except  quite  near.  Several  persons  have 
taken  patents  for  methods  of  exhibiting  the  time  by  figures  appear 
ing  through  a  hole  in  the  dial,  on  the  principle  of  the  "numbering 
machine."  But  they  do  not  reflect  that  no  such  figures,  on  any 
practicable  scale,  are  as  conspicuous  as  a  pair  of  hands  ;  and  that 
nobody  really  reads  the  figures  on  a  dial,  but  judges  of  the  time  in 
a  moment  from  the  position  of  the  hands  ;  for  which  reason  the 
minute  hand  should  be  straight  and  plain,  while  the  hour  hand 
has  a  "heart "  near  the  end ;  12  large  marks  and  48  small  ones 
make  a  more  distinguishable  dial  than  one  with  figures  ;  and  the 
smaller  the  figures  are  the  better,  as  they  only  tend  to  obscure  the 
hands. 

STRIKING  CLOCKS. 

There  are  two  kinds  of  striking  work  used  in  clocks. 
The  older  of  them,  which   is  still  used  in  most  foreign 
clocks,  and  in  turret  clocks  in  England  also,  will  not  allow 
the  striking  of  any  hour  to  be  either  omitted  or  repeated, 
without  making  the  next  hour  strike  wrong;  whereas,  in 
that  which  is  used  in  all  English  house  clocks,  the  number 
of  blows  to  be  struck  depends  merely  on  the  position  of  a 
wheel  attached  to  the  going  part ;  and  therefore  the  strik 
ing  of  any  hour   may  be  omitted   or    repeated    without 
deranging  the  following  ones.     In  turret  clocks  there  is  no 
occasion  for  the  repeating  movement;  and  for  the  purpose 
of  describing  the  other,  which  is  called  the  locking-plate 
movement,  we  may  as  well  refer  to  fig.  22,  which  is  the 
front   view    of  a   large    clock,   striking    both    hours    and 
quarters  on  this  plan.     In  the  hour  part  (on  the  left),  you 
observe  a  bent  lever  BAH,  called  the  "  lifting-piece,"  of 
which  the  end  H  has  just  been  left  off  by  the  snail  on  the 
hour-wheel  40  of  the  going  part;   and  at  the  other  end 
there  are  two  stops  on  the  back  side  of  the  lever,  one 
behind,  and  rather  below  the  other ;  and  against  the  upper 
one  a  pin  in  the  end  of  a  short  lever  9  B,  which  is  fixed  to 
the  arbor  of  the  fly,  is  now  resting,  and  thereby  the  train 
is  stopped  from  running,  and  the  clock  from  striking  any 
more.     The  stops  are  shown  on  the  quarter  lifting-piece 
in  the  figure  (27)  of  the  Westminster  clock.     We  omit 
the  description  of  the  action  of  the  wheels,  because  it  is 
evident  enough.     At  D  may  be  seen  a   piece  projecting 
from  the  lever  AB,  and  dropping  into  a  notch  in  the  wheel 
78.     That  wheel  is  the  locking-wheel   or   locking-plate  ; 
and  it  has  in  reality  notches  such  as  D  all  round  it,  at 
distances   2,   3,  up  to  12,  from   any  given  point  in  the 
circumference,   which   may   be  considered  as  marked   off 
into  78  spaces,  that  being  the  number  of  blows  struck  in 
12  hours.     These  notches  are  shown  in  the  locking-plate 
of  the  quarter  part  in  fig.  22,  but  not  in  the  hour  part,  foi 
want  of  size  to  show  them  distinctly. 

When  the  arm  AB  of  the  lifting-piece  is  raised  by  the 
snail  depressing  the  other  end  H,  a  few  minutes  before  the 
hour,  the  fly -pin  slips  past  the  first  of  the  stops  at  B,  but 
is  stopped  by  the  second  and  lower  one,  until  the  lever  is 
dropped  again  exactly  at  the  hour.  Thus  the  pin  can  pass, 
and  would  go  once  round,  allowing  the  train  to  go  on  a 
little;  but  before  it  has  got  once  round,  AB  has  been 
lifted  again  high  enough  to  carry  both  stops  out  of  the 
way  of  the  fly-pin,  by  means  of  the  cylinder  with  two 
slices  taken  off  it,  which  is  set  on  the  arbor  of  the  wheel 
90,  and  on  which,  the  end  of  the  lifting-piece  rests,  with 
a  small  roller  to  diminish  the  friction.  If  the  clock  has 
only  to  strike  one,  the  lifting-piece  will  then  drop  again, 
and  the  fly-pin  will  be  caught  by  the  first  stop,  having 
made  (according  to  the  numbers  of  the  teeth  given  in  fig. 
22)  5  turns.  But  if  it  has  to  strike  more,  the  locking- 
wheel  comes  into  action.  That  wheel  turns  with  the  train, 
being  either  driven  by  pinion  20  on  the  arbor  of  the 
great  wheel,  or  by  a  gathering  pallet  on  the  arbor  of  the 
second  wheel,  like  G  in  fig.  15  ;  and  when  once  the  lifting- 
piece  is  lifted  out  of  a  notch  in  the  locking-plate,  it  cannot 
fall  again  until  another  notch  has  come  under  the  bit  D ; 
«nd  as  the  distance  of  the  notches  is  proportioned  to  the 


CLOCKS 


23 


hours,  the  locking-plate  thus  determines  tho  number  of 
blows  struck.  It  may  occur  to  the  reader,  that  the 
cylinder  10  and  roller  are  not  really  wanted,  and  that  the 
locking-plate  would  do  as  well  without ;  and  sometimes 
clocks  are  so  made,  but  it  is  not  safe,  for  the  motion  of 
the  locking-plate  is  so  slow,  that  unless  everything  is  very 
carefully  adjusted  and  no  shake  left,  tho  corner  of  the 
notch  may  not  have  got  fairly  under  the  bit  D  before  the 
fly  has  got  once  round,  and  then  the  lifting-piece  will  drop 
before  the  clock  can  strike  at  all ;  or  it  may  hold  on  too 
long  and  strike  13,  as  St  Paul's  clock  did  once  at  midnight, 
when  it  was  heard  at  Windsor  by  a  sentinel. 

Small  French  clocks,  which  generally  have  the  striking 
part  made  in  this  way,  very  commonly  strike  the  half 
hours  also,  by  having  a  wide  slit,  like  that  for  one 
o'clock,  iu  the  locking-plate  at  every  hour.  But  such 
clocks  are  unfit  for  any  place  except  a  room,  as  they  strike 
one  three  times  between  1 2  and  2,  and  accordingly  turret 
clocks,  or  even  large  house  clocks,  are  never  made  so.  Sir 
E.  Beckstt  has  lately  introduced  the  plan  of  making 
turret  clocks  strike  one  at  all  the  half  hours  except  12.V 
and  1|,  so  that  any  striking  of  one  that  is  heard  between 
1 1  i  and  2\  must  needs  be  one  o'clock.  This  is  done  by  hav 
ing  a  12-hour  wheel  driven  by  the  going  part,  either  continu 
ously  or  by  a  gathering  pallet  moving  that  wheel  only  once 
an  hour,  and  it  has  two  high  steps  which  come  under  another 
piece  like  D  in  the  lifting  detent  a  little  before  12J  and  1£ 
so  as  to  prevent  it  falling  when  let  off  by  the  snail.  In 
the  English  or  rack  striking  movement,  to  be  presently 
described,  the  same  thing  may  be  done  by  a  kind  of  star 
wheel  with  flat  ends  to  the  rays,  attached  to  the  12-hour 
snail,  which  will  let  the  rack  fall  enough  to  strike  one  at 
every  half  hour,  but  with  two  longer  rays  to  prevent  it 
falling  at  all  at  12^  and  H  ;  or  it  would  be  better  to  let 
those  rays,  by  means  of  an  intervening  lever,  prevent  the 
lifting  piece  from  falling,  as  that  would  involve  less  fric 
tion  of  the  tail  of  the  rack. 

In  all  cases  the  locking-plate  must  be  considered  as 
divided  into  as  many  parts  as  the  number  of  blows  to  bo 
struck  in  12  hours, i.e.,  78,  90,  or  88,  according  as  half  hours 
are  or  are  not  struck;  and  it  must  have  the  same  number 
of  teeth,  driven  by  a  pinion  on  the  striking  wheel  arbor 
of  as  many  teeth  as  the  striking  cams,  or  in  the  same 
ratio. 

Fig.  15  is  a  front  view  of  a  common  English  house  clock 
with  the  face  taken  off,  showing  the  repeating  or  rack 
striking  movement.  Here,  as  in  fig.  1,  M  is  the  hour- 
wheel,  on  the  pipe  of  which  the  minute-hand  is  set,  N  the 
reversed  hour- wheel,  and  n  its  pinion,  driving  the  12-hour 
wheel  H,  on  whose  socket  is  fixed  what  is  called  the  snail 
Y,  which  belongs  to  the  striking  work  exclusively.  The 
hammer  is  raised  by  the  eight  pins  in  the  rim  of  the 
second  wheel  in  the  striking  train,  in  the  manner  which  is 
obvious. 

The  hammer  does  not  quite  touch  the  bell,  as  it  would 
jar  in  striking  if  it  did,  and  prevent  the  full  sound ;  and 
if  you  observe  the  form  of  the  hammer-shank  at  the 
arbor  where  the  spring  S  acts  upon  it,  you  will  see  that 
the  spring  both  drives  the  hammer  against  the  bell  when 
the  tail  T  is  raised,  and  also  checks  it  just  before  it  reaches 
the  bell,  and  so  the  blow  on  the  bell  is  given  by  the 
hammer  having  acquired  momentum  enough  to  go  a  little 
farther  than  its  place  of  rest.  Sometimes  two  springs  are 
used,  one  for  impelling  the  hammer,  and  the  other  for 
checking  it.  A  piece  of  vulcanized  India-rubber,  tied 
round  the  pillar  just  where  the  hammer-shank  nearly 
touches  it,  forms  as  good  a  check  spring  as  anything. 
But  nothing  will  check  the  chattering  of  a  heavy  hammer, 
except  making  it  lean  forward  so  as  to  act,  partially  at 
least,  by  its  weight.  The  pinion  of  the  striking-wheel 


generally  has  eight  leaves,  the  same  number  as  the  pius  ; 
and  as  a  clock  strikes  78  blows  in  12  hours,  the  great 
wheel  will  turn  in  that  time  if  ifc  has  78  teeth  instead 
of  96,  which  the  great  wheel  of  the  going  part  has 
for  a  centre  pinion  of  eight.  The  striking-wheel,  drives 
the  wheel  above  it  once  round  for  each  blow,  and  that 
wheel  drives  a  fourth  (in  which  you  observe  a  single  pin 
P).  six,  or  any  other  integral  number  of  turns,  for  one 
turn  of  its  own,  and  that  drives  a  fan-fly  to  moderate  the 
velocity  of  the  train  by  the  resistance  of  the  air,  an 
expedient  at  least  as  old  as  De  Vick's  clock  in  1370. 

The  wheel  N  is  so  adjusted  that,  within  a  few  minutes 
of  the  hour,  the  pin  in  it  raises  the  lifting-piece  LONF  so 
far  that  that  piece  lifts  the  click  C  out  of  the  teeth  of  the 
rack  BKRV,  which  immediately  falls  back  (helped  by  a 


FIG.  15. — Front  view  of  Common  English  House  Clock. 

spring  near  the  bottom)  as  far  as  its  tail  V  can  go  \>j 
reason  of  the  snail  Y,  against  which  it  falls ;  and  it  is  so 
arranged  that  the  number  of  teeth  which  pass  the  click  is 
proportionate  to  the  depth  of  the  snail ;  and  as  there  is 
one  step  in  the  snail  for  each  hour,  and  it  goes  round  with 
the  hour-hand,  the  rack  always  drops  just  as  many  teeth 
as  the  number  of  the  hour  to  be  struck.  This  drop  makes 
the  noise  of  "giving  warning."  But  the  clock  is  not  yet 
ready  to  strike  till  the  lifting  piece  has  fallen  again  ;  for, 
as  soon  as  the  rack  was  let  off  the  tail  of  the  thing  called 
the  gathering  pallet  G,  on  the  prolonged  arbor  of  the 
third  wheel,  was  enabled  to  pass  the  pin  K  of  the  rack  om 
which  it  was  pressing  before,  and  the  striking  train  began 
to  move  ;  but  before  the  fourth  wheel  had  got  half  round, 
its  pin  P  was  caught  by  the  end  of  the  lifting-piece,  which 
is  bent  back  and  goes  through  a  hole  in  the  plate,  and 
when  raised  stands  in  the  way  of  the  pin  P,  so  that  the 
train  cannot  go  on  till  the  lifting-piece  drops,  which  it 
does  exactly  at  the  hour,  by  the  pin  N  then  slipping  past 
it.  Then  the  train  is  free  ;  the  striking  wheel  begins  to 
lift  the  hammer,  and  the  gathering  pallet  gathers  up  the 
rack,  a  tooth  for  each  blow,  until  it  has  returned  to  the 


CLOCKS 


place  at  which  the  pallet  is  stopped  by  the  pin  Iv  coming 
under  it.  In  this  figure  the  lifting-piece  is  prolonged  to 
F,  where  there  is  a  string  hung  to  it,  as  this  is  the  proper 
place  for  such  a  string  when  it  is  wanted  for  the  purpose 
of  learning  the  hour  in  the  dark,  and  not  (as  it  is  generally 
put)  on  the  click  C  ;  for  if  it  is  put  there  and  you  hold  the 
string  a  little  too  long,  the  clock  will  strike  too  many; 
and  if  the  string  accidentally  sticks  in  the  case,  it  will  go 
on  striking  till  it  is  run  down;  neither  of  which  things 
can  happen  when  the  string  is  put  on  the  lifting-piece. 

The  snail  is  sometimes  set  on  a  separate  stud  with  the 
apparatus  called  a  star-ivheel  and  jumper  ;  but  as  this  only 
increases  the  cost  without  any  advantage  that  we  can  see, 
we  omit  any  further  reference  to  it.  On  the  left  side  of 
the  frame  we  have  placed  a  lever  x,  with  the  letters  st 
below  it,  and  si  above.  If  it  is  pushed  up  to  si,  the  other 
end  will  come  against  a  pin  in  the  rack,  and  prevent  it 
from  falling,  and  will  thus  make  the  clock  silent;  and  this 
is  much  more  simple  than  the  old-fashioned  "  strike  and 
silent "  apparatus,  which  we  shall  therefore  not  describe, 
especially  as  it  is  seldom  used  now. 

If  the  clock  is  required  to  strike  quarters,  a  third  "  part" 
or  train  of  wheels  is  added  on  the  right  hand  of  the  going 
part ;  and  its  general  construction  is  the  same  as  the  hour- 
striking  part ;  only  there  are  two  more  bells,  and  two 
hammers  so  placed  that  one  is  raised  a  little  after  the 
other.  If  there  are  more  quarter-bells  than  two,  the 
hammers  are  generally  raised  by  a  chime-barrel,  which  is 
merely  a  cylinder  set  on  the  arbor  of  the  striking- wheel 
(in  that  case  generally  the  third  in  the  train),  with  short 
pins  stuck  into  it  in  the  proper  places  to  raise  the  hammers 
in  the  order  required  for  the  tune  of  the  chimes.  The 
quarters  are  usually  made  to  let  off  the  hour,  and  this  con 
nection  may  be  made  in  two  ways.  If  the  chimes  are 
different  in  tune  for  each  quarter,  and  not  merely  the  same 
tune  repeated  two,  three,  and  four  times,  the  repetition 
movement  must  not  be  used  for  them,  as  it  would  throw 
the  tunes  into  confusion,  but  the  old  locking-plate  move 
ment,  as  in  turret  clocks ;  and  therefore,  if  we  conceive 
the  hour  lifting-piece  connected  with  the  quarter  locking- 
plate,  as  it  is  with  the  wheel  N,  iu  fig.  15,  it  is  evident 
that  the  pin  will  discharge  the  hour  striking  part  as  the 
fourth  quarter  finishes. 

But  where  the  repetition  movement  is  required  for  the 
quarters,  the  matter  is  not  quite  so  simple.  The  principle 
of  it  may  shortly  be  described  thus.  The  quarters  them 
selves  have  a  rack  and  snail,  &c.,  just  like  the  hours,  ex 
cept  that  the  snail  is  fixed  on  one  of  the  hour-wheels  M 
or  N,  instead  of  on  the  twelve-hour  wheel,  and  has  only 
four  steps  in  it.  Now  suppose  the  quarter-rack  to  be 
so  placed  that  when  it  falls  for  the  fourth  quarter  (its 
greatest  drop),  it  falls  against  the  hour  lifting-piece  some 
where  between  0  and  N,  so  as  to  raise  it  and  the  click  C. 
Then  the  pin  Q  will  be  caught  by  the  click  Q?,  and  so  tho 
lifting-piece  will  remain  up  until  all  the  teeth  of  the  quar 
ter-rack  are  gathered  up ;  and  as  that  is  done,  it  may  be 
made  to  disengage  the  click  Q?,  and  so  complete  the  let 
ting  off  the  hour  striking  part.  This  click  Q?  has  no 
existence  except  where  there  are  quarters. 

These  quarter  clocks  are  sometimes  made  so  as  only  to 
strike  the  quarters  at  the  time  when  a  string  is  pulled— 
as  by  a  person  in  bed,  just  like  repeating  watches,  which 
are  rarely  made  now,  on  account  of  the  difficulty  of  keep 
ing  in  order  such  a  complicated  machine  in  such  a  small 
space.  In  this  case,  the  act  of  pulling  the  string  to  make 
the  clock  strike  winds  up  the  quarter-barrel,  which  is  that 
of  a  spring  clock  (not  yet  described),  as  far  as  it  is  allowed 
to  be  wound  up  by  the  position  of  a  snail  on  the  hour 
wheel  against  which  a  lever  is  pulled,  just  as  the  tail  of 
the  common  striking-rack  falls  against  the  snail  on  the 


twelve-hour  wheel;  and  it  is  easy  to  see  that  the  number 
of  blows  struck  by  the  two  quarter  hammers  may  thus  be 
made  to  depend  upon  the  extent  to  which  the  spring  that 
drives  the  train  is  wound  up;  and  it  may  even  be  made  to 
indicate  half-quarters ;  for  instance,  if  the  snail  has  eight 
steps  in  it,  the  seventh  of  them  may  be  just  deep  enough 
to  let  the  two  hammers  strike  three  times,  and  the  first  of 
them  once  more,  which  would  indicate  7^  minutes  to  the 
hour.  It  is  generally  so  arranged  that  the  hour  is  struck 
first,  and  the  quarters  afterwards. 

Alarums. 

In  connection  with  these  bedroom  clocks  we  ought  to 
mention  alarums.  Perhaps  the  best  illustration  of  the 
mode  of  striking  an  alarum  is  to  refer  to  either  of  the  recoil 
escapements  (figs.  3  and  4).  If  you  suppose  a  short 
hammer  instead  of  a  long  pendulum  attached  to  the  axis 
of  the  pallets,  and  the  wheel  to  be  driven  with  sufficient 
force,  it  will  evidently  swing  the  hammer  rapidly  back 
wards  and  forwards ;  and  the  position  and  length  of  the 
hammerhead  may  be  so  adjusted  as  to  strike  a  bell  inside, 
first  on  one  side  and  then  on  the  other.  Then  as  to  the 
mode  of  letting  off  the  alarum  at  the  time  required ;  if  it  was 
always  to  be  let  off  at  the  same  time,  you  would  only  have 
to  set  a  pin  in  the  twelve-hour  wheel  at  the  proper  place 
to  raise  the  lifting-piece  which  lets  oft*  the  alarum  at  that 
time.  But  as  you  want  it  to  be  capable  of  alteration,  this 
discharging  pin  must  beset  in  another  wheel  (without  teeth), 
which  rides  with  a  friction-spring  on  the  socket  of  tho 
twelve-hour  wheel,  with  a  small  movable  dial  attached  to 
it,  having  figures  so  arranged  with  reference  to  the  pin 
that  whatever  figure  is  made  to  come  to  a  small  pointer 
set  as  a  tail  to  the  hour  hand,  the  alarum  shall  be  let  oft 
at  that  hour.  The  letting  off  does  not  require  the  same 
apparatus  as  a  common  striking  part,  because  an  alarum 
has  not  to  strike  a  definite  number  of  blows,  but  to  go  on 
till  it  is  run  down ;  and  therefore  the  lifting-piece  is 
nothing  but  a  lever  with  a  stop  or  hook  upon  it,  which, 
when  it  is  dropped,  takes  hold  of  one  of  the  alarum  wheels, 
and  lets  them  go  while  it  is  raised  high  enough  to  disen 
gage  it.  You  must  of  course  not  wind  up  an  alarum  till 
within  twelve  hours  of  the  time  when  it  is  wanted  to  go 
off. 

The  watchman's  or  tell-tale  clock  may  be  seen  in  one  of 
the  lobbies  of  the  House  of  Commons,  and  in  prisons,  and 
some  other  places  where  they  want  to  make  sure  of  a 
watchman  being  on  the  spot  and  awake  all  the  night ;  it  is  a 
clock  with  a  set  of  spikes,  generally  48  or  96,  sticking  out 
all  round  the  dial,  and  a  handle  somewhere  in  the  case,  by 
pulling  which  you  can  press  in  that  one  of  the  spikes 
which  is  opposite  to  it,  or  to  some  lever  connected  with  it, 
for  a  few  minutes ;  and  it  will  be  observed,  that  this  wheel 
of  spikes  is  carried  round  with  the  hour-hand,  which  in  these 
clocks  is  generally  a  twenty-four  hour  one.  It  is  evident 
that  every  spiks  which  is  seen  still  sticking  out  in  the 
morning  indicates  that  at  the  particular  time  to  which 
that  spike  belongs  the  watchman  was  not  there  to  push  it 
in — or  at  any  rate,  that  he  did  not ;  and  hence  its  name. 
At  some  other  part  of  their  circuit,  the  inner  ends  of  the 
pins  are  carried  over  a  roller  or  an  inclined  plane  which 
pushes  them  out  again  ready  for  business  the  next  night. 

SPRING  CLOCKS. 

Hitherto  we  have  supposed  all  clocks  to  be  kept  going 
by  a  weight.  But,  as  is  well  known,  many  of  them  are 
driven  by  a  spring  coiled  up  in  a  barrel.  In  this  respect 
they  differ  nothing  from  watches,  and  therefore  for  cori- 
sideiation  of  the  construction  of  parts  belonging  to  the 
spring  reference  is  made  to  the  article  WATCHES.  It  may, 


CLOCKS 


however,  be  mentioned  here  that  the  earliest  form  in  which  a 
spring  seems  to  have  been  used  was  not  that  of  a  spiral  rib 
bon  of  steel  rolled  up,  but  a  straight  stiff  spring  held  fast  to 
the  clock  frame  at  one  end,  and  a  string  from  the  other  end 
going  round  the  barrel,  which  was  wound  up  ;  but  such  a 
spring  would  have  a  very  small  range.  Spring  clocks  are 
generally  resorted  to  for  the  purpose  of  saving  length ;  for 
as  clocks  are  generally  made  in  England,  it  is  impossible  to 
make  a  weight-clock  capable  of  going  a  week,  without  either 
a  case  nearly  4  feet  high,  or  else  the  weights  so  heavy  as 
to  produce  a  great  pressure  and  friction  on  the  arbor  of  the 
great  wheel.  But  this  arises  from  nothing  but  the  heavi 
ness  of  the  wheels  and  the  badness  of  the  pinions  used  in 
most  English  clocks,  as  is  amply  proved  by  the  fact  that 
the  American  and  Austrian  clocks  go  a  week  with  smaller 
weights  and  much  less  fall  for  them  than  the  English  ones, 
and  the  American  ones  with  no  assistance  from  fine  work 
manship  for  the  purpose  of  diminishing  friction,  as  they  are 
remarkable  for  their  want  of  what  is  called  "finish"  in  the 
machinery,  on  which  so  much  time  and  money  is  wasted  in 
English  clock-work. 

All  the  ornamental  French  clocks,  and  all  the  short 
"  dials,"  as  those  clocks  are  called  which  look  no  larger 
than  the  dial,  or  very  little,  and  many  of  the  American 
clocks,  are  made  with  springs.  Indeed  we  might  omit  the 
word  "French"  after  "ornamental;"  for  the  manufacture 
of  ornamental  clocks  has  practically  ceased  in  England,  anil 
we  are  losing  more  of  all  branches  of  the  horological  trade 
yearly,  as  wre  are  unable,  i.e.,  our  workmen  do  not  choose, 
to  compete  with  the  cheaper  labour  of  the  Continent,  or 
with  the  much  more  systematic  manufacture  of  clocks  and 
watches  by  machinery  in  America  than  exists  here,  though 
labour  there  is  much  dearer.  It  is  true  that  most  of  the 
American  clocks  are  very  bad,  indeed  no  better  than  the 
old-fashioned  Dutch  clocks  (really  German)  made  most 
ingeniously  of  wood  and  wire,  besides  the  wheels.  But 
some  better  American  ones  are  also  made  now,  and  they 
will  no  doubt  improve  as  their  machine  made  watches  have 
done.  Though  this  has  been  going  on  now  for  30  years 
and  more,  no  steps  appear  to  have  been  taken  to  establish 
anything  of  the  kind  in  this  country,  except  that  watch 
"  movements,"  which  means  only  the  wheels  set  in  the 
frame,  are  to  a  certain  extent  made  by  machinery  in 
Lancashire  and  Coventry  for  the  trade,  who  finish  them  in 
London  and  elsewhere.  That  is  the  real  meaning  of  the 
advertisements  of  "machine-made  watches"  here. 

The  French  clocks  have  also  been  greatly  improved  within 
the  same  time,  and  are  now,  at  least  some  of  them, 
quite  different  both  in  construction  and  execution  from  the 
old-fashioned  French  drawing-room  clock  which  generally 
goes  worse  than  the  cheapest  "Dutchman,"  and  is  nearly 
always  striking  wrong,  because  they  have  the  locking-plate 
striking  work,  which  if  once  let  to  strike  wrong,  either  by 
altering  the  hands  or  letting  it  run  down,  cannot  be  set 
right  again  except  by  striking  the  hours  all  round,  which 
few  people  know  how  to  do,  even  if  they  can  get  their 
fingers  in  behind  the  clock  to  do  it,  .The  Americans  have 
a  slight  wire  hanging  down  a  little  below  the  dial  which 
you  can  push  up  and  so  make  the  clock  strike.  All  locking- 
plate  clocks  ought  to  have  a  similar  provision. 

There  is  not  much  use  in  having  clocks  to  go  more  than 
a  little  over  eight  days  (to  allow  the  possible  forgetting  of 
a  day),  as  a  week  is  the  easiest  period  to  remember.  The 
French  spring-clocks  generally  go  a  fortnight,  but  most 
people  wind  them  up  weekly.  Occasionally  English  clocks 
are  made  to  go  a  month  by  adding  another  wheel ;  and  even 
a  year  by  adding  two.  But  in  the  latter  case  it  is  better  to 
have  two  barrels  and  great  wheels  acting  on  opposite  sides 
of  a  very  strong  pinion  between  them,  as  it  both  reduces 
the  strain  on  the  teeth  and  the  friction  of  the  pivot  of  that 


25 

pinion.  Such  clocks  sometimes  liave  a  5  feet  or  l\  sec. 
pendulum,  as  the  case  must  be  a  tall  one.  The  great  thing 
is  to  make  the  scape-wheel  light,  and  even  then  you  can 
never  get  more  than  a  small  arc  of  vibration,  which  is 
undesirable  for  the  reason  given  above,  and  such  a  long 
train  is  peculiarly  sensitive  to  friction. 

In  the  American  clocks  the  pinions  are  all  of  the  kind 
called  lantern  pinions,  which  have  their  leaves  made  only  of 
bits  of  wire  set  round  the  axis  in  two  collars  ;  and,  oddly 
enough,  they  are  the  oldest  form  of  pinion,  as  well  as  the 
best,  acting  with  the  least  friction,  and  requiring  the  Last 
accuracy  in  the  wheels,  but  now  universally  disused  in  all 
English  and  French  house  clocks.  The  American  clocks 
prove  that  they  are  not  too  expensive  to  be  used  with 
advantage  when  properly  made ;  although,  so  long  as  there 
are  no  manufactories  of  clocks  here  as  there  are  in  America, 
it  may  be  cheaper  to  make  pinions  in  the  slovenly  way  of 
cutting  off  all  the  ribs  of  a  piece  of  pinion  wire,  so  as  to 
reduce  it  to  a  pinion  a  quarter  of  an  inch  wide,  and  an 
arbor  2  or  3  inches  long.  On  the  whole,  the  common 
English  house  clocks,  so  far  from  having  improved  with 
the  general  progress  of  machinery,  are  worse  than  they  were 
fifty  years  ago,  and  at  the  same  time  are  of  such  a  price 
that  they  are  being  fast  driven  out  of  the  market  by 
the  American  plain  clocks  and  by  the  French  and  German 
ornamental  ones. 

Clocks  have  been  contrived  to  wind  themselves  up  by  the 
alternate  expansion  and  contraction  of  mercury  and  other 
fluids,  under  variations  of  temperature.  Wind-mill  decks 
might  be  made  still  more  easily,  the  wind  winding  up  a 
weight  occasionally.  Water-clocks  have  also  been  made, — 
not  on  the  clepsydra  principle,  where  the  flow  of  the  water 
determined  the  time  very  inaccurately ;  but  the  water  is 
merely  the  weight,  flowing  from  a  tap  into  a  hollow  hori 
zontal  axis,  and  thence  by  branches  into  buckets,  which 
empty  themselves  as  they  pass  the  lowest  point  of  the  circle 
in  which  they  move,  or  flowing  directly  into  buckets,  so 
emptying  themselves.  But  the  slopping  of  the  water,  and 
the  rusting  of  any  parts  made  of  iron,  and  the  cost  of  the 
water  itself  always  running,  destroy  all  chance  of  such 
things  coming  into  use. 

ELECTRICAL  CLOCKS. 

It  should  be  understood  that  under  this  term  two,  or  wo 
may  say  three,  very  different  things  are  comprehended. 
The  first  is  a  mere  clock  movement,  i.e.,  the  works  of  a  clock 
without  either  weight  or  pendulum,  which  is  kept  going 
by  electrical  connection  with  some  other  clock  of  any  kind 
(these  ought  to  be  called  electrical  dials,  not  clocks)  ; 
the  second  is  a  clock  with  a  weight,  but  with  the  escape 
ment  worked  by  electrical  connection  with  another  clock 
instead  of  by  a  pendulum  ;  and  the  third  alone  are  truly 
electrical  clocks,  the  motive  power  being  electricity  instead 
of  gravity;  for  although  they  have  a  pendulum,  which  of 
course  swings  by  the  action  of  gravity,  yet  the  requisite 
impulse  for  maintaining  its  vibrations  against  friction  and 
resistance  of  the  air  is  supplied  by  a  galvanic  battery, 
instead  of  by  the  winding  up  of  a  weight. 

If  you  take  the  weight  off  a  common  recoil  escapement 
clock,  and  work  the  pallets  backward  and  forwards  by 
hand,  you  will  drive  the  hands  round,  only  the  wrong  way  ; 
consequently,  if  the  escapement  is  reversed,  and  the  pallets 
are  driven  by  magnets  alternatively  made  and  unmade,  by 
the  well-known  method  of  sending  an  electrical  current 
through  a  wire  coil  set  round  a  bar  of  soft  iron,  the  contact 
being  made  at  every  beat  of  the  pendulum  of  a  standard 
clock,  the  clock  without  the  weight  will  evidently  keep 
exact  time  with  the  standard  clock ;  and  the  only  question 
is  as  to  the  best  mode  of  making  the  contact,  which  is  not 

VI.  -  4 


2G 


CLOCKS 


so  easy  a  matter  as  it  appears  to  be,  and  though  various 
plans  apparently  succeeded  for  a  time,  and  were  mechani 
cally  perfect,  not  one  has  succeeded  permanently ;  i.e.,  the 
contact  sometimes  fails  to  produce  the  current  of  sufficient 
strength  to  lift  the  weight  or  spring  on  which  the  driving 
of  the  subordinate  clock  depends.  It  is  therefore  unneces 
sary  to  repeat  the  description  of  the  various  contrivances 
for  this  purpose  by  Wheatstone  and  others. 

The  first  person  who  succeeded  in  making  one  clock  regu 
late  or  govern  others  by  electricity,  Mr  11.  L.  Jones/accord- 
iugly  abandoned  the  idea  of  electrical  driving  of  one  clock 
by  another;  and  instead  of  making  the  electrical  connection 
with  a  standard  clock  (whether  itself  an  electrical  one  or 
not)  drive  the  others,  he  makes  it  simply  let  the  pallets 
or  the  pendulum  of  the  subordinate  clock,  driven  by  a 
weight  or  spring,  be  influenced  by  attraction  at  every  beat 
of  the  standard  clock ;  and,  by  way  of  helping  it,  the 
pallets  are  made  what  we  called  half-dead  in  describing  the 
dead  escapement,  except  that  they  have  no  impulse  faces, 
but  the  dead  faces  have  just  so  much  slope  that  they  would 
overcome  their  own  friction,  and  escape  of  themselves  under 
the  pressure  of  the  clock  train,  except  while  they  are  held 
by  the  magnet,  which  is  formed  at  every  beat  of  the 
standard  clock,  or  at  every  half-minute  contact,  if  it  is 
intended  to  work  the  dials  by  half-minute  jumps.  This 
plan  has  been  extensively  used  for  regulating  distant  clocks 
from  Greenwich  Observatory. 

The  first  electrical  clocks,  in  the  proper  sense  of  the  term, 
were  invented  by  Mr  Bain  in  IS  40,  who  availed  himself 


FIG.  1C.— Baiu's  Pendulum. 

of  the  discovery  of  Oersted  that  a  coil  of  insulated  wire 
in  the  form  of  a  hollow  cylinder  is  attracted  in  one 
direction  or  the  other  by  a  permanent  magnet  within  the 
coil,  not  touching  it,  when  the  ends  of  the  coil  are  connected 
with  the  poles  of  a  battery ;  and  if  the  connection  is 
reversed,  or  the  poles  changed,  so  that  the  current  at  one 
time  goes  one  way  through  the  coil  from  the  -  or  copper 
plate  to  the  +  or  zinc  plate,  and  at  other  times  the  other 
way,  the  direction  of  the  attraction  is  reversed.  Mr  Bain 
made  the  bob  of  his  pendulum  of  such  a  coil  enclosed  in  a 
brass  case  so  that  it  looked  like  a  hollow  brass  cylinder 
lying  horizontal  and  moving  in  the  direction  of  its  own 
axis,  and  in  that  axis  stood  the  ends  of  two  permanent 
magnets  with  the  north  poles  pointed  at  eachotherand  nearly 
touching,  as iu  the  right  hand  part  of  fig.  1G.  The  pendulum 
pushed  a  small  sliding  bar  backwards  and  forwards  so  as 
to  reverse  the  current  through  the  coil  as  the  pendulum 
passed  the  middle  of  the  arc,  and  so  caused  each  magnet 
in  turn  to  attract  the  bob.  But  this  also  failed  practically, 


and  especially  in  time-keeping,  as  might  have  been 
expected,  from  the  friction  and  varying  resistance  of  the 
bar  to  the  motion  of  the  pendulum,  and  in  the  attractions. 

Mr  Ritchie  of  Edinburgh,  however,  has  combined  the 
principle  of  Bain's  and  Jones's  clocks  in  a  manner  which  is 
testified  to  be  completely  successful  in  enabling  one 
standard  clock  to  control  and  keep  going  any  number  of 
subordinate  ones,  which  do  not  require  winding  up  as 
Jones's  do,  but  are  driven  entirely  by  their  pendulums. 
This  differs  from  Wheatstone's  plan  in  this,  that  his  subor 
dinate  clocks  had  no  pendulum  swinging  naturally  and 
only  wanting  its  vibrations  helping  a  little,  but  the  pallets 
had  to  be  made  to  vibrate  solely  by  the  electrical  force. 
The  figures  are  taken  from  Mr  Ilitchie's  paper  read  before  the 
Royal  Scottish  Society  of  Arts 
in  1873.  The  controlled  pendu 
lum  P  is  that  just  now  described 
as  Bain's  (seen  in  fig.  17  the  other 
way,  across  the  plane  of  vibra 
tion)  ;  the  rod  and  spring  are 
double,  and  the  wire  cd  is  con 
nected  with  one  spring  and  rod 
(say  the  front  one)  and  the  wire 
d'e  with  the  other  ;  so  that  the 
current  has  to  pass  down  one 
spring  and  one  rod  and  through 
the  coil  in  the  bob  and  up  the 
other  spring.  The  other  pendu 
lum  O  of  the  normal  or  standard 
clock  is  a  common  one.  except 
that  it  touches  two  slight  contact 
springs  a,  b  alternately,  and  so 
closes  the  circuit  on  one  side  and 
leaves  it  broken  on  the  other. 
AVhen  that  pendulum  touches  a 
the  B  battery  does  nothing,  and 
the  -  current  from  the  battery  A 
passes  by  a  to  c  and  d  and  down  FlG"  17--Ritchie's  Pendulum. 
the  d  spring  and  rod  and  up  through  d'  to  e  and  back 
again  to  +  of  A.  But  when  the  standard  pendulum  O 
touches  b  the  A  battery  does  nothing,  and  the  current 
from  -  to  +  of  the  B  battery  goes  the  other  way,  through 
the  controlled  pendulum  and  its 
coil.  The  two  fixed  magnets  SN, 
NS  consequently  attract  the  coil 
and  bob  each  way  alternately.  And 
even  if  the  current  is  occasionally 
weak,  the  natural  swing  of  the  pen 
dulum  will  keep  it  going  for  a  short 
time  with  force  enough  to  drive 
its  clock  through  a  reversed  escape 
ment;  and  further,  if  that  pendulum 
is  naturally  a  little  too  fast  or  too 
slow  the  attraction  from  the  standard 
pendulums  will  retard  or  accelerate 
it.  In  practice,  however,  it  is  found 
better  not  to  make  the  contact  by 
springs,  which,  however  light,  dis 
turb  the  pendulum  a  little,  but  by  a 
wheel  in  the  train  making  and 
breaking  contact  at  every  beat;  and 
if  the  clock  has  a  gravity  escape 
ment  there  is  no  danger  of  this 
friction  affecting  the  pendulum  atall.  FlG-  18. 

Ii>  order  to  get  the  machinery  into  cal 
a  smaller  compass  than  a  39  inches  pendulum  requires, 
Mr  Ritchie  uses  a  short  and  slow  pendulum  with  two  bobs, 
one  above  and  the  other  below  the  suspension,  as  shown 
in  fi.  17.  Such  a  pendulum,  like  a  common  scale-beam, 
be  made  to  vibrate  as  slow  as  you  like  by  bringing 


Ritchie's  Eliipti- 


CLOCKS 


the  suspension  nearer  to  the  centre  of  gravity  of  the  whole 
mass.  But  they  are  quite  unfit  for  independent  clock 
pendulums,  having  very  little  regulating  power,  or  what  we 
may  call  force  of  vibration.  He  applies  magnets  to  both 
the  bobs,  so  as  to  double  the  electrical  force.  Fig.  17 
is  the  section  across  the  plane  of  vibration. 

Fig.  18  shows  the  kind  of  reversed  escapement,  or  "pro- 
pehnent,"  used  with  these  short  and  slow  pendulums.  The 
pendulum  here  is  returning  from  the  extreme  right,  and 
has  just  deposited  the  right  hand  pallet  BCD  with  its  end 
D  pressing  on  a  tooth  of  the  scape- wheel,  but  unable  to 
turn  it  because  another  tooth  is  held  by  the  stop  G  on  the 
left  pallet.  As  soon  as  the  pendulum  lifts  that  pallet  the 
weight  of  the  other  pallet  turns  the  wheel,until  a  tooth  falls 
against  the  stop  C.  When  the  pendulum  returns  from 
the  left  the  left  pallet  presses  on  a  tooth  at  E  but  cannot 
turn  the  wheel  because  it  is  yet  held  by  C,  until  that  is 
released.  In  order  to  prevent  the  hands  being  driven 
back  by  wind  where  they  are  exposed  to  it,  a  click  is  added 
to  the  teeth.  The  wind  cannot  drive  the  hands  forward 
by  reason  of  the  stops  C,  G. 

CHURCH  AND  TURRET  CLOCKS. 

Seeing  that  a  clock — at  least  the  going  part  of  it — is  a 
machine  in  which  the  only  work  to  be  done  is  the  over 
coming  of  its  own  friction  and  the  resistance  of  the  air,  it 
is  evident,  that  when  the  friction  and  resistance  are  much 
increased,  it  may  become  necessary  to  resort  to  expedients 
for  neutralizing  their  effects  which  are  not  required  in  a 
smaller  machine  with  less  friction.  In  a  turret  clock  the 
friction  is  enormously  increased  by  the  great  weight  of  all 
the  parts ;  and  the  resistance  of  the  wind,  and  sometimes 
snow,  to  the  motion  of  the  hands,  further  aggravates  the 
difficulty  of  maintaining  a  constant  force  on  the  pendulum  ; 
and  besides  that,  there  is  the  exposure  of  the  clock  to  the 
dirt  and  dust  which  are  always  found  in  towers,  and  of  the 
oil  to  a  temperature  which  nearly  or  quite  freezes  it  all 
through  the  usual  cold  of  winter.  This  last  circumstance 
alone  will  generally  make  the  arc  of  the  pendulum  at  least 
half  a  degree  more  in  summer  than  in  winter;  and  inas 
much  as  the  time  is  materially  affected  by  the  force  which 
arrives  at  the  pendulum,  as  well  as  the  friction  on  the 
pallets  when  it  does  arrive  there,  it  is  evidently  impossible 
for  any  turret  clock  of  the  ordinary  construction,  especially 
with  large  dials,  to  keep  any  constant  rate  through  the 
various  changes  of  temperature,  weather,  and  dirt,  to  which 
it  is  exposed. 

Within  the  last  twenty  years  all  the  best  clock- 
makers  have  accordingly  adopted  the  four-legged  or  three- 
legged  gravity  escapement  for  turret  clocks  above  the 
smallest  size  ;  though  inferior  ones  still  persist  in  using  the 
dead  escapement,  which  is  incapable  of  maintaining  a  con 
stant  rate  under  a  variable  state  of  friction,  as  has  been 
shown  before.  When  the  Astronomer  Royal  in  1844  laid 
down  the  condition  for  the  Westminster  clock  that  it  was  not 
to  vary  more  than  a  second  a  day,  the  London  Company  of 
Clockmakers  pronounced  it  impossible,  and  the  late  Mr 
Vulliamy,  who  had  been  for  many  years  the  best  maker  of 
large  clocks,  refused  to  tender  for  it  at  those  terms.  The 
introduction  of  the  gravity  escapement  enabled  the  largest 
and  coarsest  looking  clocks  with  cast-iron  wheels  and  pinions 
to  go  for  long  periods  with  a  variation  much  nearer  a 
second  a  week  than  a  second  a  day.  And  the  consequence 
was  that  the  price  for  large  clocks  was  reduced  to  about 
one-third  of  what  it  used  to  be  for  an  article  inferior  in 
performance  though  more  showy  in  appearance. 

Another  great  alteration,  made  by  the  French  clockmakers 
before  ours,  was  in  the  shape  and  construction  of  the  frame. 
The  old  form  of  turret  clock-frame  was  that  of  a  large  iron 


cage,  of  which  some  of  the  vertical  bars  take  off,  and  are 
fitted  with  brass  bushes  for  the  pivots  of  the  wheels  to  run 
in ;  and  the  wheels  of  each  train,  i.e.,  the  striking,  the 
going,  and  the  quarter  trains,  have  their  pivots  all  in  the 
vertical  bar  belonging  to  that  part.  Occasionally  they 
advanced  so  far  as  to  make  the  bushes  movable,  i.e.,  fixed 
with  screws  instead  of  rivetted  in,  so  that  one  wheel  may 
be  taken  out  without  the  others.  This  cage  generally 
stood  upon  a  wooden  stool  on  the  floor  of  the  clock  room. 
The  French  clockmakers  long  ago  saw  the  objections  to 
this  kind  of  arrangement,  and  adopted  the  plan  of  a  hori 
zontal  frame  or  bed,  cast  all  in  one  piece,  and  with  such 
smaller  frames  or  cocks  set  upon  it  as  might  be  required 
for  such  of  the  wheels  as  could  not  be  conveniently  got  on 
the  same  level.  The  accompanying  sketch  (fig.  19)  of  the 


<          Fid.  19. — Clock  at  Meanwood  Church,  Leeds. 

clock  of  Meanwood  church,  near  Leeds,  one  of  the  first  on 
that  plan,  will  sufficiently  explain  it.  All  the  wheels  of  the 
going  part,  except  the  great  wheel,  are  set  in  a  separate 
frame  called  the  movement  frame,  which  is  complete  in 
itself,  and  light  enough  to  take  off  and  carry  away  entire, 
so  that  any  cleaning  or  repairs  required  in  the  most  delicate 
part  of  the  work  can  be  done  in  the  clock  factory,  and  the 
great  wheel,  barrel,  and  rope  need  never  be  disturbed  at 
all.  Even  this  movement  frame  is  now  dispensed  with  ; 
but  we  will  reserve  the  description  of  the  still  more  simple 
kind  of  frame  in  which  all  the  wheels  lie  on  or  under  the 
great  horizontal  bed,  until  we  have  described  train 
remontoires. 

Train  Remontoires. 

Although  the  importance  of  these  is  lessened  by  the  invention  of 
an  effective  gravity  escapement,  they  are  still  occasionally  used, 
and  are  an  essential  part  of  the  theory  of  clockmaking.  It  was  long 
ago  perceived  that  all  the  variations  of  force,  except  friction  of  the 
pallets,  might  be  cut  off  by  making  the  force  of  the  scape-wheel 
depend  on  a  small  weight  or  spring  wound  up  at  short  intervals 
by  the  great  clock  weight  and  the  train  of  wheels. 

This  also  has  the  advantage  of  giving  a  sudden  and  visible 
motion  to  the  minute  hand  at  those  intervals,  say  of  half  a  minute, 
when  the  remontoire  work  is  let  off,  so  that  time  may  be  taken 
from  the  minute  hand  of  a  large  public  clock  as  exactly  as  from  the 
seconds  hand  of  an  astronomical  clock  ;  and  besides  that,  greater 
accuracy  may  be  obtained  in  the  letting  off  of  the  striking  part. 
We  believe  the  first  maker  of  a  large  clock  with  a  train  remontoivo 
was  Mr  Thomas  Reid  of  Edinburgh,  who  wrote  the  article 
on  clocks  in  the  first  edition  of  this  Encyclopedia,  which  was  after- 
wards  expanded  into  a  well-known  book,  in  which  his  remontoiro 
was  described.  The  scape-wheel  was  driven  by  a  small  weight  hung 
by  a  Huyghens's  endless  chain,  of  which  one  of  the  pulleys  was 
fixed  to  the  arbor,  and  the  other  rode  upon  the  arbor,  with  the 
pinion  attached  to  it,  and  the  pinion  was  driven  and  the  weight 
wound  up  by  the  wheel  below  (which  we  will  call  the  third 
wheel),  as  follows.  Assuming  the  scape- wheel  to  turn  in  a  minute, 
its  arbor  has  a  notch  cut  half  through  it  on  opposite  sides  in 
two  places  near  to  each  other  ;  on  the  arbor  of  the  wheel,  which 
turns  in  ten  minutes,  suppose,  there  is  another  wheel  with  2 
spikes  sticking  out  of  its  rim,  but  alternately  in  two  different  planes, 
so  that  one  set  of  spikes  can  only  pass  through  one  of  the  notches 
in  the  scape-wheel  arbor,  and  the  other  set  only  through  the  otter. 
Whenever  then  the  scape-wheel  completes  a  half  turn,  one  spiko 


CLOCKS 


is  M  "o  ami  the  third  wheel  is  able  to  move,  and  with  it  the  whole 
clock-train  and  the  hands,  until  the  next  spike  of  the  other  set  is 
stopped  by  the  scape-wheel  arbor;  at  the  same  time  the  piinoiionthat 
arbor  is  turned  half  round,  winding  up  the  remontoire  weight, 
but  without  taking  its  pressure  off  the  scape-wheel.  Eeid  says 
that,  so  long  as  this  apparatus  was  kept  in  good  order,  the  clock  went 
better  than  it  did  after  it  was  removed  in  consequence  of  its  getting 
out  of  order  from  the  constant  banging  of  the  spikes  against  the 
arbor. 

The  Iloyal  Exchange  clock  was  at  first  made  in 
on  the  same  principle,  except  that,  instead  of  the  endless 
chain,  an  internal  wheel  was  used,  with  the  spikes  set  on  it 
externally,  which  is  one  of  the  modes  by  which  an  occasional 
secondary  motion  may  be  given  to  a  wheel  without  disturbing  its 
primary  and  regular  motion.  A  drawing  of  the  original  Ex 
change  clock  remontoire  is  given  in  the  Rudimentary  Treatise  on 
Clocks;  but  for  the  reasons  which  will  appear  presently,  it  need 
not  be  repeated  here,  especially  as  the  following  is  a  more  simple 
arrangement  of  a  gravity  train  remontoire,  much  more  frequently 
used  in  principle.  Let  E  in  fig.  20  be  the  scape-wheel  turning  in  a 


FIG.  20. — Gravity  Train  Remontoire. 

minute,  and  e  its  pinion,  which  is  driven  by  the  wheel  D  having  a 
pinion  d  driven  by  the  wheel  C,  which  we  may  suppose  to  turn  in 
an  hour.  The  arbors  of  the  scape-wheel  and  hour-wheel  are  distinct, 
their  pivots  meeting  in  a  bush  fixed  somewhere  between  the  wheels. 
The  pivots  of  the  wheel  D  are  set  in  the  frame  AP,  which  rides 
on  the  arbors  of  the  hour-wheeLand  scape-wheel,  or  on  another  short 
arbor  between  them.  The  hour-wheel  also  drives  another  wheel  G, 
which  again  drives  the  pinion /on  the  arbor  which  carries  the  two 
arms /A,  /B;  and  on  the  same  arbor  is  set  a  fly  with  a  ratchet, 
like  a  common  striking  fly,  and  the  numbers  of  the  teeth  are  so 
arranged  that  the  fly  will  turn  once  for  each  turn  of  the  scape- 
wheel.  The  ends  of  the  remontoire  arms  /  A,  /  B  are  capable  of 
alternately  passing  the  notches  cut  half  through  the  arbor  of  the 
bcape- wheel,  as  those  notches  successively  conio  into  the  proper 
position  at  the  end  of  every  half  minute ;  as  soon  as  that  happens 
the  hour-wheel  raises  the  movable  wheel  D  and  its  frame  through 
a  small  angle  ;  but  nevertheless,  that  wheel  keeps  pressing  oil  the 
scape-wheel  as  if  it  were  not  moving,  the  point  of  contact  of  the 
wheel  C  and  the  pinion  d  being  the  fulcrum  or  centre  of  motion  of 
the  lever  A  d  P.  It  will  be  observed  that  the  remontoire  arms  /  A, 
/  B  have  springs  set  on  them  to  diminish  the  blow  on  the  scape- 
wheel  arbor,  as  it  is  desirable  not  to  have  the  fly  so  large  as  to  make 
the  motion  of  the  train,  and  consequently  of  the  hands,  too  slow  to 
be  distinct.  For  the  same  reason  it  is  .not  desirable  to  drive  the  fly 
by  an  endless  screw,  as  was  done  in  most  of  the  French  clocks 'on 
tins  principle  in  the  1851  Exhibition.  There  is  also  an  enormous 
loss  of  force  by  friction  in  driving  an  endless  screw,  and  consequently 
considerable  risk  of  the  clock  stopping  either  from  cold  or  from 
wasting  of  the  oil. 

Another  kind  of  remontoire  is  on  the  principle  of  one 
bevelled  wheel  lying  between  two  others  at  right  angles  to  it. 
1  he  first  of  the  bevelled  wheels  is  driven  by  the  train,  and  the 
third  is  fixed  to  the  arbor  of  the  scape-wheel ;  and  the  intermediate 
bevelled  wheel,  of  any  size,  rides  on  its  arbor  at  right  angles  to 
the  other  two  arbors  which  are  in  the  same  line  The 
scape-wheel  will  evidently  turn  with  the  same  average  velocitv 

i  the  first  bevelled  wheel,  though  the  intermediate  one  may  move 
up  and  down  at  intervals.  The  transverse  arbor  which  carries 
it  is  let  off  and  lifted  a  little  at  half-minute  intervals,  as  in  the 
remontoire  just  now  described  ;  and  it  gradually  works  down  as  the 
scape-wheel  turns  under  its  pressure,  until  it  is  freed  again  and 
lifted  by  the  clock  train. 

!n  all  these  gravity  remontoires,  however,  it  must  have  been 
observed  that  we  only  get  rid  of  the  friction  of  the  heavy  parts  of 
the  tram  and  the  dial-work,  and  that  the  scape-wheel  is  still  subject 
to  the  friction  of  the  remontoire  wheels,  which,  though  much  'less 
thtm  the  other,  is  still  something  considerable.  And  accordingly, 


attempts  have  frequently  been  made  to  drive  the  scape-wheel  by  a 
spiral  spring,  like  the  mainspring  of  a  watch.  One  of  these,  was 
described  in  the  7th  edition  of  this  Encyclopaedia  ;  and  Sir  G.  Ahy, 
a  few  years  ago,  invented  another  on  the  same  principle,  of  which 
two  or  three  specimens  were  made.  But  it  was  found,  and  indeed 
it  ought  to  have  been  foreseen,  that  these  contrivances  were  all 
defective  in  the  mode  of  attaching  the  spiing,  by  making  another 
wheel  or  pinion  ride  on  the  arbor  of  the  scape-wheel,  which  produced 
a  very  mischievous  friction,  and  so  only  increased  the  expense  of  the 
clock  without  any  corresponding  advantage  ;  and  the  consequence 
was  that  spring  remontoires,  and  remontoires  in  general,  had  come 
to  be  regarded  as  a  mere  delusion.  It  has  however  now  been  fully 
proved  that  they  are  not  so ;  for,  by  a  very  simple  alteration  of 
the  previous  plans,  a  spiral  spring  remontoire  may  be  made  to  act 
with  absolutely  no  friction,  except  that  of  the  scape-wheel  pivots, 
and  the  letting-off  springs  A,  B,  in  the  last  drawing.  The  Mean- 
wood  clock  (fig.  17)  was  the  first  of  this  kind ;  but  it  will  be  necessary 
to  give  a  separate  view  of  the  remontoire  work. 

In  the  next  figure  (21),  A,  B,  D,  E,  e,  f  are  the  same  things  as 
in  fig.  20.  But  e,  the  scape-wheel  pinion,  is  no  longer  fixed  to  the 
arbor,  nor  does  it  ride  on  the  arbor,  as  had  been  the  case  in  all  the 
previous  spring  remontoires,  thereby  producing  probably  more 
friction  than  was  saved  in  other  respects ;  but  it  rides  on  a  stud  k, 
which  is  set  in  the  clock-frame.  On  the  face  of  the  pinion  is  a  plate, 
of  which  the  only  use  is  to  carry  a  pin  h  (and  consequently  its 
shape  is  immaterial),  and  in  front  of  the  plate  is  set  a  bush  b,  with 
a  hole  through  it,  of  which  half  is  occupied  by  the  end  of  the  stud 
k  to  which  the  bush  is  fixed  by  a  small  pin,  and  the  other  half  is 
the  pivot-hole  for  the  scape-wheel  arbor.  On  the  arbor  is  set  the 
remontoire  springs  (a moderate-sized  musical-box  spring  is  generally 

used)  of  which  the  outer  end 

is  bent  into  a  loop  to  take  <3>  V 
hold  of  the  pin  h.  In  fact, 
there  are  two  pins  at  A,  one 
a  little  behind  the  other, 
to  ksep  the  coils  of  the 
spring  from  touching  each 
other.  Now,  it  is  evident 
"diat  the  spring  may  be 
wound  up  half  or  a  quarter 
of  a  turn  at  the  proper  in 
tervals  without  taking  the 
force  off  the  scape-wheel, 
and  also  without  affecting 
it  by  any  friction  whatever. 
When  the  scape- wheel  turns 
in  a  minute,  the  le'tting-off 
would  bo  done  as  before 
described,  by  a  couple  of 
notches  in  the  scape-wheel 
arbor,  through  which  the 
spikes  A,  B,  as  in  fig.  20, 
would  pass  alternately.  But 
in  clocks  with  only  three 
wheels  in  the  train  it  is  best 
to  make  the  scape-wheel 
turn  in  two  minutes,  and 
consequently  you  would 
want  four  notches  and  four 
remontoire  arms,  and  the 
fly  would  only  make  a 
quarter  of  a  turn.  And 
therefore  Sir  E.  Beckett,  who  invented  this  remontoire,  made  the 
following  provision  for  diminishing  the  friction  of  the  letting-off 
work.  The  fly  pinion/  has  only  half  the  number  of  teeth  of  the 
scape-wheel  pinion,  being  a  lantern  pinion  of  7  or  8,  while  the  other 
is  a  leaved  pinion  of  14  or  16,  and  therefore  the  same  wheel  D  will 
properly  drive  both,  as  will  be  seen  hereafter.  The  scape-wheel 
arbor  ends  in  a  cylinder  about  |  inch  in  diameter,  with  two  notches 
at  right  angles  cut  in  its  face,  one  of  them  narrow  and  deep,  and 
the  other  broad  and  shallow,  so  that  a  long  and  thin  pin  B  can  pass 
only  through  one,  and  a  broad  and  short  pin  A  through  the  other. 
Consequently,  at  each  quarter  of  a  turn  of  the  scape-wheel,  the 
remontoire  fly,  on  which  the  pins  A,  B  are  set  on  springs,  as  in  fig. 
20,  can  turn  half  round.  It  is  set  on  its  arbor/by  a  square  ratchet 
and  click,  which  enables  you  to  adjust  the  spring  to  the  requisite 
tension  to  obtain  the  proper  vibration  of  the  pendulum.  A 
better  construction,  afterwards  introduced,  is  to  make  the  fly  separate 
from  the  letting-off  arms,  whereby  the  blow  on  the  cylinder  is  dimi 
nished,  the  fly  being  allowed  to  go  on  as  in  the  gravity  escapement. 
The  performance  of  this  is  so  much  more  satisfactory  than  that  of 
the  gravity  remontoires,  that  Mr  Dent  altered  that  of  the  Royal 
Exchange  to  a  spring  one  in  1854,  which  had  the  effect  of  reducing 
the  clock-weight  by  one-third,  besides  improving  the  rate  of  going. 
It  should  be  observed,  however,  that  even  a  spring  remontoire 
requires  a  larger  weight  than  the  same  clock  without  one  ;  but  as 
none  of  that  additional  force  reaches  the  pendulum,  that  is  of  no 


CLOCKS 


consequence.  The  variation  of  force  of  the  romontoire  spring 
from  temperature,  as  it  only  affects  the  pendulum  through 
the  medium  of  the  dead  escapement,  is  far  too  small  to  produce 
any  appreciable  effect ;  and  it  is  found  that  clocks  of  this 
kind,  with  a  compensated  pendulum  8  feet  long,  and  of 
about  2  cwt.,  will  not  vary  above  a  second  a  month,  if  the 
pallets  are  kept  clean  and  well  oiled.  No  turret  clock  without 
cither  a  train  remontoire  or  a  gravity  escapement  will  approach  that 
decree  of  accuracy.  The  King's  Cross  clock,  which  was  the  first 
of  this  kind,  went  with  a  variation  of  about  a  second  in  three  weeks 
in  the  1851  Exhibition,  and  has  sometimes  gone  for  two  months 
without  any  discoverable  error,  though  it  wants  the  jewelled  pallets 
which  the  Exchange  clock  has.  But  these  clocks  require  more  care 
than  gravity  escapement  ones,  and  are  certain  to  be  spoilt  as  soon  as 
they  get  into  ignorant  or  careless  hands ;  and  consequently  the 
gravity  ones  have  superseded  them. 

The  introduction  of  this  remontoire  led  to  another  very  important 
alteration  in  the  construction  of  large  clocks.  Hitherto  it  had 
always  been  considered  necessary,  with  a  view  to  diminish  the  friction 
as  far  as  possible,  to  make  the  wheels  of  brass  or  gun-metal,  with 
the  teeth  cut  in  an  engine.  The  French  clockmakers  had  begun  to 
use  cast-iron  striking  parts,  and  cast-iron  wheels  had  been  oc 
casionally  used  in  the  going  part  of  inferior  clocks  for  the  sake  of 
cheapness  ;  but  they  had  never  been  used  in  any  clock  making 
pretensions  to  accuracy  before  the  one  just  mentioned.  In  conse 
quence  of  the  success  of  that,  it  was  determined  by  the  astronomer 
royal  and  Mr  Denison,  who  were  jointly  consulted  by  the  Board  of 
Works  about  the  great  Westminster  clock  in  1852,  to  alter  the  ori 
ginal  requisition  for  gun-metal  wheels  there  to  cast-iron.  Some 
persons  expressed  their  apprehension  of  iron  wheels  rusting  ;  but 
nothing  can  be  more  unfounded,  for  the  non-acting  surfaces  are 
al \vay3  painted,  and  the  acting  surfaces  oiled.  A  remarkable  proof 
of  the  folly  of  the  clockmakers'  denunciations  of  the  cast-iron  wheels 
was  afforded  at  the  Royal  Exchange  the  next  year.  In  consequence 
of  the  bad  ventilation  of  the  clock-room,  together  with  the  effects 
of  the  London  atmosphere,  some  thin  parts  of  the  brass  work  had 


become  so  much  corroded  that  they  had  to  be  renewed,  mul  some  of 
it  was  replaced  with  iron  ;  for  all  the  polished  iron  and  brass  work 
had  become  as  rough  as  if  it  had  never  been  polished  at  all ;  the 
only  parts  of  the  clock  which  had  not  suffered  from  the  damp  and 
the  bad  air  were  the  painted  iron  work.  The  room  was  also  venti 
lated,  with  a  draught  through  it,  and  all  the  iron  work,  except 
acting  surfaces,  painted.  Even  in  the  most  favourable  positions 
brass  or  gun-metal  loses  its  surface  long  before  cast-iron  wants 
repainting. 

There  is,  however,  a  curious  point  to  be  attended  to  in  using  cast- 
iron  wheels.  They  must  drive  cast-iron  pinions,  for  they  will  wear 
out  steel.  The  smaller  wheels  of  the  going  part  may  be  of  brass 
driving  steel  pinions  ;  but  the  whole  of  the  striking  wheels  and 
pinions  may  be  of  iron.  A  great  deal  of  nonsense  is  talked  about 
gun-metal,  as  if  it  was  necessarily  superior  to  brass.  The  best  gun- 
metal  may  be,  and  is,  for  wheels  which  are  too  thick  to  hammer ; 
but  there  is  great  variety  in  the  quality  of  gun-metal ;  it  is  often 
unsound,  and  lias  hard  and  soft  places  ;  and  on  the  whole,  it  has 
no  advantage  over  good  brass,  when  not  too  thick  to  be  hammered. 
In  clocks  made  under  the  pressure  of  competing  tenders,  if  the  brass 
is  likely  not  to  be  hammered,  the  gun  metal  is  quite  as  likely  to  be 
the  cheapest  and  the  worst  possible,  like  everything  else  which  is 
always  specified  to  be  "best,"  as  the  clockmakers  know  very  well  that 
it  is  a  hundred  to  one  if  anybody  sees  their  work  that  can  tell  the 
difference  between  the  best  and  the  worst. 

Turret  Clocks  with  Gravity  Escapement. 

Fig.  22  is  a  front  view  of  a  large  quarter  clock  of  Sir  E.  Beckett's 
design,  with  all  tlje  wheels  on  the  great  horizontal  bed,  a  gravity 
escapement,  and  a  compensated  pendulum.  They  are  made  in  two 
sizes,  one  with  the  great  striking  wheels  18  inches  wide,  and  the 
other  14.  The  striking  is  done  by  cams  cast  on  the  great  wheels, 
about  1  ^  inch  broad  in  the  large-sized  clocks,  which  are  strong  enough 
for  an  hour  bell  of  thirty  cwt.,  and  corresponding  quarters.  Wire 
ropes  are  used,  not  only  because  they  last  longer,  if  kept  greased, 


FIG.  22.  —Front  view  of  Turret  Quarter  Clock. 


but  because  a  sufficient  number  of  coils  will  go  on  a  barrel  of  less 
than  half  the  length  that  would  be  required  for  hemp  ropes  of  the 
same  strength,  without  overlapping,  which  it  is  as  well  to  avoid,  it 
possible,  though  it  is  not  so  injurious  to  wire  ropes  as  it  is 
to  hemp  ones.  By  this  means  also  the  striking  cams  can  be 
put  on  the  great  wheel,  instead  of  the  second  wheel,  which 
saves  more  in  friction  than  could  be  imagined  by  any  ,ne  who 
had  not  tried  both.  In  clocks  of  the  common  construction  two- 
thirds  of  the  power  is  often  wasted  in  friction  and  in  the  bad 
arrangement  of  the  hammer  work,  and  the  clock  is  wearing  itse 
out  in  doing  nothing. 

The  same  number  of  cams  are  given  here  to  the  quarter  as  to 
hour-striking  wheel,  rather  for  the  purpose  of  suggesting  the  expedi 
ency  of  omitting  the  4th  quarter,  as  has  been  done  in  many  clocks  made 
from  this  design.     It  is  of  no  use  to  strike  ding-dong  quarters  at  t 
hour,   and  it   nearly  doubles  the  work  to  be  done;    and  i 
omitted  it  allows  the  bells  to  be  larger,  and  therefore  louder,  because 
the  1st  quarter  bell  ought  to  be  an  octave  above  the  hour  bell,  it 
they  are  struck  at  the  hour  ;  whereas,  if  they  are  not  heard  together 
the  quarters  may  be  on  the  4th  and  7th  of  a  peal  of  eight  b< 


Moreover,  the  repetition  of  the  four  ding-dongs  can  give  no  musical 
pk-asure  to  any  one. 

The  case  is  different  withihe  Cambridge  and  Westminster  quarter 
chimes  on  4  bells,  and  the  chime  at  the  hour  is  the  most  complete 
and  pleasing  of  all.  It  is  singular  that  those  beautiful  chimes 
(which  arc  partly  attributed  to  Handel)  had  been  heard  by  thousands 
of  men  scattered  all  over  England  for  70  years  before  any  one  thought 
of  copying  them,  but  since  they  were  introduced  by  Sir  E.  Beckett 
in  the  great  Westminster  clock,  on  a  much  larger  scale  and  with  a 
slight  difference  in  the  intervals,  they  have  been  copied  verj  exten 
sively  and  are  already  almost  as  numerous  in  new  clocks  as  the  old- 
fashioned  ding-dong  quarters.  Properly,  as  at  Cambridge  and 
Westminster,  the  hour  bell  should  bean  octave  below  the  third  (< 
largest  but  one)  quarter  bell;  but  as  the  interval  between  tl 
quarters  and  hour  is  always  considerable,  it  is  practically  found  that 
the  ear  is  not  offended  by  a  less  interval.  At  Worcester  cathedral  the 
great  44  ton  hour  bell  is  only  1J  notes  below  the  50  cwt.  tenor  bell 
of  the  peal,  which  is  made  "the  fourth  quarter  bell ;  and  at  some 
other  places  the  quarters  are  the  2d,  3d,  4th,  and  7th  of  a  peal  ot  a, 
and  the  hour  bell  the  8th.  Thereby  you  get  more  powerful 


4th 


30 

altogether  better  sounding  quarters.  The  quarter  bells  are  the  1st, 
2d,  3d,  and  6th  of  a  peal  of  6 — independent  of  the  hour  bell ;  and 
the  following  is  their  arrangement : — 

01  /3126 
2(1  (  3213 

1326 
3d  6213 

1236  '  1st 

hour. ..10 

The  interval  between  each  successive  chime  of  four  should  be 
two  or  at  most  two  and  a  half  times  that  between  the  successive 
blows.  At  Cambridge  it  is  three  times, — decidedly  too  slow;  at 
Westminster  twice,  which  is  rather  too  fast ;  at  Worcester  cathedral 
and  most  of  the  later  large  clocks  2J  times,  which  sounds  the  best. 

At  Cambridge  the  chimes  are  set  on  a  barrel  which  turns  twice  in 
the  hour,  as  this  table  indicates,  and  which  is  driven  by  the  great 
wheel  with  a  great  waste  of  power ;  the  clock  is  wound  up  every 
day.  An  eight-day  clock  would  require  a  very  heavy  weight, 
and  a  very  much  greater  strain  on  the  wheels,  and  they  arc  alto 
gether  inexpedient  for  these  quarters  on  any  large  scale  of  bells. 

Indeed  there  is  some  reason  for  doubting  whether  the  modem 
introduction  of  eight-day  clocks  is  an  improvement,  where  they  have 
to  strike  at  all  on  large  bells.  Such  clocks  hardly  ever  bring  the 
full  sound  out  of  the  bells  ;  because,  in  order  to  do  so,  the  weights 
would  have  to  be  so  heavy,  and  the  clock  so  large,  as  to  increase 
the  price  considerably.  A  good  bell,  even  of  the  ordinary  thickness, 
which  is  less  than  in  the  Westminster  bells,  requires  a  hammer  of 
not  less  than  ^th  of  its  weight,  rising  8  or  9  inches  from  the  bell, 
to  bring  out  the  full  sound ;  and  therefore,  allowing  for  the  loss  by 
friction,  a  bell  of  30  cwt,  which  is  not  an  uncommon  tenor  for  a 
large  peal,  would  require  a  clock  weight  of  15  cwt.,  with  a  clear  fall 
of  40  feet ;  and  either  the  Cambridge  quarters  on  a  peal  of  ten,  or 
the  Doncaster  ones  on  the  2d,  3d,  4th,  and  7th  bells  of  a  peal  of  eight, 
will  require  above  a  ton,  according  to  the  usual  scale  of  bells  in  a  ring 
ing  peal  (which  is  thinner  than  the  Westminster  clock  bells).  Very  few 
clocks  are  adapted  for  such  weights  as  these ;  and  without  abundance 
of  strength  and  great  size  in  all  the  parts,  it  would  be  unsafe  to  use 
them.  But  if  the  striking  parts  are  made  to  wind  up  every  day, 
of  course  }th  of  these  weights  will  do  ;  and  you  may  have  a  more 
powerful  clock  in  effect,  and  a  safer  one  to  manage,  in  half  the  com 
pass,  and  for  much  less  cost.  Churches  with  such  bells  as  these 
have  always  a  sexton  or  some  other  person  belonging  to  them,  and 
in  attendance  every  day,  who  can  wind  up  the  clock  just  as  well  as 
a  clockmaker's  man,  The  going  part  always  requires  a  much  lighter 
weight,  and  may  as  well  go  a  week,  and  be  in  the  charge  of  a  clock- 
maker,  where  it  is  possible. 

There  should  be  some  provision  for  holding  the  hammers  off  the 
bells  while  ringing,  and  at  the  same  time  a  friction-spring  or  weight 
should  be  brought  to  bear  on  the  fly  arbor,  to  compensate  for  the 
removal  of  the  weight  of  the  hammers ;  otherwise  there  is  a  risk  of 
the  train  running  too  fast  and  being  broken  when  it  is  stopped. 

No  particular  number  of  cams  is  required  in  the  striking  wheel ; 
any  number  from  10  to  20  will  do ;  but  when  four  quarters  on  two 
bells  are  used,  the  quarter-striking  wheel  should  have  half  as  many 
cams  again  as  the  hour-wheel ;  for,  if  not,  the  rope  will  go  a  second 
time  over  half  of  the  ban-el,  as  there  are  120  blows  on  each  quarter 
bell  in  the  12  hours  to  78  of  the  hours,  while  with  the  three  quarters 
there  are  only  72.  If  the  two  quarter  levers  are  on  the  same  arbor, 
there  must  be  two  sets  of  cams,  one  on  each  side  of  the  wheel ;  but 
one  set  will  do,  and  the  same  wheel  as  the  hour- wheel,  if  they  are 
placed  as  in  fig.  23.  The  hour-striking  lever,  it  will  be  seen,  is 
differently  shaped,  so  as  to  diminish  the  pressure  on  its  arbor  by 
making  it  only  the  difference,  instead  of  the  sum,  of  the  pressures.at 
the  two  points  of  action.  This  can  be  done  with  the  two  quarter 
levers,  as  shown  in  the  Rudimentary  Treatise;  but  the  arrangement 
involves  a  good  deal  of  extra  work,  and  as  the  quarter  hammers  are 
always  lighter  than  the  hour  one,  it  is  hardly  worth  while  to  resort 
to  it.  The  shape  of  the  cams  is  a  matter  requiring  some  attention, 
but  it  will  be  more  properly  considered  when  we  come  to  the  teeth 
of  wheels.  The  4th  quarter  bell  in  the  Cambridge  and  Westminster 
quarters  should  have  two  hammers  and  sets  of  cams  longer  than 
the  others,  acting  alternately,  on  account  of  the  quick  repetition  of 
the  blows. 

The  fly  ratchets  should  not  be  made  of  cast-iron,  as  they  some 
times  are  by  clockmakers  who  will  not  use  cast-iron  wheels  on  any 
account,  because  the  teeth  get  broken  off  by  the  click.  This  break 
ing  may  perhaps  be  avoided  by  making  the  teeth  rectangular,  like  a 
number  of  inverted  V's  set  round  a  circle,  and  the  click  only  reach 
ing  so  far  that  the  face  of  the  tooth  which  it  touches  is  at  right 
angles  to  the  click ;  but,  as  before  observed,  cast-iron  and  steel  do 
not  work  well  together. 

The  hammer  of  a  large  clock  ought  to  be  left  "  on  the  lift,"  when 
the  clock  has  done  striking,  if  the  first  blow  is  to  be  struck 
exactly  at  the  hour,  as  there  are  always  a  good  many 
seconds  lost  in  the  train  getting  into  action  and  raising  the 
hammer.  Moreover,  when  it  stops  on  the  lift,  the  pressure  on  the 


stops,  and  on  all  the  pinions  above  the  great  wheel,  is  only  that 
due  to  the  excess  of  the  power  of  the  clock  over  the  weight  of  the 
hammer,  and  not  the  full  force  of  the  weight,  and  it  is  therefore 
easier  for  the  going  part  to  discharge,  and  less  likely  to  break  the 
stops. 

In  fig.  22  the  wheel  marked  60  in  each  of  the  striking  parts  is  a 
winding  wheel  on  the  front  end  of  the  barrel,  and  the  winding  pinion 
is  numbered  10  ;  a  larger  pinion  will  do  where  the  hammer  does  not 
exceed  40  ft ;  and  in  small  clocks  no  auxiliary  winding  wheel  is 
needed.  But  in  that  case  the  locking-plate  must  be  driven  by  a 
gathering  pallet,  or  pinion  with  two  teeth,  on  the  arbor  of  the 
second  wheel,  with  a  spring  click  to  keep  it  steady.  In  all  cases 
the  hammer  shanks  and  tails  should  not  be  less  than  two  feet  long, 
if  possible ;  for  the  shorter  they  are,  the  more  is  lost  by  the  change 
of  inclination  for  any  given  rise  from  the  bell.  In  some  clocks  with 
fixed  (not  swinging)  bells,  the  hammer-head  is  set  on  a  double  shank 
embracing  the  bell,  with  the  pivots,  not  above  it  in  the  French  way, 
which  makes  the  hammer  strike  at  a  wrong  angle,  but  on  each  side 
of  the  bell,  a  little  below  the  top.  On  this  plan  less  of  the  rise  is 
lost  than  in  the  common  mode  of  fixing.  The  Westminster  clock 
hammers  are  all  fixed  in  this  way. 

The  first  thing  to  remark  in  the  going  part  of  fig.  22  is  that  the 
hour-wheel  which  carries  the  snails  for  letting  off  the  quarters  and 
striking,  is  not  part  of  the  train  leading  up  to  the  scape-wheel,  but 
independent,  so  that  the  train  from  the  great  wheel  to  the  scape- 
v/heel,  is  one  of  three  wheels  only.  If  it  were  a  dead  escapement, 
instead  of  a  gravity  escapement  clock,  the  wheel  numbered 
96  would  be  the  scape-wheel ;  and  as  it  turns  in  90  seconds, 
it  would  require  36  teeth  or  pins  for  a  1J  sec.  pendulum  which 
most  of  these  gravity -escapement  clocks  have ;  it  is  about  6  feet  long 
to  the  bottom  of  the  bob,  which,  if  sunk  just  below  the  floor,  brings 
the  clock-frame  to  a  very  convenient  height.  The  hour-wheel  rides 
loose  on  its  arbor,  or  rather  the  arbor  can  turn  within  it,  carrying 
the  snails  and  the  regulating  hand  and  the  bevelled  wheel  which 
drives  all  the  dials,  and  it  is  fixed  to  the  hour-wheel  by  means  oi 
clamping  screws  on  the  edge  of  a  round  plate  on  the  arbor  just 
behind  it,  which  turn  by  hand.  In  a  gravity  escapement  clock 
this  adjusting  work  is  not  really  necessary  ;  because  you  can  set  the 
clock  by  merely  lifting  the  pallets  oli'  the  scape-wheel,  and  letting 
the  train  run  till  the  hands  point  right.  The  regulating  hand, 
you  observe,  in  fig.  22  turns  the  wrong  way;  because,  where  the 
dial  is  opposite  to  the  back  of  the  clock,  no  bevelled  wheels  are 
wanted,  and  the  arbor  leads  straight  off'  to  the  dial.  It  used  to  be  the 
fashion  to  put  clocks  in  the  middle  of  the  room,  so  that  the  leading- 
off  rod  might  go  straight  up  to  the  horizontal  bevelled  wheel  in  the 
middle,  which  drove  all  the  dials.  But  the  clock  can  be  set  much 
more  firmly  on  stone  corbels,  or  on  cast-iron  brackets  built  into  the 
wall;  and  it  is  not  at  all  necessary  for  the  leading-off  rod  to  be 
vertical.  Provided  it  is  only  in  a  vertical  plane  parallel  to  the  wall, 
or  the  teeth  of  the  bevelled  wheels  adapted  to  the  inclination,  the 
rod  may  stand  as  obliquely  as  you  please ;  and  when  it  does,  it 
ought  on  no  account  to  be  made,  as  it  generally  is,  with  universal 
joints,  but  the  pivots  shouldgo  into  oblique  pivot-holes  at  the  top  and 
bottom.  The  joints  increase  the  friction  considerably,  and  are  of 
no  use  whatever,  except  where  the  rod  is  too  long  to  keep  itself 
straight.  Where  the  rod  does  happen  to  be  in  the  middle  of  the 
room,  and  there  are  three  or  four  dials,  the  two  horizontal  bevelled 
wheels  at  each  end  of  it  must  be  a  little  larger  than  all  the  others — 
both  the  one  in  the  clock  and  those  of  the  dial-work  ;  for  otherwise 
the  three  or  four  wheels  in  the  middle  will  meet  each  other  and 
stick  fast. 

When  the  pendulum  is  very  long  and  heavy,  it  should  be  sus 
pended  from  the  -wall,  unless  the  clock-frame  has  some  strong 
support  near  the  middle ;  but  a  six-feet  pendulum,  of  not  more  than 
two  cwt.,  may  be  suspended  from  the  clock-frame,  provided  it  is  as 
strong  as  it  ought  to  be  for  the  general  construction  of  the  clock, 
and  supported  on  corbels  or  iron  beams.  It  has  generally  been 
the  practice  to  hang  the  pendulum  behind  the  clock-frame ;  but 
inasmuch  as  the  rope  of  the  going  part  may  always  be  thinner  than 
that  of  the  striking  part,  and  that  part  requires  less  depth  in  other 
respects,  a  different  and  more  compact  plan  is  adopted  in  the  clocks 
we  are  describing.  The  back  pivots  of  the  going  wheels  run  in 
bushes  in  an  intermediate  bar,  three  or  four  inches  from  the  back  of 
the  frame,  joining  the  two  cross  bars,  of  which  the  ends  are  dotted 
in  the  drawing.  The  pendulum  cock  is  set  on  the  back  frame, 
and  the  pendulum  hangs  within  it.  And  in  the  gravity  escapement 
clocks  there  is  yet  another  thin  bar — about  half  way  between  the 
back  frame  and  the  bar  on  which  the  bushes  of  the  wheels  are  set — 
the  only  use  of  which  is  to  carry  the  bush  of  the  scape-wheel,  which 
is  set  behind  the  fly;  the  wheel,  the  fly,  and  the  pallets,  or  gravity- 
arms,  stand  between  these  two  intermediate  bars ;  and  the  pallet- 
arbors  are  set  in  a  brass  cock  screwed  to  the  top  of  the  pendulum- 
cock.  The  beat-pins  should  be  of  brass,  not  steel,  and  no  oil  put 
to  them,  or  they  are  sure  to  stick.  The  escapement  in  fig.  22  is 
not  drawn  rightly  for  the  present  form  of  them,  which  is  given  hi 
fig.  13. 

The  same  gen.eral  arrangement  will  serve  for  a  dead  escapement 


CLOCKS 


clock  with  or  without  a  train  remoutoire  ;  only  the  pendulum  will 
not  stand  so  high,  and  the  front  end  of  the  pallet  arbor  must  he 
set  in  a  cock  like  those  of  the  striking  flies,  oil  the  front  bar  of  the 
frame.  And  for  a  dead  escapement,  if  there  are  large  dials  and  no 
rernontoire,  the  pendulum  should  be  longer  and  heavier  than  that 
which  is  quite  sufficient  for  a  gravity  escapement.  The  rod  of  a 
wooden  pendulum  should  be  as  thin  as  it  can  conveniently  be  made, 
and  varnished,  to  prevent  its  absorbing  moisture. 

Dials  and  Hands. 

The  old  established  form  of  dial  for  turret  clocks  is  a  sheet  of 
copper  made  convex,  to  preserve  its  shape ;  and  this  is  just  the 
worst  form  which  could  have  been  contrived  for  it.  For,  in  the  first 
place,  the  minute-hand,  being  necessarily  outside  of  the  hour-hand, 
is  thrown  still  farther  off  the  minutes  to  which  it  has  to  point,  by 
the  convexity  of  the  dial ;  and  consequently,  when  it  is  in  any  posi 
tion  except  nearly  vertical,  it  is  impossible  to  see  accurately  where 
it  is  pointing  ;  and  if  it  is  bent  enough  to  avoid  this  eifect  of 
parallax,  it  looks  very  ill.  Secondly,  a  convex  dial  at  a  consider 
able  height  from  the  ground  looks  even  more  convex  than  it  really 
is,  because  the  lines  of  sight  from  the  middle  and  the  top  of  the 
dial  make  a  smaller  angle  with  the  eye  than  the  lines  from  the 
middle  and  the  bottom,  in  proportion  to  the  degree  of  convexity. 
The  obvious  remedy  for  these  defects,  is  simply  to  make  the  dial 
concave  instead  of  convex.  As  convex  dials  look  more  curved  than 
they  are,  concave  ones  look  less  curved  than  they  are,  and  in  fact 
might  easily  be  taken  for  flat  ones,  though  the  curvature  is  exactly 
the  same  as  usual.  Old  convex  dials  are  easily  altered  to  concave, 
and  the  improvement  is  very  striking  where  it  has  been  done. 
There  is  no  reason  why  the  same  form  should  not  be  adopted  in 
stone,  cement,  slate,  or  cast-iron,  of  which  materials  dials  are  some 
times  and  properly  enough  made,  with  the  middle  part  countersunk 
for  the  hour  hand,  so  that  the  minute-hand  may  go  close  to  the 
figures  and  avoid  parallax.  When  dials  are  large,  copper,  or  even 
iron  or  slate,  is  quite  a  useless  expense,  if  the  stonework  is  moder 
ately  smooth,  as  most  kinds  of  stone  take  and  retain  paint  very 
well,  and  the  gilding  will  stand  upon  it  better  than  it  often  does  on 
copper  or  iron. 

The  figures  are  generally  made  much  too  large.  People  have  a 
pattern  dial  painted  ;  and  if  the  figures  are  not  as  long  as  one-third 
of  the  radius,  and  therefore  occupying,  with  the  minutes,  about  two- 
thirds  of  the  whole  area  of  the  dial,  they  fancy  they  are  not  large 
enough  to  be  read  at  a  distance ;  whereas  the  fact  is,  the  more  the 
dial  is  occupied  by  the  figures,  the  less  distinct  they  are,  and  the 
more  difficult  it  is  to  distinguish  the  position  of  the  hands,  which 
is  what  people  really  want  to  see,  and  not  to  read  the  figures,  which 
may  very  well  be  replaced  by  twelve  large  spots.  The  figures, 
after  all,  do  not  mean  what  they  say,  as  you  read  "  twenty  minutes 
to"  something,  when  the  minute-hand  points  to  vm.  The  rule 
which  has  been  adopted,  after  various  experiments,  as  the  best  for 
the  proportions  of  the  dial,  is  this.  Divide  the  radius  into  three, 
and  leave  the  inner  two-thirds  clear  and  flat,  and  of  some  colour 
forming  a  strong  contrast  to  the  colour  of  the  hands,  black  or  dark 
blue  if  they  are  gilt,  and  white  if  they  are  black.  The  figures, 
if  there  are  any,  should  occupy  the  next  two-thirds  of  the  remaining 
third,  and  the  minutes  be  set  in  the  remainder,  near  the  edge,  and 
with  every  fifth  minute  more  strongly  marked  than  the  rest ;  and 
there  should  not  be  a  rim  round  the  dial  of  the  same  colour  or 
gilding  as  the  figiires.  The  worst  kind  of  dial  of  all  are  the  things 
called  skeleton-dials,  which  either  have  no  middle  except  the  stone 
work,  forming  no  contrast  to  the  hands,  or  else  taking  special 
trouble  to  perplex  the  spectator  by  filling  up  the  middle  with 
radiating  bars.  Where  a  dial  cannot  be  put  without  interfering 
with  the  architecture,  it  is  much  better  to  have  none,  as  is  the  case 
in  many  cathedrals  and  large  churches,  leaving  the  information  to 
be  given  by  the  striking  of  the  hours  and  quarters.  This  also  will 
save  something,  perhaps  a  good  deal,  in  the  size  and  cost  of  the 
clock,  and  if  it  is  one  without  a  train  remoutoire  or  gravity  escape- 
Uient,  will  enable  it  to  go  better.  The  size  of  public  dials  is  often 
rery  inadequate  to  their  height  and  the  distance  at  which  they  are 
intended  to  be  seen.  They  ought  to  be  at  least  1  foot  in  diameter 
for  every  10  feet  of  height  above  the  ground,  and  more  whenever  the 
dial  will  be  seen  far  off;  and  this  rule  ought  to  be  enforced  on  archi 
tects,  as  they  are  often  not  aware  of  it ;  and  indeed  they  seldom 
make  proper  provisions  for  the  clock  or  the  weights  in  building  a 
tower,  or,  in  short,  know  anything  about  the  matter. 

The  art  of  illuminating  dials  cannot  be  said  to  be  in  a  satisfactory 
state.  Where  there  happens  to  be,  as  there  seldom  is,  a  projecting 
roof  at  some  little  distance  below  the  dial,  it  may  be  illuminated 
by  reflection,  like  that  at  the  Horse  Guards— about  the  only  merit 
which  that  superstition  sly  venerated  and  bad  clock  has ;  and  the 
same  thing  may  be  done  in  some  places  by  movable  lamp  reflectors, 
like  those  put  before  shop  windows  at  night,  to  be  turned  back 
against  the  wall  during  the  day.  It  has  also  been  proposed  to  sink 
the  dial  within  the  wall,  and  illuminate  it  by  jets  of  gas  pointing 
inwards  from,  a  kind  of  projecting  rim,  like  what  is  called  in  church 
windows  a  "hood-moiddiiig,"  carried  all  round.  But  it  is  a  great 


objection  to  sunk  dials,  even  of  less  depth  than  would  be  required 
here,  that  they  do  not  receive  light  enough  by  day,  and  do  not  get 
their  faces  washed  by  the  rain.  The  common  mode  of  illumina 
tion  is  by  making  the\lials  either  entirely,  or  all  except  the  figures 
and  minutes  and  a  ring  to  carry  them,  of  glass,  either  ground  or 
lined  in  the  inside  with  linen  (paint  loses  its  colour  from  the  gas). 
The  gas  is  kept  always  alight,  but  the  clock  is  made  to  turn  it  nearly 
off  and  full  on  at  the  proper  times  by  a  24-hour  wheel,  with  pins 
set  in  it  by  hand  as  the  length  of  the  day  variew.  Self-acting 
apparatus  has  been  applied,  but  it  is  somewhat  complicated,  and  an 
unnecessary  expense.  But  these  dials  always  look  very  ill  by  day ; 
and  it  seems  often  to  be  forgotten  that  dials  are  wanted  much  more 
by  day  than  by  night ;  and  also,  that  the  annual  expense  of  lighting 
3  or  4  dials  far  exceeds  the  interest  of  the  entire  cost  of  any 
ordinary  clock.  Sometimes  it  exceeds  the  whole  cost  of  the  clock 
annually.  The  use  of  white  opaque  glass  with  black  figures 
is  ver)'  superior  to  the  common  method.  It  is  used  in  the 
great  Westminster  clock  dials.  It  is  somewhat  of  an  objection  to 
illuminating  large  dials  from  the  inside,  that  it  makes  it  impossible 
to  counterpoise  the  hands  outside,  except  with  very  short,  and  there 
fore  very  heavy,  counterpoises.  And  if  hands  are  only  counterpoised 
inside,  there  is  no  counterpoise  at  all  to  the  force  of  the  wind,  which 
is  then  constantly  tending  to  kosen  them  on  the  arbor,  and  that 
tendency  is  aggravated  by  the  hand  itself  pressing  on  the  arbor  one 
way  as  it  ascends,  and  the  other  way  as  it  descends ;  and  if  a  large 
hand  once  gets  in  the  smallest  degree  loose,  it  becomes  rapidly  worse 
by  the  constant  shaking.  It  is  mentioned  in  Reid's  book  that  the 
minute-hand  of  St  Paul  s  cathedral,  which  is  above  8  feet  long,  used 
to  fall  over  above  a  minute  as  it  passed  from  the  left  to  the  right 
side  of  xii,  before  it  was  counterpoised  outside.  In  the  conditions 
to  be  followed  in  the  Westminster  clock  it  was  expressly  required 
that  "the  hands  be  counterpoised  externally,  for  wind  as  well  as 
weight. "  The  long  hand  should  be  straight  and  plain,  to  distinguish 
it  as  much  as  possible  from  the  hour  hand,  which  should  end  in  a 
"heart"  or  swell.  Many  clockmakers  and  architects,  on  the  con 
trary,  seem  to  aim  at  making  the  hands  as  like  each  other  as  they 
can ;  and  it  is  not  uncommon  to  see  even  the  counterpoises  gilt, 
probably  with  the  same  object  of  producing  apparent  symmetry  and 
the  same  result  of  producing  real  confusion. 

The  old  fashion  of  having  chimes  or  tunes  played  by  machinery 
on  church  bells  at  certain  hours  of  the  day  has  greatly  revived  in 
the  last  few  years,  and  it  has  extended  to  town  halls,  as  also  that 
of  having  very  large  clock  bells,  which  had  almost  become  extinct 
until  the  making  of  the  Westminster  clock.  The  old  kind  of  chime 
machinery  consisted  merely  of  a  large  wooden  ban-el  about  2  feet  in 
diameter  with  pins  stuck  in  it  like  those  of  a  musical  box,  which 
pulled  down  levers  that  lifted  hammers  on  the  bells.  Generally 
there  were  several  tunes  "  pricked  "  on  the  barrel,  which  had  an 
endway  motion  acting  automatically,  so  as  to  make  a  shift  after  eacli 
tune,  and  with  a  special  adjustment  by  hand  to  make  it  play  a 
psalm  tune  on  Sundays.  But  though  these  tunes  were  very  pleasing 
and  popular  in  the  places  where  such  chimes  existed  they  were  generally 
feeble  and  irregular,  because  the  pins  and  levers  were  not  strong 
enough  to  lift  hammers  of  sufficient  weight  for  the  large  bells,  and 
there  were  no  means  of  regulating  the  time  of  dropping  off  the 
levers.  Probably  the  last  large  chime  work  of  this  kind  was  that 
put  up  by  Dent  to  play  on  16  bells  at  the  Royal  Exchange  in 
1845,  with  the  improvement  of  a  cast-iron  barrel  and  stronger  pins 
than  in  the  old  wooden  barrels. 

A  much  improved  chime  machine  has  been  introduced  since,  at 
first  by  an  inventor  named  Imhoff,  who  sold  Ms  patent,  or  the 
right  to  use  it,  to  Messrs  Gillett  and  Bland  of  LYoydon,  and  also  to 
Messrs  Lund  and  Blockley  of  Pall  Mall,  who  have  both  added 
further  improvements  of  their  own.  The  principle  of  it  is  this  : 
instead  of  the  hammers  being  lifted  by  the  pins  which  let  them  off, 
they  are  lifted  whenever  they  are  down  by  an  independent  set  of  cam 
wheels  of  ample  strength  ;  and  all  that  the  pins  on  the  barrel  have 
to  do  is  to  trip  them  up  by  a  set  of  comparatively  light  levers  or 
detents.  Consequently  the  pins  are  as  small  as  those  of  a  barrel 
organ,  and  many  more  tunes  can  be  set  on  the  same  barrel  than  in 
the  old  plan,  and  besides  that,  any  number  of  barrels  can  be  kept, 
and  put  in  from  time  to  time  as  you  please  ;  so  that  you  may  have 
as  many  tunes  as  the' peal  of  bells  will  admit.  There  are  various 
provisions  for  regulating  and  adjusting  the  time,  and  the  machinery 
is  altogether  of  a  very  perfect  kind  for  its  purpose,  but  it  must  bo 
seen  to  be  understood. 

It  is  always  necessary  in  chimes  to  have  at  least  two  hammers  to 
each  bell  to  enable  a  note  to  be  repeated  quickly.  Some  ambitious 
musicians  determined  to  try  "  chords"  or  double  notes  struck  at 


them,     ine  largest  peaia  ana  cmmus  wt  »»  •"*—•  -<• 

cester  cathedral,  and  the  town  halls  of  Bradford  and  Rochdale,  and 
a  still  larger  one  is  now  making  for  Manchester,  all  by  Gillett  ano 
Bland.  The  clock  at  Worcester,  which  as  yet  ranks  next  to  West- 
minster,  was  made  by  Mr  Joyce  of  Whitchurch  ;  the  others  are  by 
Gillett  and  Bland.  At  Boston  church  they  have  chimea  m  « 


32 


CLOCKS 


ticm  of  some  of  the  foreign  ones  on  above  40  small  bells,  which  were 
added  for  that  purpose  to  the  eight  of  the  peal  ;  but  they  are  not 
successful,  and  it  is  stated  in  Sir  E.  Beckett's  book  on  clocks  and 
bells,  that  he  warned  them  that  the  large  and  small  bells  would  not 
harmonize,  though  either  might  be  used  separately.  Other  persons 
have  attempted  chimes  on  hemispherical  bells,  like  those  of  house 
clocks  ;  but  they  also  are  a  failure  for  external  bells  to  be  heard  at 
a  distance.  This  however  belongs  rather  to  the  subject  of  bells  ;  and 
we  must  refer  to  that  book  for  all  practical  information  about  them. 

TEETH  OP  WHEELS. 

Before  explaining  the  construction  of  the  largest  clock  in  the 
world  it  is  necessary  to  consider  the  shape  of  wheel  teeth  suitable  foi 
different  purposes,  and  als'o  of  the  cams  requisite  to  raise  heavy 
hammers,  which  had  been  too  much  neglected  by  clockmakers  pre 
viously.  At  the  same  time  we  are  not  going  to  write  a  treatise  on 
all  the  branches  of  the  important  subject  of  wheel-cutting ;  but, 
assuming  a  knowledge  of  the  general  principles  of  it,  to  apply  them 
to  the  points  chiefly  involved  in  clock-making.  The  most  compre 
hensive  mathematical  view  of  it  is  perhaps  to  be  found  in  a  paper 
by  the  astronomer  royal  in  the  Cambridge  Transactions  many  years 
ago,  which  is  further  expanded  in  Professor  Willis's  Principles  of 
Meclwnism.  Respecting  the  latter  book,  however,  we  should  advise 
the  reader  to  be  content  with  the  mathematical  rules  there  given, 
which  are  very  simple,  without  attending  much  to  those  of  the 
odontograph,  which  seem  to  give  not  less  but  more  trouble  than 
the  mathematical,  and  are  only  approximate  after  all,  and  also  do 
not  explain  themselves,  or  convey  any  knowledge  of  the  principle 
to  those  who  use  them. 

For  all  wheels  that  are  to  work  together,  the  first  thing  to  do  is 
to  fix  the  geometrical,  or  primitive,  or  pitch  circles  of  the  two  wheels-, 
i.e.,  the  two  circles  which,  if  they  rolled  perfectly  together,  would 
give  the  velocity-ratio  you  want.  Draw  a  straight  line  joining  the 
two  centres  ;  then  the  action  which  takes  place  between  any  two 
teeth  as  they  are  approaching  that  line  is  said  to  be  before  the  line  of 
centres  ;  and  the  action  while  they  are  separating  is  said  to  be  after 
the  line  of  centres.  Now,  with  a  view  to  reduce  the  friction,  it  is 
essential  to  have  as  little  action  before  the  line  of  centres  as  you 
can  ;  foi  if  you  make  any  rude  sketch,  on  a  large  scale,  of  a  pair  of 
wheels  acting  together,  and  serrate  the  edges  of  the  teeth  (which  is 
an  exaggeration  of  the  roughness  which  produces  friction),  you  will 
see  that  the  further  the  contact  begins  before  the  line  of  centres,  the 
more  the  serration  will  interfere  with  the  motion,  and  that  at  a 
certain  distance  no  force  whatever  could  drive  the  wheels,  but 
would  only  jam  the  teeth  faster ;  and  you  will  see  also  that  this  can 
not  happen  after  the  line  of  centres.  But  with  pinions  of  the 
numbers  generally  used  in  clocks  you  cannot  always  get  rid  of 
action  before  the  line  of  centres ;  for  it  may  be  proved  (but  the 
proof  is  too  long  to  give  here),  that  if  a  pinion  has  less  than  11 
leaves,  no  wheel  of  any  number  of  teeth  can  drive  it  without  some 
action  before  the  line  of  centres.  And  generally  it  may  be  stated 
that  the  greater  the  number  of  teeth  the  less  friction  there  will  be, 
as  indeed  is  evident  enough  from  considering  that  if  the  teeth  were 
infinite  in  number,  and  infinitesimal  in  size,  there  would  be  no 
friction  at  all,  but  simple  rolling  of  one  pitch  circle  on  the  other. 
And  since  in  clock-work  the  wheels  always  drive  the  pinions,  except 
the  hour  pinion  in  the  dial  work,  and  the  winding  pinions  in  large 
clocks,  it  has  long  been  recognized  as  important  to  have  high  num 
bered  pinions,  except  where  there  is  a  train  remontoire,  or  a  gravity 
escapement,  to  obviate  that  necessity. 

And  with  regard  to  this  matter,  the  art  of  clock-making  has  in 
one  sense  retrograded  ;  for  the  pinions  which  are  now  almost  univer 
sally  used  in  English  and  French  clocks  are  of  a  worse  form  than 
those  of  several  centuries  ago,  to  which  we  have  several  times 
alluded  under  the  name  of  lantern  pinions,  so  called  from  their  re 
sembling  a  lantern  with  upright  ribs.  A  sketch  of  one,  with  a 
cross  section  on  a  large  scale,  is  given  at  fig.  24.  Now  it  is  a  property 
of  these  pinions,  that  when  they  are  driven,  the  action  begins  just 
when  the  centre  of  the  pin  is  on  the  line  of  centres,  however  few 
the  pins  may  be  ;  and  thus  the  action  of  a  lantern  pinion  of  6  is 
about  equal  to  that  of  a  leaved  pinion  of  10  ;  and  indeed,  for  some 
reason  or  other,  it  appears  in  practice  to  be  even  better,  possibly 
from  the  teeth  of  the  wheel  not  requiring  to  be  cut  so  accurately, 
and  from  the  pinion  never  getting  clogged  with  dirt.  Certainly  the 
running  of  the  American  clocks,  which  all  have  these  pinions,  is 
remarkably  smooth,  and  they  require  a  much  smaller  going  weight 
than  English  clocks  ;  and  the  same  may  be  said  of  the°common 
"  Dutch,"  i.e.,  German  clocks.  It  should  be  understood,  however, 
that  as  the  action  upon  these  pinions  is  all  after  the  line  of  centres 
when  they  are  driven,  it  will  be  all  before  the  line  of  centres  if  they 
drive,  and  therefore  they  are  not  suitable  for  that  purpose.  In 
some  of  the  French  clocks  in  the  1851  Exhibition  they  were  wrongly 
used,  not  only  for  the  train,  but  for  winding  pinions  ;  and  some°of 
them  also  had  the  pins  not  fixed  in  the  lantern,  but  rolling, — a  very 
useless  refinement,  and  considerably  diminishi;\g  the  strength  of  the 
pinion.  For  it  is  one  of  the  advantages  of  lantern  pinions  with  fixed 


pins,  that  they  are  very  strong,  and  there  is  no  risk  of  their  being 
broken  in  hardening,  as  there  is  with  common  pinions. 

The  fundamental  rule  for  the  tracing  of  teeth,  though  very 
simple,  is  not  so  well  known  as  it  ought  to  be,  and  therefore  we  will 
give  it,  premising  that  so  much  of  a  tooth  as  lies  within  the  pitch  circle 
of  the  wheel  is  called  its  root  or  flunk,  and  the  part  beyond  the 
pitch  circle  is  called  the  point,  or  the  curve,  or  the  addendum;  and 
moreover,  that  before  the  line  of  centres  the  action  is  always 
between  the  flanks  of  the  driver  and  the  points  of  the  driven  wheel 
or  runner  (as  it  may  be  called,  more  appropriately  than  the  usual 
term  follower) ;  and  after  the  line  of  centres,  the  action  is  always 
between  the  points  of  the  driver  and  the  flanks  of  the  runner.  Con 
sequently,  if  there  is  no  action  before  the  line  of  centres,  no  points 
are  required  for  the  teeth  of  the  runner, 

In  fig.  23,  let  AQX  be  the  pitch  circle  of  the  runner,  and  ARY 
that  of  the  driver;  and  let  GAP  be  any  curve  whatever  of  smaller 
curvature  than  AQX  (of  course  a 
circle  is  always  the  kind  of  curve 
used) ;  and  QP  the  curve  which  is 
traced  out  by  any  point  P  in  the  gene 
rating  circle  GAP,  as  it  rolls  in  the 
pitch  circle  AQX;  and  again  let  HP 
be  the  curve  traced  by  the  point  P,  as 


the  generating  circle  GAP  is  rolled  on 
the  pitch  circle  ARY  ;    then  RP  will 


pit 

be  the  form  of  the  point  of  a  tooth  on 
the  driver  ARY,  which  will  drive  with 
uniform  and  proper  motion  the  flank 
QP  of  the  runner;  though  hot  without 
some  friction,  because  that  can  only 
be  done  with  involute  teeth,  which  are 
traced  in  a  different  way,  and  are  subject 
to  other  conditions,  rendering  them  practically  useless  for  machinery, 
as  'may  be  seen  in  Professor  Willis's  book.  If  the  motion  is 
reversed,  so  that  the  runner  becomes  the  driver,  then  the  flank  QP 
is  of  the  proper  form  to  drive  the  point  RP,  if  any  action  has  to 
take  place  before  the  line  of  centres. 

And  again,  any  generating  curve,  not  even  necessarily  the  same 
as  before,  may  be  used  to  trace  the  flanks  of  the  driver  and  the 
points  of  the  runner,  by  being  rolled  within  the  circle  ARY,  and  on 
the  circle  AQX. 

Now  then,  to  apply  this  rule  to  particular  cases.  Suppose  the 
generating  circle  is  the  same  as  the  pitch  circle  of  the  driven  pinion 
itself,  it  evidently  can 
not  roll  at  all  ;  and 
the  tooth  of  the  pinion 
is  represented  by  the 
mere  point  P  on  the 
circumference  of  the 
pitch  circle  ;  and  the 
tooth  to  drive  it  will 
be  simply  an  epicycloid 
traced  by  rolling  the 
pitch  circle  of  the 
pinion  on  that  of  the 
wheel.  And  we  know 
that  in  that  case  the^e 
is  no  action  before 
the  line  of  centres, 
and  no  necessity  for 
any  flanks  on  the  teeth 
of  the  driver.  But  in 
asmuch  as  the  pins 
of  a  lantern  pinion 
must  have  some  thick 
ness,  and  cannot  be 
mere  lines,  a  further 
process  is  necessary  to 
get  the  exact  form  of 
the  teeth  ;  thus  if  RP, 
fig.  24,  is  the  tooth 


FiQ.  24. — Lantern  Pinion. 


that  would  drive  a  pinion  with  pins  of  no  sensible  thickness,  the 
tooth  to  drive  a  pin  of  the  thickness  2  T>p  must  have  the  width  Yp 
or  E,r  gauged  off  it  all  round.  This,  in  fact,  brings  it  very  nearly 
to  a  smaller  tooth  traced  with  the  same  generating  circle  ;  arid 
therefore  in  practice  this  mode  of  construction  is  not  much  adhered 
to,  and  the  teeth  are  made  of  tbe  same  shape,  only  thinner,  as  if 
the  pins  of  the  pinion  had  no  thickness.  Of  course  they  should  be 
thin  enough  to  allow  a  little  shake,  or  "back-lash,"  but  in 
clock-work  the  backs  of  the  teeth  never  come  in  contact  at  all. 

Next  suppose  the  generating  circle  to  be  half  the  size  of  the  pitch 
circle  of  the  pinion.  The  curve,  or  hypocycloid,  traced  by  rolling 
this  within  the  pinion,  is  no  other  than  the  diameter  of  the  pinion  ; 
and  consequently  the  flanks  of  the  pinion  teeth  will  be  merely  radii 
of  it,  and  such  teeth  or  leaves  are  called  radial  teeth  ;  and  they  are 
far  the  most  common  ;  indeed,  no  others  are  ever  made  (except  lan 
terns)  for  clock-work.  The  corresponding  epicyeloidal  points  of 


CLOCKS 


33 


the  teeth  cf  the  driver  arc  more  curved,  or  a  less  pointed  arc,  than 
those  required  for  a  lantern  pinion  of  the  same  size  and  number. 
The  teeth  in  fig.  25  are  made  of  a  different  form  on  the  opposite 
sides  of  the  line  of  centres 
CA,  in  order  to  show  the 
difference  between  driving 
and  driven  or  running 
teeth,  where  the  number 
of  the  pinion  happens  to 
be  as  much  as  12,  so  that 
no  points  are  required  to 
its  teeth  when  driven, 
since  with  that  number 
all  the  action  may  be 
after  the  line  of  centres. 
The  great  Westminster 
clock  affords  a  very  good 
illustration  of  this.  In  F-  „- 

both    the    striking  parts 

the  great  wheel  of  the  train  and  the  great  winding-wheel  on  the 
other  end  of  the  barrel  are  about  the  same  size  ;  but  in  the  train 
the  wheel  drives,  and  in  winding  the  pinion  drives.  And  there 
fore  in  the  train  the  pinion-teeth  have  their  points  cut  off,  and 
wheel-teeth  have  their  points  on,  as  on  the  right  side  of  fig.  25, 
and  in  the  winding-wheels  the  converse  ;  and  thus  in  both  cases 
the  action  is  made  to  take  place  in  the  way  in  which  there  is  the 
least  friction.  Willis  gives  the  following  table,  "  derived  organi 
cally"  (i.e.,  by  actual  trial  with  large  models),  of  the  least  numbers 
which  will  work  together  without  any  action  before  the  line  of 
centres,  provided  there  are  no  points  to  the  teeth  of  the  runner, 
assuming  them  to  be  radial  teeth,  as  usual  : — 

Driver 54302420171514131211109    876 

Runner 11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  21  23  27  35  32  176 

In  practice  it  is  hardly  safe  to  leave  the  driven  teeth  without 
points,  unless  the  numbers  slightly  exceed  these ;  because,  if  there 
is  any  irregularity  in  them,  the  square  edges  of  those  teeth  would 
not  work  smoothly  with  the  teeth  of  the  driver.  Sometimes  it 
happens  that  the  same  wheel  has  to  drive  two  pinions  of  different 
numbers.  It  is  evident  that,  if  both  are  lanterns,  or  both  pinions 
with  radial  teeth,  they  cannot  properly  be  driven  by  the  same  wheel, 
because  they  would  require  teeth  of  a  different  shape.  It  is  true 
that  on  account  of  the  greater  indifference  of  lantern  pinions  to  the 
accuracy  of  the  teeth  which  are  to  drive  them,  the  same  wheel  will 
drive  two  pinions  of  that  kind,  differing  in  the  numbers  in  the 
ratio  of  even  2  to  1,  with  hardly  any  sensible  shake  ;  but  that 
would  not  be  so  with  radial  pinions,  and  of  course  it  is  not  correct. 
Accordingly,  in  clocks  with  the  spring  remontoire,  as  in  fig.  21, 
where  the  scape-wheel  or  remontoire  pinion  is  double  the  size  of  the 
fly  pinion,  the  larger  one  is  made  with  radial  teeth  and  the  smaller 
a  lantern,  which  makes  the  same  wheel  teeth  exactly  right  for  both. 
In  clocks  of  the  same  construction  as  fig.  22,  and  in  the  West 
minster  clock,  there  is  a  case  of  a  different  kind,  which  cannot  be  so 
accommodated  ;  for  there  the  great  wheel  has  to  drive  both  the 
second  wheel's  pinion  of  10  or  12,  and  the  hour-wheel  of  40  or  48; 
the  teeth  of  the  great  wheel  were  therefore  made  to  suit  the  lantern 
pinion,  and  those  of  the  hour- wheel  (i.e.,  their  flanks)  then  depend 
on  those  of  the  great  wheel,  and  they  were  accordingly  traced 
by  rolling  a  generating  circle  of  the  size  of  the  lantern 
pinion  on  the  inside  of  the  pitch  circle  of  the  hour-wheel ;  the 
result  is  a  tooth  thicker  at  the  bottom  than  usual.  These  are  by 
no  means  unnecessary  refinements  ;  for  if  the  teeth  of  a  set  of  wheels 
are  not  properly  shaped  so  as  to  work  smoothly  and  regularly  into 
each  other,  it  increases  their  tendency  to  wear  out  in  proportion  to 
their  inaccuracy,  besides  increasing  the  inequalities  of  force  in  the 
train.  Sometimes  turret  clocks  are  worn  out  in  a  few  years  from 
the  defects  in  their  teeth,  especially  Avhen  they  are  made  of  brass 
or  soft  gun-metal. 

In  the  construction  of  clocks  which  have  to  raise  heavy  hammers 
it  is  important  to  obtain  the  best  form  for  the  cams,  as  pins  are 
quite  unfit  for  the  purpose.  The  conditions  which  are  most  impor 
tant  are — that  the  action  should  begin  at  the  greatest  advantage, 
and  therefore  at  the  end  of  the  lever,  that  when  it  ceases  the  face 
of  the  lever  should  be  a  tangent  to  the  cam  at  both  their  points, 
and  that  in  no  part  of  the  motion  should  the  end  of  the  lever  scrape 
on  the  cam.  In  the  common  construction  of  clocks  the  first  con 
dition  is  deviated  from  as  far  as  possible,  by  the  striking  pins 
beginning  to  act  at  some  distance  from  the  end  of  the  lever;  and  con 
sequently,  at  the  time  when  the  most  force  is  required  to  lift  the  ham 
mer  there  is  the  least  given,  and  a  great  deal  is  wasted  afterwards. 

The  construction  of  curve  for  the  cams,  which  is  the  most  perfect 
mathematically,  is  that  which  is  described  in  mathematical  books 
under  the  name  of  the  tractrix.  But  there  are  such  practical 
difficulties  in  describing  it  that  it  is  of  no  use.  It  should  be 
observed  that,  in  a  well-known  book  with  an  appropriate  name 
( Camus  on  the  Teeth  of  Wheels),  a  rule  for  drawing  cams  has  been 
inserted  by  some  translator,  which  is  quite  wrong.  It  may  be 


proved  that  epicycloidal  cams  described  as  follows  are  so  nearly 
of  the  proper  mathematical  form  that  they  may  be  used  without 
any  sensible  error.  Let  r  be  the  radius  of  the  circle  or  barrel  on 
which  the  cams  are  to  be  set  theoretically,  i.e.,  allowing  nothing 
tor  the  clearance  which  must  be  cut  out  afterwards,  for  fear  the 
fever  should  scrape  the  back  of  the  cams  in  falling ;  in  other  words 
r  is  the  radius  of  the  pitch  circle  of  the  cams  Call  the  length  of 
the  lever  I.  Then  the  epicycloidal  cams  may  be  traced  by  rolling 
on  the  pitch  circle  a  smaller  one  whose  diameter  is  Vra  +'P  -  r 
Thus,  if  I  is  4  inches  and  r  8  inches  (which  is  about  the  proper  size 
tor  an  18-inch  striking  wheel  with  20  cams),  the  radius  of  the 
tracing  circle  from  the  cams  will  be  0-9  inch.  The  advantage  of 
cams  of  this  kind  is  that  they  waste  as  little  force  as  possible  in  the 
lift,  and  keep  the  lever  acting  upon  them  as  a  tangent  at  its  point 
the  whole  way  ;  and  the  cams  themselves  may  be  of  any  length 
according1  to  the  angle  through  which  you  want  the  lever  to  move , 

Most  people  however  prefer  dealing  with  circles,  when  they  can 
instead  of  epicycloids ;  and  drawing  by  compasses  is  safer  than 
calculating  in  most  hands.  We  therefore  give  another  rule,  su"- 
gested^by  Mr  E.  J.  Lawrence,  a  member  of  the  horological  jury  in  the 
1851  ^Exhibition,  which  is  easier  to  work,  and  satisfies  the  principal 
conditions  stated  just  now,  though  it  wastes  rather  more  in  lift 
than  the  epicycloidal  curve ;  and  the  cams  must  not  have  their 
points  cut  off,  as  epicycloidal  ones  may,  to  make  the  lever  drop 
off  sooner ;  because  a  short  cam  has  to  be  drawn  with  a  different 
radius  from  a  long  one,  to  work  a  lever  of  any  given  length.  But, 
on  the  other  hand,  the  same  curve  for  the  cams  will  suit  a  lever  of 
any  length,  whereas  with  epicycloidal  cams  you  must  take  care  to  put 
the  centre  or  axis  of  the  lever  at  the  exact  distance  from  the  centre 
of  the  wheel  for  which  the  curve  was  calculated — an  easy  enough 
thing  to  do,  of  cours'e,  but  for  the  usual  disposition  of  workmen  to 
deviate  from  your  plans,  apparently  for  the  mere  pleasure  of  doing 
wrong.  It  is  astonishing  how,  by  continually  making  one  machine 
after  another,  with  a  little  deviation  each  time,  the  thing  gradually 
assumes  a  form  in  which  you  can  hardly  recognise  your  original 
design  at  all.  The  prevention  of  this  kind  of  blundering  is  one  of 
the  many  advantages  of  making  machines  by  machinery,  for  which 
no  machine  offers  more  facilities  than  clocks,  and  yet  there  is  none 
to  which  it  is  less  applied. 

In  fig.  26  let  CA  be  a  radius  of  the  wheel,  L  in  the  same  straight 
line  the  centre  of  the,  lever,  and  AB  the  space  of  one  cam  on 
the  pitch  circle  of  the 
cams,  A  being  a  little 
below  the  line  of 
centres;  AP  is  the 
arc  of  the  lever. 
Draw  a  tangent  to 
the  two  circles  at  A, 
and  a  tangent  to  the 
cam  circle  at  B ;  then 
T,  their  point  of  in 
tersection,  will  be 
the  centre  of  the 
circle  which  is  the 


Fig.  26. 


face  of  the  cam  BP ;  and  TB  also  =TA,  which  is  a  convenient  test 
of  the  tangents  being  rightly  drawn.  The  action  begins  at  the 
point  of  the  lever,  and  advances  a  little  way  up,  but  recedes  again 
to  the  point,  and  ends  with  the  lever  as  a  tangent  to  the  cam  at  P. 
The  backs  of  the  cams  must  be  cut  out  rather  deeper  than  the  circle 
AP,  but  retaining  the  point  P,  to  allow  enough  for  clearance  of  the 
lever,  which  should  fall  against  some  fixed  stop  or  banking  on  the 
clock-frame,  before  the  next  cam  reaches  it.  The  point  of  the  lever 
must  not  be  left  quite  sharp,  for  if  it  is,  it  will  in  time  cut  off  the 
points  of  the  cast-iron  cams. 

OIL  FOR  CLOCKS. 

We  will  add  a  few  words  on  the  subject  of  oil  for  clocks.  Olive- 
oil  is  most  commonly  used,  sometimes  purified  in  various  ways,  and 
sometimes  not  purified  at  all.  We  believe,  however,  that  purified 
animal  oil  is  better  than  any  of  the  vegetable  oils,  as  some  of  them 
are  too  thin,  while  others  soon  get  thick  and  viscid.  For  turret 
clocks  and  common  house  clocks,  good  sperm  oil  is  fine  enough,  and 
is  probably  the  best.  For  finer  work  the  oil  requires  some  purifi 
cation.  Even  common  neat's  foot  oil  may  be  made  fine  and  clear  by 
the  following  method.  Mix  it  with  about  the  same  quantity  of 
water,  and  shake  it  in  a  large  bottle,  not  full,  until  it  becomes  like 
a  white  soup ;  then  let  it  stand  till  fine  oil  appears  at  the  top,  which 
maybe  skimmed  ofT;  it  will  take  several  months  before  it  has  all 
separated — into  water  at  the  bottom,  dirt  in  the  middle,  and  fine 
oil  at  the  top.  And  it  should  be  done  in  cold  weather,  because 
heat  makes  some  oil  come  out  as  fine,  which  in  cold  would  remain 
among  the  dirty  oil  in  the  middle,  and  in  cold  weather  that  fine  oil 
of  hot  weather  will  become  muddy.  There  are  various  vegetable 
oils  sold  at  tool-shops  as  oil  for  watches,  including  some  for  which  a 
prize  medal  was  awarded  in  the  Exhibition,  but  not  by  any  of  the 
mechanical  juries  ;  we  have  no  information  as  to  the  test  which  was 

VI  -  5 


CLOCKS 


applied  to  it,  and  nouc  but  actual  use  for  a  considerable  time  would 
be  of  mucLi  value. 

THE  WESTMINSTER  CLOCK, 

It  is  unnecessary  to  repeat  the  account  of  the  long  dispute  between 
the  Government,  the  architect  of  the  House  of  Parliament,  the 
astronomer  royal,  Sir  E.  Beckett,  and  some  of  the  London  clock- 
makers,  which  ended  in  the  employment  of  the  late  E.  J.  Dent  and 
his  successor  F.  Dent  from  the  designs  and  under  the  superintend 
ence  of  Sir  E.  Beckett,  as  the  inscription  on  it  records  The  fullest 
account  of  these  was  given  in  the  4th  and  5th  editions  of  the 
Treatise  on  Clocks,  and  we  shall  now  only  describe  its  construction. 
Fi".  27  is  a  front  elevation  or  section  lengthwise  of  the  clock,  The 
frame  is  16  feet  long  and  5«|  wide,  and  it  rests  on  two  iron  plates 
lying  on  the  top  of  the  walls  of  the  shaft  near  the  middle  of  the 
tower,  down  which  the  weights  descend.  That  wall  reaches  up  to 
the  bell  chamber,  and  those  iron  plates  are  built  right  through  it, 
and  so  is  the  great  cock  which  carries  the  pendulum.  The  clock- 
room  is  28  feet  x  19,  the  remaining  9  of  the  square  being  occupied 
by  the  staircase  and  an  air-shaft  for  ventilating  the  whole  building. 

The  going  part  of  the  clock,  however,  not  requiring  such  a  long 
barrel  as  the  striking  parts,  which  have  steel  wire  ropes  '55  inch 
thick,  is  shorter  than  they  are,  and  is  carried  by  an  intermediate 
bar  or  frame  bolted  to  the  cross  bars  of  the  principal  frame.  The 
back  of  them  is  about  2^  feet  from  the  wall,  to  leave  room  for  a  man 
behind,  and  the  pendulum  cock  is  so  made  as  to  let  his  head  come 
within  it  in  order  to  look  square  at  the  escapement.  The  escape 
ment  is  the  double  three  legs  (fig.  13),  and  the  length  of  the  teeth  or 
legs  is  6  inches.  The  drawing  represents  the  wheels  (except  the 
Welled  wheels  leading  off  to  the  dials)  as  mere  circles  to  prevent 


confusion.  The  numbers  of  teeth  and  the  time  of  revolution  of  the 
principal  ones  are  inserted  and  require  no  further  notice.  Their  size 
can  be  taken  from  the  scale ;  the  great  wheels  of  the  striking  parts 
are  2|  and  of  the  going  part  2  inches  thick,  and  all  the  wheels  are  of 
cast-iron  except  the  smaller  ones  of  the  escapement,  which  are  brass, 
but  are  painted  like  the  iron  ones. 

The  maintaining  power  for  keeping  the  clock  going  while  winding 
is  peculiar  and  probably  unique.  None  of  those  already  described 
could  have  kept  in  gear  long  enough,  maintaining  sufficient  force 
all  the  time,  as  that  part  takes  10  minutes  to  wind,  even  if  the 
man  does  not  loiter  over  it.  This  is  managed  without  a  single  extra 
wheel  beyond  the  ordinary  winding  pinion  of  large  clocks.  The 
winding  wheel  on  the  end  of  the  barrel  is  close  to  the  great  wheel, 
and  you  see  the  pinion  with  the  winding  arbor  in  the  oblique  piece 
of  the  front  frame  of  the  clock.  Consequently  that  arbor  is  about 
6  feet  long,  and  a  little  movement  of  its  back  end  makes  no  material 
obliquity  in  the  two  bushes  ;  i.e.,  it  may  go  a  little  out  of  parallel 
with  all  the  other  arbors  in  the  clock  without  any  impediment  to  its 
action.  Its  back  pivot  is  carried,  not  in  a  fixed  bush,  but  in  the 
lower  end  of  a  bar  a  little  longer  thanthe  great  wheel's  radius,  hang 
ing  from  the  back  of  the  great  arbor  ;  and  that  bar  has  a  spring 
click  upon  it  which  takes  into  ratchet  teeth  cast  on  the  back  of  the 
great  wheel.  When  the  great  wheel  is  turning,  and  you  are  not 
winding,  the  ratchets  pass  the  click  as  usual,  but  as  soon  as  you  begin 
to  wind  the  back  end  of  the  winding  arbor  would  rise  but  for  the 
click  catching  those  teeth,  and  so  the  great  wheel  itself  become  the 
fulcrum  for  winding  for  the  time.  After  the  winding  has  gone  a 
few  minutes  a  long  tooth  projecting  from  the  back  of  the  arbor 
catches  against  a  stop,  because  that  end  of  the  hanging  bar  and 
pinion  have  all  risen  a  little  with  the  motion  of  the  great  wheel. 


FIG.  27.— Section  of  Westminster  Clock. 


Then  the  man  is  obliged  to  turn  the  handle  back  a  little,  which  lets 
down  the  pinion,  &c.,  and  the  click  takes  up  some  lower  teeth  ;  and 
so  if  he  chooses  to  loiter  an  hour  over  the  winding  he  can  do  no 
harm.  The  winding  pinion  "pumps"  into  gear  and  out  again  as 
usual.  The  going  part  will  go  Si  days,  to  provide  for  the  possible 
forgetting  of  a  day  in  winding.  The  weight  is  about  160  K» ;  but 
only  one-14th  of  the  whole  force  of  that  weight  is  requisite  to  drive 
the  pendulum,  as  was  found  by  trial ;  the  rest  goes  in  overcoming 
the  friction  of  all  the  machinery,  including  a  ton  and  a  half  of  hands 
and  counterpoises,  and  in  providing  force  enough  to  drive  them 
through  all  weathers,  except  heavy  snows,  which  occasionally  accumu 
late  thick  enough  on  several  minute  hands  at  once,  on  the  left  side 
of  the  dials,  to  stop  the  clock,  those  hands  being  11  feet  long.  For 
the  dials  are  22£  feet  in  diameter,  or  contain  400  square  feet  each, 
and  there  are  very  few  rooms  where  such  a  dial  could  be 
painted  on  the  floor.  They  are  made  of  iron  framing  rilled  in  with 
opal  glass.  Each  minute  is  14  inches  wide.  The  only  larger  dial 
in  the  world  is  in  Mechlin  church,  which  is  40  feet  wide ;  but  it  has 
no  minute  hand,  which  makes  an  enormous  difference  in  the  force 
required  in  the  clock.  They  are  completely  walled  off  from  the 
clock-room  by  a  passage  all  round,  and  there  are  a  multitude  of  gas 
lights  behind  them,  which  are  lighted  by  hand,  though  provision 
was  originally  made  in  the  clock  for  doing  it  automatically.  The 
hour  hands  go  so  slow  that  their  weight  is  immaterial,  and  were  left 
as  they  were  made  of  gun  metal  under  the-  architect's  direction  • 
but  it  was  impossible  to  have  minute  hands  of  that  construction  and 
weight  without  injury  to  the  clock,  and  so  they  were  removed  by 
Sir  E.  Beckett,  and  others  made  of  copper  tubes,  with  a  section  com 
posed  of  two  circular  arcs  put  together,  and  are  consequently  very 
stiff,  while  weighing  only  28  lt>.  The  great  weight  is  in  the  wheels, 
tubes,  and  counterpoises.  The  minute  hands  are  partly  counterpoised 
i-.utside,  making  their  total  length  14  feet,  to  relieve  the  strain  upon 


their  arbors.  They  all  run  on  friction  wheels  imbedded  in  the 
larger  tubes  5k  inches  wide,  which  carry  the  hour  hands,  which 
themselves  run  on  fixed  friction  wheels. 

There  is  nothing  peculiar  in  the  quarter  striking  part  except  its 
size,  and  perhaps  in  the  barrel  turning  in  an  hour  and  a  half,  i.e., 
iu  three  repetitions  of  the  five  chimes  already  described.  The 
cams  are  of  wrought  iron  with  hard  steel  faces.  Each  bell  has  two 
hammers,  which  enables  the  cams  to  be  longer  and  the  pressure  on 
them  less.  The  hour-sti  iking  wheel  has  ten  cams  24  in.  wide  cast  on 
it ;  but  those  cams  have  solid  steel  faces  screwed  on  them.  All  this 
work  was  made  for  a  hammer  of  7  cwt.,  lifted  13  inches  from  the 
bell,  i.e.,  about  9  inches  of  vertical  lift.  The  hammer  was  reduced  to 
*K  cwt.  after  the  partial  cracking  of  the  bell.  The  rod  from  the  lever  to 
the  hammer  is  made  of  the  same  wire  rope  as  the  weight  ropes,  and  the 
result  is  that  there  is  no  noise  in  the  room  while  the  clock  is  strik 
ing.  The  lever  is  5  feet  4  inches  long,  and  strikes  against  the 
buffer  spring  shown  in  the  drawing,  to  prevent  concussion  on  the 
clock-frame,  of  which  you  cannot  feel  the  least.  The  quarter  ham 
mer  levers  have  smaller  springs  for  the  same  purpose,  and  the 
stops  of  the  striking  part  are  also  set  on  springs  instead  of 
rigid  as  usual.  The  ilies,  for  which  there  was  not  room  in  the 
drawing,  are  near  the  top  of  the  room  and  are  each  2  feet  4  inches 
square.  They  make  a  considerable  wind  in  the  room  when  revolv 
ing.  The  only  noise  made  in  striking  is  their  running  on  over 
their  ratchets  when  the  striking  stops.  Each  striking  weight  is 
a  ton  and  a  half— or  was  before  the  great  hammer  was  reduced. 
They  take  5  hours  to  wind  up,  and  it  has  to  be  done  twice  a  week, 
which  was  thought  better  than  making  the  parts  larger  and  the 
teeth  more  numerous  and  the  weights  twice  as  much,  to  go  a  week, 
and  of  course  the  winding  must  have  taken  twice  as  long,  as  it  was 
adapted  to  what  a  man  can  do  continuously  for  some  hours.  Coil 
sequeutly  it  was  necessary  to  contrive  something  to  stop  the  mau. 


C  L  0  — C  L  0 


35 


winding  just  before  each  time  of  striking.  And  that  is  done  by 
a  lever  being  tipped  over  by  the  snail  at  that  time,  which  at  once 
stops  the  winding.  When  the  striking  is  done  the  man  can  put 
the  lever  up  again  and  go  on.  The  loose  winding  wheels  are  not 
pumped  in  and  out  of  gear  as  usual,  being  too  heavy,  but  one  end 
of  the  arbor  is  pushed  into  gear  by  an  eccentric  bush  turned  by  the 
oblique  handle  or  lever  which  you  see  near  the  upper  corner  of  each 
striking  part,  and  they  can  be  turned  in  a  moment.  They  are  held 
in  their  place  for  gear  by  a  spring  catch  to  prevent  any  risk  of  slip 
ping  out.  Moreover  the  ropes  themselves  stop  the  winding  when  the 
weights  came  to  the  top,  pretty  much  as  they  do  in  a  spring  clock 
or  a  watch,  though  not  exactly. 

The  mode  of  letting  off  the  hour  striking  is  peculiar,  with  a  view 
to  the  first  blow  of  the  hour  being  exactly  at  the  GOth  second  of 
the  GOth  minute.  It  was  found  that  this  could  not  be  depended  on 
to  a  single  beat  of  the  pendulum,  and  probably  it  never  can  in  any 
clock,  by  a  mere  snail  turning  in  an  hour,  unless  it  was  of  a  very 
inconvenient  size.  Therefore  the  common  snail  only  lets  it  off  par 
tially,  and  the.  striking  stop  still  rests  against  a  lever  which 
is  not  dropped  but  tipped  up  with  a  slight  blow  by  another 
weighted  lever  resting  on  a  snail  on  the  ]  5-miiiute  wheel,  which 
moves  more  exactly  with  the  escapement  than  the  common  snail 
lower  in  the  train.  The  hammer  is  left  on  the  lift,  ready  to  fall, 
and  it  always  does  fall  within  half  a  second  after  the  last  beat  of 
the  pendulum  at  the  hour.  This  is  shown  in  fig.  28,  where  BE  is  the 
spring  stop  noticed  above,  and  P  the  ordinary  first  stop  on  the  long 
lifting  lever  PQ  (which  goes  on  far  beyond  the  reach  of  this  figure 
to  the  hour  snail).  The  second  or  warning  stop  is  CD,  and  BAS  is 
the  extra  lever  with  its  heavy  end  at  S  on  the  15-minute  snail. 
When  that  falls  the  end  B  tips  up  CD  with  certainty  by  the  blow, 
and  then  the  striking  is  free.  The  first,  second,  and  third  quarters 
begin  at  the  proper  times  ;  but  the  fourth  quarter  chimes  begin 
about  20  seconds  before  the  hour. 

The  clock  reports  its  own  rate  to  Greenwich  Observatory  by  gal 
vanic  action  twice  a  day,  i.e.,  an  electric  circuit  is  made  and  broken 
by  the  pressing  together  of  certain  springs  at  two  given  hours.  And 
in  this  way  the  rate  of  the  clock  is  ascertained  and  recorded,  and 
the  general  results  published  by  the  astronomer  royal  in  his 
annual  report.  This  has  been  for  some  years  so  remarkably  uniform, 
that  the  error  has  only  reached  3  seconds  on  3  per  cent,  of  the  days 


in  the  year,  and  is  generally  under  two.  He  has  also  reported  that 
"the  rate  of  the  clock  is  certain  to  much  less  than  a  second  a 
week  " — subject  to  abnormal  disturbances  by  thunder  storms  which 
sometimes  amount  to  seven  or  eight  seconds,  and  other  casualties, 
which  are  easily  distinguishable  from  the  spontaneous  variations. 


Fig.  28. 

The  original  stipulation  in  1845  was  that  the  rate  should  not  vary 
more  than  a  second  a  day — not  a  week  ;  and  this  was  pronounced 
impossible  by  Mr  Vulliamy  and  the  London  Company  of  Clock- 
makers,  and  it  is  true  that  up  to  that  time  no  such  rate  had  ever 
been  attained  by  any  large  clock.  In  1851  it  was  by  the" above- 
mentioned  clock,  now  at  King's  Cross  Station,  by  means  of  the  train 
remontoirc,  which  was  then  intended  to  be  used  at  Westminster,  but 
was  superseded  by  the  gravity  escapement. 

The  great  hour  tfell,  of  the  note  E,  weighs  134  tons  and  is 
9  feet  diameter  and  9  inches  thick.  The  quarter  bells  weigh 
respectively  78,  33£,  26,  and  21  cwt. ;  with  diameters  6  feet,  4J,  4, 
and  3  feet  9  inches,  and  notes  B,  E,  F  sh.  and  G  sh.  The  hammers 
are  on  double  levers  embracing  the  bells,  and  turning  on  pivots  pro 
jecting  from  the  iron  collars  which  carry  the  mushroom  shaped  tops 
of  the  bells.  The  bells,  including  £750  for  recasting  the  first  great 
bell,  cost  nearly  £6000,  and  the  clock  £4080.  The  bell  frame,  which 
is  of  wrought  iron  plates,  and  the  dials  and  hands,  all  provided 
by  the  architect,  cost  £11,934 — a  curious  case  of  the  accessories 
costing  more  than  the  principals.  (E.  B.) 


CLOISTER  (Latin,  claustrum  ;  French,  cloitre  ;  Italian, 
ckiostro  ;  Spanish,  claustro ;  German,  Hosier).  The  word 
"  cloister,"  though  now  restricted  to  the  four-sided 
enclosure,  surrounded  with  covered  ambulatories,  usually 
attached  to  conventual  and  cathedral  churches,  and  some 
times  to  colleges,  or  by  a  still  further  limitation  to  the 
ambulatories  themselves,  originally  signified  the  entire 
monastery.  In  this  sense  it  is  of  frequent  occurrence  in  our 
earlier  literature  (e.g.,  Shakespeare,  Meas.  for  Meas.,  i.  3, 
"This  day  my  sister  should  the  cloister  enter"),  and  is 
still  employed  in  poetry.  The  Latin  claustrum,  as  its 
derivation  implies,  primarily  denoted  no  more  than  the 
enclosing  wall  of  a  religious  house,  and  then  came  to  be 
used  for  the  whole  building  enclosed  within  the  wall.  To 
this  sense  the  German  "  kloster  "  is  still  limited,  the  covered 
walks,  or  cloister  in  the  modern  sense,  being  called 
"  kloster-gang,"  or  "  kreuz-gang."  In  French,  as  with  us, 
the  word  cloitre  retains  the  double  sense. 

In  the  special  sense  now  most  common,  the  word 
"  cloister  "  denotes  the  quadrilateral  area  in  a  monastery 
or  college  of  canons,  round  which  the  principal  buildings  are 
ranged,  and  which  is  usually  provided  with  a  covered  way 
or  ambulatory  running  all  round,  and  affording  a  means  of 
communication  between  the  various  centres  of  the  eccle 
siastical  life,  without  exposure  to  the  weather.  According 
to  the  Benedictine  arrangement,  which  from  its  suitability  to 
the  requirements  of  monastic  life  was  generally  adopted  in 
the  West,  one  side  of  the  cloister  was  formed  by  the  church, 
the  refectory  occupying  the  side  opposite  to  it,  that  the 
worshippers  might  have  the  least  annoyance  from  the  noise 
or  smell  of  the  repasts.  On  the  eastern  side  the  chapter 
house  was  placed,  with  other  apartments  belonging  to  the 
common  life  of  the  brethren  adjacent  to  it,  and,  as  a 
common  rule,  the  dormitory  occupied  the  whole  of  the 


upper  story.  On  the  opposite  or  western  side  were  generally 
the  cellarer's  lodgings,  with  the  cellars  and  store-houses,  in 
which  the  provisions  necessary  for  the  sustenance  of  the 
confraternity  were  housed.  In  Cistercian  monasteries  tho 
western  side  was  usually  occupied  by  the  "  domus  cou- 
versorum,"  or  lodgings  of  the  lay-brethren,  with  their  day- 
rooms  and  workshops  below,  and  dormitory  above.  The 
cloister,  with  its  surrounding  buildings,  generally  stood  011 
the  south  side  of  the  church,  to  secure  as  much  sunshine 
as  possible.  A  very  early  example  of  this  disposition  ia 
seen  in  the  plan  of  the  monastery  of  St  Gall  (ABBEY, 
vol.  i.  p.  12).  Local  requirements,  in  some  instances, 
caused  the  cloister  to  be  placed  to  the  north  of  the  church. 
This  is  the  case  in  the  English  cathedrals,  formerly  Bene 
dictine  abbeys,  of  Canterbury,  Gloucester,  and  Chester,  as 
well  as  in  that  of  Lincoln.  Other  examples  of  the  north 
ward  situation  are  at  Tintern,  Buildwas,  and  Sherborne. 
Although  the  covered  ambulatories  are  absolutely  essential 
to  the  completeness  of  a  monastic  cloister,  a  chief  object  of 
which  was  to  enable  the  inmates  to  pass  from  one  part  of 
the  monastery  to  another  without  inconvenience  from  rain, 
wind,  or  sun,  it  appears  that  they  were  sometimes  wanting. 
The  cloister  at  St  Alban's  seems  to  have  been  deficient  in 
ambulatories  till  the  abbacy  of  Robert  of  Gorham,  1151- 
1166,  when  the  eastern  walk  was  erected.  This,  as  was 
often  the  case  with  the  earliest  ambulatories,  was  of  wood 
covered  with  a  pentice  roof.  We  learn  from  Osbern's 
account  of  the  conflagration  of  the  monastery  of  Christ 
Church,  Canterbury,  1067,  that  a  cloister  with  covered 
ways  existed  at  that  time,  affording  communication  be 
tween  the  church,  the  dormitory,  and  the  refectory.  We 
learn  from  an  early  drawing  of  the  monastery  of  Canter 
bury  that  this  cloister  was  formed  by  an  arcade  of  Norman 
arches  supported  on  shafts,  and  covered  by  a  shud  roof. 


C  L  O  —  C  L  0 


A  fragment  of  an  arcaded  cloister  of  this  pattern  is  still 
found  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  infirmary-cloister  of  the 
same  foundation.  This  earlier  form  of  cloister  has  been 
generally  superseded  with  us  by  a  range  of  windows,  usually 
unglazed,  but  sometimes,  as  at  Gloucester,  provided  with 
glass,  lighting  a  vaulted  ambulatory,  of  which  the  cloisters 
of  Westminster  Abbey,  Salisbury,  and  Norwich,  are  typical 
examples.  The  older  design  was  preserved  in  the  South, 
where  "  the  cloister  is  never  a  window,  or  any  tiling  in  the 
least  approaching  to  it  in  design,  but  a  range  of  small 
elegant  pillars,  sometimes  single,  sometimes  coupled,  and 
supporting  arches  of  a  light  and  elegant  design,  all  the 
features  being  of  a  character  suited  to  the  place  where  they 
are  used,  and  to  that  only  "  (Fergusson,  Hist,  of  Arch.,  i. 
p.  610).  As  examples  of  this  description  of  cloister,  we 
may  refer  to  the  exquisite  cloisters  of  St  John  Lateran, 
and  St  Paul's  without  the  walls,  at  Rome,  where  the 
coupled  shafts  and  arches  are  richly  ornamented  with 
ribbons  of  mosaic,  and  those  of  the  convent  of  St  Scholastica 
at  Subiaco,  all  of  the  13th  century,  and  to  the  beautiful 
cloisters  at  Aries,  in  southern  France,  "  than  which  no 
building  in  this  style,  perhaps,  has  been  so  often  drawn  or 
so  much  admired  "  (Fergusson) ;  and  those  of  Aix,  Fonti- 
froide,  Elne,  &c.,  are  of  the  same  type  ;  as  also  the 
Romanesque  cloisters  at  Zurich,  where  the  design  suffers 
from  the  deep  abacus  having  only  a  single  slender  shaft 
to  support  it,  and  at  Laach,  where  the  quadrangle  occupies 
the  place  of  the  "  atrium  "  of  the  early  basilicas  at  the 
west  end,  as  at  St  Clement's  at  Rome,  and  St  Ambrose 
at  Milan.  Spain  also  presents  some  magnificent  cloisters 
of  both  types,  of  which  that  of  the  royal  convent  of 
Huelgas,  near  Burgos,  of  the  arcaded  form,  is,  according 
to  Mr  Fergusson,  "  unrivalled  for  beauty  both  of  detail  and 
design,  and  is  perhaps  unsurpassed  by  anything  in  its  age 
and  style  in  any  part  of  Europe."  Few  cloisters  are  more 
beautiful  than  those  of  Monreale  and  Cefalu  in  Sicily, 
•where  the  arrangement  is  the  same,  of  slender  columns  in 
pairs  with  capitals  of  elaborate  foliage  supporting  pointed 
arches  of  great  elegance  of  form. 

All  other  cloisters  are  surpassed  in  dimensions  and  in 
sumptuousness  of  decoration  by  the  "  Campo  Santo  "  at 
Pisa.  This  magnificent  cloister  consists  of  four  ambu 
latories  as  wide  and  lofty  as  the  nave  of  a  church,  erected 
in  1278  by  Giovanni  Pisano  round  a  cemetery  composed  of 
soil  brought  from  Palestine  by  Archbishop  Lanfranchi  in 
the  middle  of  the  12th  century.  The  window  openings 
are  semicircular,  filled  with  elaborate  tracery  in  the  latter 
half  of  the  15th  century.  The  inner  walls  are  covered 
with  frescos  invaluable  in  the  history  of  art  by  Orgagna, 
Simone  Memmi,  Buffalmacco,  Benozzo  Gozzoli,  and  other 
early  painters  of  the  Florentine  school.  The  ambulatories 
now  serve  as  a  museum  of  sculpture.  The  internal  dimen 
sions  are  415  feet  G  inches  in  length,  137  feet  10  inches 
in  breadth,  while  each  ambulatory  is  34  feet  6  inches 
wide  by  46  feet  high. 

The  cloister  of  a  religious  house  was  the  scene  of  a  large 
part  of  the  life  of  the  inmates  of  a  monastery.  When  not 
in  church,  refectory,  or  dormitory,  or  engaged  in  manual 
labour,  the  monks  were  usually  to  be  found  here.  The 
north  walk  of  the  cloister  of  St  Gall  appears  to  have  served 
as  the  chapter-house.  The  cloister  was  the  place  of 
education  fur  the  younger  members,  and  of  study  for  the 
elders.  A  canon  of  the  Roman  council  held  under 
Eugenius  II.,  in  82G,  enjoins  the  erection  of  a  cloister  as  an 
essential  portion  of  an  ecclesiastical  establishment  for  the 
better  discipline  and  instruction  of  the  clerks.  Peter  of 
Blois  (Serm.  25)  describes  schools  for  the  novices  as  being 
in  the  west  walk,  and  moral  lectures  delivered  in  that  next 
the  church.  At  Canterbury  the  monks'  school  was  in  the 
western  ambulatory,  and  it  was  in  the  same  walk  that  the 


novices  were  taught  at  Durham  (Willis,  Monastic  Buildings 
of  Canterbury,  p.  44;  Rites  of  Durham,}*.  71).  The  other 
alleys,  especially  that  next  the  church,  were  devoted  to  the 
studies  of  the  elder  monks.  The  constitutions  of  Hildemar 
and  Dunstan  enact  that  between  the  services  of  the  church 
the  brethren  should  sit  in  the  cloister  and  read  theology. 
For  this  purpose  small  studies,  known  as  carrols,  from  their 
square  shape,  were  often  found  in  the  recesses  of  the 
windows.  Of  this  arrangement  we  have  examples  at 
Gloucester,  Chester  (recently  restored),  and  elsewhere. 
The  use  of  these  studies  is  thus  described  in  the  Rites  of 
Durham  : — "  In  every  wyndowe  "  in  the  north  alley 
"  were  iii  pewes  or  carrells,  where  every  one  of  the  olde 
monkes  had  his  carrell  severally  by  himselfe,  that  when 
they  had  dyned  they  dyd  resorte  to  that  place  of  cloister, 
and  there  studyed  upon  their  books,  every  one  in  his  carrell 
all  the  afternonne  unto  evensong  tyme.  This  was  there 
exercise  every  daie."  On  the  opposite  wall  were  cupboards 
full  of  books  for  the  use  of  the  students  in  the  carrols.  The 
cloister  arrangements  at  Canterbury  were  similar  to  those 
just  described.  New  studies  were  made  by  Prior  De  Estria 
in  1317,  and  Prior  Selling  (1472-94)  glazed  the  south 
alley  for  the  use  of  the  studious  brethren,  and  constructed 
"  the  new  framed  contrivances,  of  late  styled  carrols " 
(Willis,  Mon.  Buildings,  p.  45).  The  cloisters  were  used 
not  for  study  only  but  also  for  recreation.  The  constitutions 
of  Archbishop  Lanfranc,  sect.  3,  permitted  the  brethren  to 
converse  together  there  at  certain  hours  of  the  day.  To 
maintain  necessary  discipline  a  special  officer  was  appointed 
under  the  title  of  prior  claustri.  The  cloister  was  always 
furnished  with  a  stone  bench  running  along  the  side.  It 
was  also  provided  with  a  lavatory,  usually  adjacent  to  the 
refectory,  but  sometimes  standing  in  the  central  area, 
termed  the  cloister-garth,  as  at  Durham.  The  cloister- 
garth  was  used  as  a  place  of  sepulture,  as  well  as  the  sur 
rounding  alleys.  The  cloister  was  in  some  few  instances 
of  two  stories,  as  at  Old  St  Paul's,  and  St  Stephen's  Chapel, 
Westminster,  and  occasionally,  as  at  Wells,  Chichester,  and 
Hereford,  had  only  three  alleys,  there  being  no  ambulatory 
under  the  church  wall. 

The  larger  monastic  establishments  had  more  than  one 
cloister  ;  there  was  usually  a  second  connected  with  the 
infirmary,  of  which  we  have  examples  at  Westminster 
Abbey  and  at  Canterbury ;  and  sometimes  one  giving 
access  to  the  kitchen  and  other  domestic  offices. 

The  cloister  was  not  an  appendage  of  monastic  houses 
exclusively.  We  find  it  also  attached  to  colleges  of  secular 
canons,  as  at  the  cathedrals  of  Lincoln,  Salisbury,  Wells, 
Hereford,  and  Chichester,  and  formerly  at  St  Paul's  and 
Exeter.  It  is,  however,  absent  at  York,  Lichfield,  Beverley, 
Ripon,  Southwell,  and  Wimborne.  A  cloister  forms  an 
essential  part  of  the  colleges  of  Eton  and  of  St  Mary's, 
Winchester,  and  New  and  Magdalen  at  Oxford,  and  was 
designed  by  Wolsey  at  Christ  Church.  These  were  used 
for  religious  processions  and  lectures,  for  ambulatories  for 
the  studious  at  all  times,  and  for  places  of  exercise  for  the 
inmates  generally  in  wet  weather,  as  well  as  in  some  in 
stances  for  sepulture. 

For  the  arrangements  of  the  Carthusian  cloisters,  as 
well  as  for  some  account  of  those  appended  to  the 
monasteries  of  the  East,  see  the  article  ABBEY.  (E.  v.) 

CLONMEL,  a  parliamentary  and  municipal  borough  of 
Ireland,  in  the  province  of  Munster,  partly  in  the  south 
i-iding  of  Tipperary  and  partly  in  Waterford  county,  104 
miles  south-west  from  Dublin.  It  is  built  on  both  sides 
of  the  Suir,  and  also  occupies  Moore  and  Long  Islands, 
which  are  connected  with  the  mainland  by  three  bridges. 
The  principal  buildings  are  the  parish  church,  two  Roman 
Catholic  churches,  a  Franciscan  friary,  two  convents,  an 
endowed  school  dating  from  1685,  a  model  school  under  the 


0  L  O  — C  L  O 


national  board,  a  mechanics'  institute,  a  court-house  aud 
prison,  a  fever  hospital  and  dispensary,  two  lunatic 
asylums,  a  market-house,  a  workhouse,  and  barracks.  Till 
the  Union  the  woollen  manufacture  established  in  1GG7 
was  extensively  carried  on.  The  town  contains  a  brewery, 
flour-mills,  and  tanneries,  publishes  two  newspapers,  and 
has  a  considerable  export  trade  in  grain,  cattle,  butter,  and 
provisions.  The  river  is  navigable  for  barges  of  50  tons 
to  Waterford.  Clonmel  is  a  station  on  the  Waterford  and 
Limerick  Railway;  it  was  the  centre  of  a  system,  established 
by  Mr  Bianconi,  for  the  conveyance  of  travellers  on  liglit 
iars,  extending  over  a  great  part  of  Leinster,  Munster,  and 
Connaught.  It  is  governed  by  a  corporation,  consisting 
of  a  mayor,  free  burgesses,  and  a  commonalty,  and  returns 
one  member  to  parliament.  Population  in  1851,  15,203  ; 
in  1871,  10,112. 

Cionmel,  or  Cluain  mealla,  the  Vale  of  Honey,  is  a  place  of  un 
doubted  antiquity.  In  1269  it  was  chosen  as  the  seat  of  a  Fran 
ciscan  friary  by  Utho  de  Grandison,  the  first  English  possessor  of 
the  district:  and  it  frequently  comes  into  notice  in  the  following 
centuries.  In  1641  it  declared  for  the  Raman  Catholic  party,  and 
in  1650  it  was  gallantly  defended  by  Hugh  O'Xeal  against  the 
English  under  Cromwell.  Compelled  at  last  to  capitulate,  it  was 
completely  dismantled,  and  has  never  again  been  fortified.  Sterne 
was  bom  in  the  town  in  1713. 

CLOOTZ,  JEAN  BAPTISTE,  BAROX  (1755-1794),  better 
known  as  Anacharsis  Clootz,  was  born  near  Cleves.  A 
baron  by  descent,  and  heir  to  a  great  fortune,  he  was  sent 
at  eleven  to  Paris  to  complete  his  education.  There  he 
imbibed  the  theories  of  his  uncle,  Cornelius  de  Pauw,  and 
of  the  great  anarchists  of  the  epoch.  He  rejected  his  title 
and  his  baptismal  names,  adopted  the  pseudonym  of  Ana- 
charsis  from  the  famous  philosophical  romance  of  Abbe" 
Barth6lemy,  and  traversed  Europe,  preaching  the  new  ideas 
as  an  apostle,  and  spending  his  money  as  a  man  of  pleasure. 
On  the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolution  he  returned  in 
1789  to  Paris.  In  the  exercise  of  the  function  he  assumed 
of  "  Orator  of  the  Human  Race,"  he  demanded  at  the  bar 
of  the  National  Assembly  a  share  in  the  federation  for  all 
nations,  presenting  at  the  same  time  a  petition  against  the 
despots  of  the  world.  In  1792  ha  placed  12.000  livres 
at  the  disposal  of  the  Republic — •"  for  the  arming  of  forty 
or  fifty  fighters  in  the  sacred  cause  of  man  against  tyrant." 
The  10th  of  August  impelled  him  to  a  still  higher  flight ; 
he  declared  himself  the  personal  enemy  of  Jesus  Christ, 
abjured  all  revealed  religions,  and  commenced  preaching 
materialism.  In  the  same  month  he  had  the  rights  of 
citizenship  conferred  on  him  ;  and  having  in  September 
been  elected  a  member  of  the  Convention,  he  voted  the 
king's  death  in  the  name  of  the  human  race.  Excluded 
at  the  instance  of  Robespierre  from  the  Jacobin  Club,  he 
was  soon  afterwards  implicated  in  an  accusation  levelled 
against  Hebert  and  others.  His  innocence  was  manifest, 
but  he  was  condemned  and  put  to  death. 

Clootz  left  several  works  in  which  his  extravagances  are 
developed  with  much  solemnity.  The  principal  of  these  are 
La  Certitude,  des  Prcuves  du  Mahometisme,  LOrateur  du 
Genre  Humain,  and  La  Repuhlique  Universelle. 

CLOT,  ANTOINE  (1795-1868),  was  born  in  the  neigh 
bourhood  of  Marseilles,  and  was  brought  up  at  the  charity 
school  of  that  town.  After  studying  at  Muntpellier  he 
commenced  to  practise  as  surgeon  in  his  native  place  ;  but 
at  the  age  of  twenty-eight  he  was  made  chief  surgeon  to 
Mehemet  Ali,  viceroy  of  Egypt.  At  Abuzabel,  near  Cairo, 
he  founded  a  hospital  and  schools  for  all  branches  of  medical 
instruction,  as  well  as  for  the  study  of  the  French  language  ; 
and,  notwithstanding  the  most  serious  religious  difficulties, 
he  prevailed  on  some  of  the  Arabs  to  study  anatomy  by 
means  of  dissection.  In  1832  Mehemet  Ali  gave  him  the 
dignity  of  bey  without  requiring  him  to  abjure  his  religion  ; 
and  in  1836  he  received  the  rank  of  general,  aud  was 


appointed  head  of  the  medical  administration  of  the  country. 
In  1849  he_returned  to  Marseilles.  Clot  published— Relation 
des  epidemics  de  cholera  qui  out  regne  a  VHeggiaz,  &  Suez,  ct 
enEgypte  (1832);  De  la  peste  observee  en  tigypte  (1840); 
Aperfu  general  su>-  I'  Egypte  (1840);  Coup  d'ceil  sur  la 
peste  et  les  quaraiuaines  (1851);  De  L'ophtkalmie  (1864). 

CLOTILDA,  SAINT  (475-5  io),  was  the  daughter  of 
Chilperic,  king  of  Burgundy,  and  the  wife  of  Clovis,  king 
of  the  Franks.  Her  father,  mother,  and  brothers  were  pat 
to  death  by  Gundebald,  her  uncle,  but  Clotilda  was  spared 
aud  educated.  Guudebald  opposed  her  marriage  with 
Clovis,  but  by  the  aid  of  the  clergy  she  escaped°  to  the 
Frankish  court  (493),  was  married,  and,  having  adhered  all 
along  to  the  pure  Catholic  faith  of  her  mother,  effected  the 
conversion  of  Clovis  to  Christianity  (49G).  He  lost  no  time 
in  avenging  the  murder  of  his  wife's  parents  ;  Gundebald 
was  defeated,  and  became  his  tributary.  After  her  husband's 
death  Clotilda  persuaded  her  three  sons — Clodomir,  Childe 
bert,  aud  Clotaire— to  renew  the  quarrel,  and  to  visit  on 
Sigismund,  Guudebald's  son,  his  father's  crime.  The  war 
which  followed  resulted  in  the  union  of  Burgundy  to  the 
Frank  empire.  Clotilda  retired  to  Tours,  and  practised  there 
the  austerities  of  a  devout  life  till  her  death.  She  was 
buried  in  the  Parisian  church  of  St  Genevieve,  which  Clovis 
had  built,  aud  was  canonized  a  few  years  afterwards  by 
Pelagius  I.  Her  remains,  preserved  till  the  Revolution, 
were  burned  at  that  period  by  the  devout  Abbe"  llousselet, 
who  dreaded  their  desecration;  the  ashes  are  now  in  the 
little  church  of  St  Leu.  A  statue  of  her  adorns  the  Luxem 
bourg,  and  a  splendid  church  has  recently  beeu  erected  in 
her  honour  in  Paris,  not  far  from  the  spot  where  her  bones 
rested  during  so  many  centuries.  See  FRANCE. 

CLOUGH,  ARTHUR  HuGii(1819-1861),a  minor  English 
poet,  was  bora  at  Liverpool  in  1819,  aud  belonged  to  a 
family  of  old  Welsh  descent.  His  father,  a  cotton  merchant, 
having  removed  to  tin  United  States  about  1823,  Arthur 
spent  a  number  of  years  at  home  in  Charleston ;  but  in 
1823  he  was  brought  back  to  England  and  sent  to  school. 
From  Rugby,  where  he  was  a  favourite  pupil  of  Dr 
Arnold's,  he  passed  in  183G  to  Oxford  ;  and  there,  in  spite  of 
an  almost  unaccountable  failure  in  some  of  his  examina 
tions,  he  attained  a  high  reputation  for  scholarship,  ability, 
and  character.  In  1842  he  was  chosen  fellow  of  Oriel, 
and  in  1843  appointed  tutor  in  the  same  college  ;  but  he 
soon  grew  dissatisfied  with  his  position,  aud  ultimately 
decided  that  it  was  his  duty  to  resign.  Under  the  influence 
of  the  great  religious  fermentation  which  had  been  going 
on  during  his  university  career,  ho  had  become  deeply 
sceptical  in  his  habits  of  thought ;  and  all  connection 
seemed  impossible  with  a  system  that  interfered  with  the 
liberty  of  speculative  investigation.  After  his  resignation 
in  1848  he  was  for  some  time  principal  of  University 
Hall,  London.  In  1852  ha  visited  America,  where  he 
enjoyed  the  friendship  of  Longfellow  and  Emerson  ;  and 
in  the  following  year  he  was  called  home  to  accept  an 
appointment  as  examiner  in  the  Education  Office  of  the 
Privy  Council,  During  the  succeeding  years  he  was  fre 
quently  abroad ;  and  it  was  on  a  tour  iu  Italy  in  1861 
that  he  was  suddenly  cut  off  by  fever  at  Florence, 
dough  was  a  man  of  singalar  purity  and  integrity  of 
character,  with  great  sensitiveness  of  feeling,  and  fine  sub 
tlety  of  thought,  at  once  reserved  and  retiring  and  full  of 
a  genial  humanity  of  disposition,  with  much  humour  and 
mirthfulnes?,  and  yet  capable  of  a  righteous  indignation 
that  could  hardly  have  been  expected  to  find  fuel  in  so 
kindly  a  breast.  A  disciple  of  the  great  master  of  Rugby, 
in  the  midst  of  his  most  relentless  scepticism  he  maintained 
a  spirit  of  reverence  and  worship;  and  his  most  daring 
attacks  on  the  popular  creed  are  modified  by  an  under 
current  of  toleration  and  diffidence.  His  poems  are  hw 


C  L  O  —  0  L  U 


principal  works,  and  of  these  the  best  known  is  the 
Bothie  of  Tober-na-  Vuolich.  It  was  written  and  published 
in  1848,  after  his  removal  from  Oxford;  and  while 
warmly  praised  by  such  men  as  Cauou  Kingsley  it  was 
condemned  by  others  as  immoral  and  communistic.  The 
interest  of  the  poem  depends  on  its  graphic  description 
of  Scottish  scenery  and  the  fine  analysis  of  contrasted 
characters.  Under  the  influence  partly  of  Longfellow's 
Evangdine,  which  had  been  published  in  1847,  and 
partly  of  his  own  attachment  to  the  old  classical  forms, 
he  employed  the  so-called  hexameter ;  but  it  is  seldom 
that  he  attains  the  tuneful  cadence  of  the  American 
poet,  and  much  of  the  versification  is  rugged  and  broken 
in  the  extreme.  Of  greater  power  than  the  Bothie,  at 
least  in  individual  passages,  is  the  strange  irregular 
tragedy  of  Dipsychus,  which  shines  at  times  with  jagged 
fragments  of  satire  and  irony.  Amours  de  Voyage,  a  rhymed 
epistolary  novelette,  and  Marl  Magno,  a  small  collection  of 
tales  after  the  fashion  of  the  Wai/side  Inn,  along  with 
various  minor  poems,  have  been  republished  in  the 
second  volume  of  The  Poems  and  Prose  Remains  of  Arthur 
H.  dough,  edited  by  his  wife,  and  accompanied  by  a 
sketch  of  his  life  by  F.  T.  Palgrave,  1869.  These  will 
probably  do  less  to  keep  green  the  poet's  name  than  the 
noble  poem  of  Thyrsis,  which  Matthew  Arnold  dedicated  to 
his  memory.  One  work  of  importance  remains  to  be 
mentioned, — a  careful  and  scholarly  rehabilitation  of 
Dryden's  Translation  of  Plutarch,  published  in  1859. 

CLOVES  are  the  unexpanded  flower-buds  of  Caryopltyllus 
aromaticus,  a  tree  belonging  to  the  natural  order  M  i/rtacece. 
They  are  so  named  from  the  French  word  clou,  on  account 
of  their  resemblance  to  a  nail.  The  clove  tree  is  a  beauti 
ful  evergreen  which  grows  to  a  height  of  from  30  to  40 
feet,  having  large  oblong  leaves  and  crimson  flowers  in 
numerous  groups  of  terminal  cymes.  The  flower-buds  are 
at  first  of  a  pale  colour  and  gradually  become  green,  after 
which  they  develop  into  a  bright  red,  when  they  are  ready 
for  collscting.  Cloves  are  rather  more  than  half  an  inch 
in  length,  and  consist  of  a  long  cylindrical  calyx, 
terminating  in  four  spreading  sepals,  and  four  unopened 
petals  which  form  a  small  ball  in  the  centre.  The  tree  is 
a  native  of  the  small  group  of  islands  in  the  Indian 
Archipelago  called  the  Moluccas,  or  Spice  Islands  ;  but  it 
was  long  cultivated  by  the  Dutch  in  Amboyna  and  two  or 
three  small  neighbouring  islands.  Cloves  were  one  of  the 
principal  Oriental  spices  which  early  excited  the  cupidity 
of  Western  commercial  communities,  having  been  the 
basis  of  a  rich  and  lucrative  trade  from  an  early  part  of 
the  Christian  era.  The  Portuguese,  by  doubling  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope,  obtained  possession  of  the  principal 
portion  of  the  clove  trade,  which  they  continued  to  hold 
for  nearly  a  century,  when,  in  1605,  they  were  expelled  from 
the  Moluccas  by  the  Dutch.  That  power  exerted  great  and 
inhuman  efforts  to  obtain  a  complete  monopoly  of  the 
trade,  attempting  to  extirpate  all  the  clove  trees  growing 
in  their  native  islands,  and  to  concentrate  the  whole  pro 
duction  in  the  Amboyna  Islands.  With  great  difficulty 
the  French  succeeded  in  introducing  the  clove  tree  into 
Mauritius  in  the  year  1770;  subsequently  the  cultivation 
was  introduced  into  Guiana,  and  at  the  end  of  the  century 
the  trees  were  planted  at  Zanzibar.  The  chief  commercial 
sources  of  supply  are  now  Zanzibar  and  its  neighbouring 
island  Pemba  on  the  East  African  coast,  and  Amboyna, 
Cloves  are  also  grown  in  Java,  Sumatra,  Reunion,  Guiana, 
and  the  West  India  Islands. 

Cloves  as  they  come  into  the  market  have  a  deep  brown 
colour,  a  powerfully  fragrant  odour,  and  a  taste  too  hot  and 
acrid  to  be  pleasant.  When  pressed  with  the  nail  they 
exude  a  volatile  oil  with  which  they  are  charged  to  the 
unusual  proportion  of  about  18  per  cent.  The  oil  is 


obtained  as  a  commercial  product  by  submitting  the  clovea 
with  water  to  repeated  distillation.  It  is,  when  new  and 
properly  prepared,  a  pale  yellow  or  almost  colourless  fluid, 
becoming  after  some  time  of  a  brown  colour ;  and  it 
possesses  the  odour  and  taste  peculiar  to  cloves.  The 
essential  oil  of  cloves  is  a  mixture  of  two  oils — one  a 
hydrocarbon  isomeric  with  oil  of  turpentine,  and  the  othei 
an  oxygenated  oil,  eugenol  or  eugenic  acid,  which  possesses 
the  taste  and  odour  of  cloves.  Cloves  are  employed 
principally  as  a  condiment  in  culinary  operations,  in  con 
fectionery,  and  in  the  preparation  of  liqueurs.  In  medicine 
they  are  tonic  and  carminative,  but  they  are  little  used 
except  as  adjuncts  to  other  substances  on  account  of  their 
flavour,  or  with  purgatives  to  prevent  nausea  and  griping. 
The  essential  oil  forms  a  convenient  medium  for  using 
cloves  for  flavouring  or  medicinal  purposes,  and  it  also  is 
frequently  employed  to  relieve  toothache. 

CLOVIO,  GIULIO  (1498-1578),  by  birth  a  Croat  and 
by  profession  a  priest,  is  said  to  have  learned  the  elements 
of  design  in  his  own  country,  and  to  have  studied  after 
wards  with  intense  diligence  at  Rome  under  Giulio 
Romano,  and  at  Verona  under  Girolamo  de'  Libri.  He 
excelled  in  historical  pieces  and  portraits,  painting  as  for 
microscopical  examination,  and  yet  contriving  to  handle 
his  subjects  with  great  force  and  precision.  In  the  Vatican 
library  is  preserved  a  MS.  life  of  Frederick,  duke  of  Urbino, 
superbly  illustrated  by  Clovio,  who  is  facile  princeps  among 
Italian  miniaturists. 

CLOVIS,  king  of  the  Franks.     See  FRANCE. 

CLOYNE  (in  Irish  Cluain-Uamha,  or  the  Meadow  of 
the  Cave),  a  market  town  and  formerly  an  episcopal  see 
of  Ireland,  in  the  county  of  Cork,  and  about  four  miles  from 
the  east  side  of  Cork  harbour.  It  is  now  a  small  place  of 
1200  inhabitants,  but  it  still  gives  its  name  to  a  Roman 
Catholic  diocese.  The  cathedral,  which  was  founded  in  the 
6th  century  by  Colman,  a  disciple  of  Fin-Bane  of  Cork,  is 
still  in  existence.  It  contains  a  few  handsome  monuments 
to  its  former  bishops,  but,  singular  to  say,  nothing  to  pre 
serve  the  memory  of  the  illustrious  Dr  George  Berkeley, 
who  filled  the  see  frcm  1734  to  1753.  Opposite  the 
cathedral  is  a  very  fine  round  tower  still  96  feet  in  height, 
though  the  conical  roof  was  destroyed  by  lightning  in  1748, 
The  Roman  Catholic  church  is  a  spacious  building  with  a 
highly  decorated  front.  The  town  was  several  times  plun 
dered  by  the  Danes  in  the  9th  century ;  it  was  laid  waste  by 
Dermot  O'Brien  in  1071,  and  was  burned  in  1137.  In 
1430  the  bishopric  was  united  to  that  of  Cork;  in  1638 
it  again  became  independent,  and  in  1660  it  was  again 
united  to  Cork  and  Ross.  In  1678  it  was  once  more  de 
clared  independent,  and  so  continued  till  1835,  when  it 
was  again  joined  to  Cork  and  Ross.  The  Pipe  Roll  of 
Cloyne,  compiled  by  Bishop  Swafi'ham  in  1364,  is  a  very 
remarkable  record,  embracing  a  full  account  of  the  feudal 
tenures  of  the  see,  the  nature  of  the  impositions,  and  the 
duties  the  puri  homines  Sancti  Colmani  were  bound  to  per 
form  at  a  very  early  period.  The  roll  is  now  in  the  Record 
Office,  Dublin.  It  was  edited  by  Richard  Caulfield  in  1 859. 

CLUB.  The  records  of  all  nations  agree  in  attributing 
the  institution  of  clubs  and  private  companies  to  the  earliest, 
or  one  of  the  earliest,  rulers  or  legislators  of  whom  they 
have  retained  any  memory.  Indeed  such  associations  seem, 
as  Addison  has  said,  "  to  be  a  natural  and  necessary  offshoot 
of  men's  gregarious  and  social  nature."  In  the  infancy 
of  national  existences,  they  are  almost  essential  for  purposes 
of  mutual  support  and  protection,  and  to  supply  the  short 
comings  of  a  weak  Government.  But  over  and  above  those 
fellowships  which  spring  from  the  inalienable  right  of  self- 
preservation,  and  which  are  founded  either  in  the  ties  of 
kindred  or  community  of  material  interests^  there  are 
commonly  found,  even  in  matured  and  well-organized  states, 


CLUB 


s  number  of  secondary  or  accidental  societies,  established 
for  the  promotion  of  some  common  object ;  and  a  wise  and 
strong  Government  usually  protects  and  encourages  them 
as  a  most  important  condition  of  human  progress.  They 
may  be  roughly  divided  into  four  different  classes,  according 
to  their  several  objects;  they  may  be  either  religious,  poli 
tical,  commercial,  or  merely  social ;  and  an  attempt  has 
been  sometimes  made  to  assign  these  to  different  periods  of 
national  development.  Such  a  distinction,  however,  cannot 
be  successfully  maintained,  since  the  various  elements  were 
often  most  closely  united  in  the  same  clubs,  almost  (or 
quite)  from  their  very  foundation.  Thus,  tho  corporations 
in  Rome  whose  foundation  was  attributed  to  Numa  would 
seem  at  first  sight  to  have  been  merely  for  convenience  of 
traclj.  But  we  are  told  that  they  had  also  a  social  or  poli 
tical  purpose,  viz.,  to  break  down  the  barriers  which  sepa 
rated  Romans  from  Sabines  in  the  infant  state.  Moreover, 
Plutarch  introduces  a  religious  element  into  them  also, 
saying  that  Numa  "  fixed  certain  times  of  meeting  for 
these  companies,  and  certain  honours  to  the  gods,  assigning 
to  each  what  was  suitable  for  them."  So  again  in  Greece 
we  have  the  testimony  of  Aristotle  that  members  of  the 
same  tribe  or  borough  used  to  club  together,  men  follow 
ing  the  same  occupations,  as  soldiers  or  sailors,  and  others 
again  for  mere  social  amusement ;  yet  he  immediately 
adds — "  these  meet  together  for  the  sake  of  one  another's 
company,  and  to  offer  sacrifices ;  when  they  meet  they 
both  pay  certain  honours  to  the  gods,  and  at  the  same 
time  take  pleasurable  relaxation  among  themselves.'''  It 
is  clear,  then,  that  whatever  may  have  been  the  precise 
object  with  which  each  private  club  or  association  was 
originally  formed  in  pagan  times,  these  distinctive 
marks  were  very  soon  blurred,  and  finally,  in  the  lapse  of 
time,  altogether  obliterated. 

We  need  not  say  anything  of  the  religious  sodalities 
which  were  appointed  in  a  regular  way  both  in  Greece  and 
Home  for  the  worship  of  the  gods  recognized  by  the  state. 
It  is  the  history  of  secret  confraternities  for  the  exercise  of 
foreign  religious  rites  unknown  to  the  stat3  and  strictly 
forbidden  that  is  more  curious  and  attractive.  In  Athens 
the  penalty  of  death  stood  enacted  in  the  statute  book 
against  those  who  should  introduce  the  worship  of  strange 
gods ;  but  it  is  only  on  very  rare  and  scandalous  occasions 
that  we  hear  of  this  statute  in  real  life.  There  was  a  great 
invasion  of  foreign  gods  into  Attica  after  tha  Persian  war, 
and  they  were  not  so  easily  driven  out  as  were  the  hosts 
of  Xerxes  who  had  imported  them.  Moreover,  inde 
pendently  of  foreign  armies,  the  mere  commercial  activity 
of  Athens  herself  did  much  to  promote  the  same  evil. 
Her  sailors  and  soldiers,  colonists  and  merchants,  had 
explored  the  coasts  of  the  ^EgeanSea,  and  had  brought  home 
from  Thrace,  from  Phrygia,  from  Cyprus,  and  elsewhere,  a 
whole  host  of  deities,  not  more  false  indeed,  but  certainly 
more  dangerous,  than  those  whom  they  had  been  wont  to 
worship  at  home.  These  gods  and  goddesses  soon  found 
little  knots  of  devotees,  who  were  led  to  form  a  kind  of 
confraternity  among  themselves,  for  the  support  of  the 
forbidden  worship.  Fragments  both  of  tragic  and  comic 
poets  have  preserved  to  us  some  notice  of  the  kind  of 
worship  that  was  offered,  and  it  was  obviously  in  every 
way  less  respectable  than  the  worship  sanctioned  by  the 
state.  In  the  state  temples  the  priests  and  other  officers 
were  obliged  to  be  freemen,  citizens,  and  the  sons  of  citizens  ; 
any  taint  of  servile  or  foreign  blood  was  a  fatal  disquali 
fication.  But  here  slaves,  foreigners,  and  women  were 
admitted  indiscriminately.  Indeed,  if  we  may  judge  from 
monuments  that  have  recently  come  to  light,  these  secret 
confraternities  found  their  principal  support  among  these 
classes.  At  Rhodes  there  was  one  consisting  exclusively 
of  the  lowest  class  of  slaves, — the  public  slaves  of  the 


town ;  at  Salamis,  one  exclusively  of  women  ;  in  that  of 
Cnidus  eleven  members  out  of  twelve  were  foreigners. 
All  these  monuments  come  from  islands ;  and  of  course  it 
was  there,  and  in  the  seaport  towns  of  the  peninsula,  that 
such  illicit  corporations  were  likely  to  be  first  introduced 
and  to  take  deepest  root.  By-and-by  it  became  necessary 
even  to  give  an  official  recognition  to  some  of  them,  e.g.,  in 
the  Piraeus,  for  the  convenience  of  foreigners  who  were 
either  detained  there  for  a  considerable  time  by  business, 
or  perhaps  had  even  taken  up  their  permanent  abode  there. 
Excavations  made  within  the  last  twenty  years  in  the 
Piraeus,  and  still  more  recently  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  silver  mines  of  Laurium,  enable  us  to  assist  at  the 
birth  and  early  growth  of  some  of  these  illicit  clubs,  but 
there  is  nothing  in  the  history  specially  inviting.  In 
Rome  the  general  policy  of  the  state  towards  foreign 
religions  was  more  tolerant  than  in  Greece.  Nevertheless 
here  also  the  practice  of  certain  religions  was  forbidden, 
and  the  prohibition  naturally  produced  certain  secret 
societies  amongst  those  who  were  attached  to  them.  The 
law  indeed  forbade  the  worship  of  any  deity  that  had  not 
been  approved  by  the  senate,  but  then  the  senate  was  by 
no  means  illiberal  in  granting  its  diploma  of  approbation, 
and  as  often  as  a'new  deity  was  introduced,  or  even  a  new 
temple  built  to  an  old  deity,  a  new  sodality  seems  to  have 
sprung  up,  or  to  have  been  officially  appointed,  to  look 
after  its  interests.  It  is  disputed  whether  the  prohibition 
of  the  worship  of  unknown,  unrecognized  gods,  applied 
only  to  acts  of  public  worship,  or  extended  even  to  the 
innermost  secrecy  of  private  life.  Cicero  may  be  quoted 
in  defence  of  the  latter  view,  Livy  of  the  former.  Probably 
the  letter  of  the  law  favoured  the  stricter  side  and  spoke 
universally,  but  traditional  practice  ruled  differently. 
Certainly  tho  Romans  had  a  scruple  about  interfering  with 
anything  which  even  pretended  to  lay  claim  to  a  religious 
character.  Even  when  they  repressed  with  such  severity 
the  secret  meetings  of  the  Bacchanalians,  this  was  done 
not  so  much  in  the  interest  of  the  other  gods,  as  of  public 
order  and  morality  and  the  security  of  the  state.  They  even 
continued  to  tolerate  such  foul  associations  as  these,  only 
they  imposed  the  condition  that  not  more  than  five 
worshippers  should  meet  together  at  once  ;  and  under  cover 
of  this  permission  the  number  of  thiasi  was  much  multiplied 
in  the  city,  and  these  exercised  a  powerful  attraction  over 
women  by  the  promise  which  they  made  of  effecting  a  real 
purification  of  the  soul.  At  a  later  period,  when  Augustus 
destroyed  all  the  temples  of  Serapis  which  had  been  erected  in 
Rome  during  his  absence,  he  was  careful  to  assign  a  politi 
cal  motive  for  this  unusual  interference  with  religious  liberty. 
If  we  turn  from  these  religious  associations  to  consider 
the  craft-gilds  in  ancient  Rome,  the  first  thing  that  strikes 
us  is  their  extraordinary  number.  In  the  days  of  Numa 
we  are  told  that  there  were  only  eight ;  but  as  time  went 
on  they  so  multiplied  that  in  the  imperial  period  we 
count  more  than  fourscore  of  them,  including  almost  every 
profession  and  handicraft  one  can  think  of,  from  bankers 
and  doctors  down  to  donkey-drivers  and  muleteers.  Nor 
does  the  mere  enumeration  of  the  different  trades  and 
professions  give  us  at  all  an  adequate  idea  of  their 
number ;  for  when  a  club  became  very  large,  it  was  first 
subdivided  into  centuries,  and  then  these  again  broke 
off  into  separate  clubs.  Again,  there  was  one  club  or 
company  of  the  watermen  who  plied  their  trade  on  the 
Saone,  and  another  of  the  watermen  on  the  Rhone,  though 
both  these  companies  had  their  headquarters  at  Lyons. 
The  other  navigable  rivers,  too,  each  had  its  own  company. 
Thus,  the  most  ancient  notice  we  have  of  Paris  is  derived 
from  a  monument  which  has  come  down  to  us  of  the  water 
men  on  the  Seine.  We  find  mention,  also,  of  more  craft- 
gilds  than  one  even  in  a  single  street  of  Rome  ;  nay,  further 


CLUB 


Btiil,  within  the  limits  of  a  single  house,  e.g.,  of  the  imperial 
palace,  and  probably  of  other  princely  establishments,  which 
counted  their  hundreds  or  thousands  of  dependants.  Each 
class  of  slaves  engaged  in  different  domestic  occupations  had 
their  own  clubs.  Thus  the  chef  de  cuisine  (magister 
coquorum)  of  Augustus  bequeathed  a  sum  of  money  to  the 
collegium,  or  club,  of  cooks,  in  his  imperial  majesty's  house 
hold,  and  there  is  evidence  that  there  were  five  or  six  other 
clubs  in  the  palace  at  the  same  time.  We  do  not  know  how 
large  each  club  may  have  been ;  an  old  inscription  tells  us 
of  forty  seats  reserved  for  a  particular  club  in  the  amphi 
theatre  at  Nimes,  but  these  belonged  probably  to  the 
officers  of  the  club,  not  to  the  ordinary  members  indis 
criminately.  Sometimes  the  number  of  members  was  limited, 
either  by  the  original  constitution  of  the  body,  or  by  condi 
tions  subsequently  imposed  by  benefactors  who  did  not  wish 
their  donations  to  be  frittered  awaj'  and  rendered  useless 
by  too  minute  subdivisions.  As  to  the  internal  organiza 
tion  of  the  clubs,  the  general  laws  and  principles  which 
governed  their  constitution,  both  in  Athens  and  in  Rome, 
they  were  moulded,  as  was  only  natural,  very  much  after 
the  pattern  of  the  civil  institutions  of  the  country.  They 
were  republican  therefore  in  spirit,  the  administration  of 
affairs  being  wholly  in  the  hands  of  the  members  them 
selves,  all  of  whom  had  equal  rights  ;  their  watchful  control 
was  incessant,  and  tlieir  authority  absolute ;  their  officers 
were  elected  by  universal  suffrage,  sometimes  by  acclama 
tion  ;  they  were  called  by  the  same  names  as  were  borne  by 
the  magistrates  of  the  state,  apxorres,  qucestores,  magistri 
quinquennales,  curatores,  &c.  ;  they  were  elected  annually, 
and  on  entering  into  office  they  took  an  oath  that  they 
would  observe  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the  corporation  ; 
and  on  retiring  from  office  they  gave  an  account  of  tlieir 
stewardship  to  the  assembled  members,  who  exercised  a 
right  of  judgment  over  them.  This  judgment  seems  to  have 
been  almost  uniformly  favourable  ;  a  commendatory  decree 
was  voted  almost  as  much  a  matter  of  course  as  a  vote  of 
thanks  to  the  chairman  of  our  own  public  meetings.  In 
Greece  this  vote  was  accompanied  by  the  offering  of  a  crown 
of  leaves,  of  olive,  ivy,  or  poplar,  according  to  the  supposed 
choice  of  the  god  or  goddess  to  whom  the  club  was  dedicated. 
In  the  East,  e.g.,  Bithynia,  we  find  crowns  of  ribands  and 
flowers  ;  in  Rhodes,  Delos,  and  the  adjacent  islands,  it  was 
not  uncommonly  of  gold, — of  very  little  intrinsic  worth, 
however,  and  provided  by  special  contributions  at  each 
monthly  meeting.  But  the  most  valued  part  of  the  reward 
to  these  retiring  officers  (in  Greece)  seems  to  have  been 
the  proclamation  of  the  honour  obtained,  which  proclama 
tion  took  place  either  after  the  ceremonies  of  the  chief 
annual  festival,  or  sometimes  on  every  occasion  of  meeting. 
It  was  also  engraved  on  a  column  which  was  set  up  in  some 
conspicuous  spot  in  or  near  their  place  of  meeting.  When 
any  special  services  seemed  to  call  for  special  recognition, 
the  title  of  benefactor  or  benefactress  was  awarded,  and 
this,  too,  was  of  course  added  to  the  inscription.  A  still 
higher  and  rarer  honour  was  to  offer  the  retiring  officer 
a  statue  or  portrait  of  himself,  either  full  length  or 
half  figure  only  or  sometimes  both  together,  and 
even  more  than  one  of  each  But  only  once  among 
Greek  inscriptions  belonging  to  these  clubs  do  we  find 
any  mention  of  a  salary  awarded  to  the  secretary, 
in  consideration  of  the  zeal  and  justice  with  which 
he  had  attended  to  the  general  interests  of  the  community, 
the  exactness  with  which  he  had  rendered  his  own  reports 
and  accounts,  as  well  as  audited  those  of  others  who  from 
time  to  time  had  been  specially  deputed  to  do  anything  for 
the  club,  and  his  constant  devotion  to  the  interests  of  all 
the  members  both  collectively  and  individually  Even  in 
this  instance,  however,  the  zealous  and  disinterested 
secretary  or  treasurer  declined  the  proffered  salary,  where 


upon  the  club  voted  him  a  golden  crown,  which  again  he 
gave  up  for  the  decoration  of  the  temple  in  which  they  met. 
And  this,  indeed,  was  the  usual  fate  of  these  complimentary 
offerings.  The  officers  fulfilled  the  duties  of  their  post 
gratuitously,  and  often  at  great  expense  to  themselves,  just 
as  the  civil  magistrates  were  obliged  to  do ;  and  it  seems 
to  have  been  pretty  generally  understood,  that  any  extra 
ordinary  compliments,  such  as  the  offer  of  a  statue  or 
portrait,  should,  if  accepted,  be  carried  out  at  the  expense, 
not  of  the  donor,  but  of  the  receiver.  In  Rome,  also, 
whenever  an  inscription  states  that  the  members  of  a 
collegium  decree  that  a  statue  shall  be  erected  in  honour  of 
some  patron  or  benefactor,  it  is  generally  added  that  he 
undertook  to  pay  for  the  statue  himself  (honore  contentus, 
impensam  remisit).  Besides  the  acting  officials  of  these 
clubs,  there  were  also  certain  honorary  patrons,  whose 
connection  with  them  was  probably  much  the  same  as  that 
of  most  patrons  of  benevolent  societies  in  our  own  day. 
It  was  a  compliment  to  invite  them  to  become  patrons,  and 
they  were  expected  to  contribute  to  the  funds  in  return. 

It  only  remains  that  we  should  say  a  few  words  about 
the  merely  social  clubs  of  pagan  times, — those  clubs  which 
had  no  other  bond  of  union,  either  commercial,  political, 
or  religious,  but  which  aimed  only  at  the  amusement  or 
private  advantage  of  their  members.  There  was  nothing 
in  the  functions  of  these  clubs  to  obtain  for  them  a  place 
in  the  page  of  history.  The  evidence,  therefore,  of  their 
existence  and  constitution  is  but  scanty.  Monumental 
inscriptions,  however,  tell  us  of  clubs  of  Roman  citizens  in 
some  of  the  cities  of  Spain,  of  a  club  of  strangers  from 
Asia  resident  in  Malaga,  of  Phoenician  residents  at 
Pozzuoli,  and  of  other  strangers  elsewhere.  These  all  were 
probably  devised  as  remedies  against  that  sense  of  ennui 
and  isolation  which  is  apt  to  come  over  a  number  of 
foreigners  residing  at  a  distance  from  their  native  country. 
Something  of  the  same  kind  of  feeling  may  have  led  to  the 
toleration  of  a  club  consisting  of  old  soldiers  who  had  been 
in  the  armies  of  Augustus  ;  these  were  allowed  to  meet  and 
fight  their  battles  over  again,  spite  of  the  legal  prohibition 
of  military  clubs.  Another  military  club  of  a  different 
kind  existed  among  the  officers  of  a  regiment  engaged  in 
foreign  service  in  Africa.  Its  existence  can  have  been  no 
secret,  for  its  rules  were  engraved  on  pillars  which  were  set 
up  near  the  headquarters  of  the  general,  where  they  have 
lately  been  found  in  the  ruins  of  the  camp.  The  contribu 
tion  of  each  member  on  admission  scarcely  fell  short  of 
£25,  and  two-thirds  of  this  sum  were  to  be  paid  to  his 
heir  or  representative  on  the  occasion  of  his  death,  or  he 
might  himself  recover  this  proportion  of  his  original  sub 
scription  on  retirement  from  military  service.  The 
peculiarity,  however,  of  this  aristocratic  collegium  was  this, 
that  it  provided  that  a  portion  of  the  funds  might  also  be 
spent  for  other  useful  purposes,  e.g.,  for  foreign  travelling. 
It  is  to  be  presumed  that  a  member  who  had  availed  him 
self  of  this  privilege  thereby  forfeited  all  claim  to  be 
buried  at  the  expense  .of  his  club. 

Clubs  were  by  no  means  the  exclusive  privilege  of  the 
male  sex;  in  ancient  days.  Women  also  were  united  in 
similar  associations.  Their  religious  sodalities,  indeed,  were 
not  generally  edifying ;  but  they  combined  together  also 
for  social  and  political  purposes.  The  most  remarkable  of 
these  was  the  great  assembly  of  matrons,  called  at  one 
time,  in  a  mock-heroic  way,  "the  minor  senate."  This 
ladies'  club  received  its  title  from  imperial  authority,  which 
also  legislated  as  to  the  needful  qualifications  of  its 
members,  the  times  of  its  meeting,  and  the  subjects  of  its 
debates.  These  concerned  the  gravest  questions  of  etiquette, 
such  as  what  dress  ladies  should  wear  according  to  their 
social  rank  ;  who  was  to  take  precedence  one  of  another 
on  public  occasions  of  state,  in  processions,  or  other 


CLUB 


41 


ceiemonies ;  who  might  ride  in  a  carriage  drawn  by 
horses ;  who  must  be  content  to  sit  behind  mules  ;  whose 
sedan-chair  might  have  fittings  of  ivory,  whose  of  silver, 
&c.  Not  all  ladies  could  attain  to  a  seat  in  this  little 
senate,  which  dealt  with  such  delicate  questions  of  etiquette  ; 
but  we  find  them  forming  other  clubs  of  their  own  which 
occasionally  meddled  with  questions  of  municipal,  if  not  of 
general,  interest.  They  deliberated  on  the  rewards  to  be 
given  to  this  or  that  magistrate,  and  voted  funds  for 
monuments  and  statues  in  honour  of  those  who  had  earned 
their  approbation.  The  names  of  women  are  not  unfre- 
quently  set  down  as  patronesses  of  certain  craft-gilds,  of 
which  they  can  hardly  have  been  ordinary  members ;  and 
in  one  instance  at  least  in  Africa,  and  in  another  in 
Majorca,  inscriptions  distinctly  mention  that  certain  ladies 
had  filled  all  the  official  posts  in  a  collegium.  (j.  s.  N.) 

Modern  Clubs. — The  word  club,  denoting  the  promotion 
of  intercommunity  and  good  fellowship,  is  not  very  old,  and 
only  became  common  in  the  time  of  the  T-.itler  and  Spec 
tator ;  it  claims  a  descent,  however,  from  the  Anglo-Saxon, 
being  derived  from  cleofan,  to  divide,  because  the  expenses 
are  divided  into  shares.  Thomas  Occleve  (temp.  Henry 
IV.)  mentions  a  club  designated  La  Court  de  Bone 
Compaignie  of  which  he  was  a  member.  Aubrey  (1659) 
speaks  thus  of  the  word  :  "  We  now  use  the  word  clubbe 
for  a  sodality  in  a  taverne."  He  also  mentions  the  ballot 
box,  that  potential  instrument  too  often  used  in  modern 
days  for  the  indulgence  of  secret  spleen  :  "Here  we  had 
(very  formally)  a  ballotting  box,  and  bal lotted  how  things 
should  be  carried."  Dr  Johnson,  according  to  Boswell, 
defines  a  club  to  be  an  "assembly  of  good  fellows  meeting 
under  certain  conditions."  And  to  the  same  authority  may 
be  traced  the  words  "  clubable  "  and  "  unclubable." 

The  numerous  London  clubs  which  sprang  into  existence 
in  the  last  and  previous  century  had  their  place  and  origin 
almost  entirely  in  the  coffee-houses  and  taverns  then 
so  much  in  vogue.  Of  these  the  earliest  known  was  the 
Bread  Street  or  Friday  Street  Club  originated  by  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh,  and  meeting  at  the  Mermaid  Tavern. 
Shakespeare,  Beaumont,  Fletcher,  Selden,  Donne,  and  others 
were  members  of  this  club.  Other  clubs  were  subsequently 
formed,  such  as  that  meeting  at  the  Devil  Tavern  near 
Temple  Bar,  of  which  Ben  Jo.nson  was  supposed  to  be  the 
founder;  and  later  on  (in  1764)  we  find  the  Literanj  Club 
was  established  chiefly  at  the  instance  of  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds,  which  soon  acquired  a  renown  no  more  than  pro 
portionate  to  its  merits — a  renown  maintained  and  brought 
down  to  the  present  day. 

Addison,  in  the  Spectator,  has  a  paper  on  the  clubs 
of  his  day  (No.  9,  vol.  i.  1710).  Of  the  description  of 
club  there  sketched  many  exist  at  the  present  time,  having 
no  object  but  that  of  good  fellowship  and  dining.  In 
this  category  may  be  included  the  Royal  Society  Club, 
the  history  of  which  has  been  written  by  the  late  Admiral 
Win.  Henry  Smyth,  F.R.S.,  in  the  privately  printed  Sketch 
of  the  Else  and  Progress  of  the  Royal  Society  Club,  published 
in  I860. 

Of  the  more  notable  of  the  clubs  of  the  past  and  the 
early  part  of  the  present  century  but  few  resembled  the 
club  of  the  Victorian  era.  Of  those  which  survive  may  be 
mentioned  Wldte's,  originally  established  in  1698.  This 
club  was  formerly  of  a  high  Tory  character,  and  though  no 
longer  political  is  still  somewhat  conservative  and  undoubt 
edly  aristocratic.  Brooks' s  club,  similar  to  White's  in  the 
character  of  its  members,  and  nearly  coeval  in  date,  has 
continued  to  maintain  a  political  aspect,  and  is  considered 
to  be  identified  with  Whig  principles.  Boodle's,  of  later 
date,  has  always  been  deemed  the  resort  of  country  gentle 
men,  and  especially  of  masters  of  fox-hounds.  Arthur's,  in 
some  respects  an  offshoot  of  White's,  was  established  fully 


a  century  ago,  and  continues  to  this  day  a  club  of  gentle 
men  associated  for  no  special  purpose,  but  united  cnly  by 
congeniality  of  tastes  and  ideas 

The  number  of  regularly  established  clubs  in  London  is 
upwards  of  fifty,  divided  into  political,  literary  and  scien 
tific,  university,  naval  and  military,  and  general  clubs.  Of  the 
political  clubs  the  principal  are  the  Carlton,  the  Conserva 
tive,  the  Junior  Carlton,  and  the  St  Stephen's,  the  Reform, 
and  the  Devonshire  (a  kind  of  junior  Reform  club),  the 
conditions  of  admission  into  which  are  of  a  political  nature. 
Of  the  literary  and  scientific,  the  Athenveum  was  "  insti 
tuted  for  the  association  of  individuals  known  for  their 
scientific  or  literary  attainments,  artists  of  eminence  in 
any  class  of  the  fine  arts,  and  noblemen  and  gentlemen 
distinguished  as  liberal  patrons  of  science,  literature, 
or  the  arts,"  and  has  long  enjoyed  a  high  reputation, 
rendering  admission  to  its  ranks  both  tedious  as  regards 
the  length  of  time  a  candidate  has  to  wait  before  being 
put  up  for  ballot,  and  difficult  when  he  is  subjected  to  that 
crucial  test.  Of  university  clubs  the  United  University  is 
the  oldest,  the  others  being  the  Oxford  and  Cambridge, 
the  New  University,  and  others,  the  qualification  for  mem 
bership  of  winch  would  be  that  of  connection  with  the 
chief  universities.  The  naval  and  military  clubs  include 
the  United  Service,  the  Junior  United  Service,  the  Army 
and  Navy,  with  numerous  others  intended  for  military 
and  naval  officers,  and  in  some  instances  for  officers  of 
militia.  The  general  clubs  include  the  Travellers',  to  be 
deemed  eligible  for  which  a  candidate  must  have  "  travelled 
out  of  the  British  Islands  to  a  distance  of  at  least  500 
miles  from  London  in  a  direct  line  "  (not  a  very  onerous 
condition  in  the  present  day,  but  one  of  some  weight 
in  1815  when  the  club  was  founded),  and  the  Oriental 
and  East  India  United  Service  clubs,  intended  more 
especially  for  members  of  Her  Majesty's  Indian  services 
both  civil  and  military.  Besides  these  there  are  numerous 
clubs  of  a  special  character,  such  as  the  Windham,  whose 
object  is  stated  to  be  "  to  secure  a  convenient  and  agreeable 
place  of  meeting  for  a  society  of  gentlemen  all  connected 
with  each  other  by  a  common  bond  of  literary  or  persona] 
acquaintance;"  the  National  club,  consisting  of  "members 
who  hold  the  doctrines  and  principles  of  the  Reformed  faith, 
as  revealed  in  Holy  Scripture,  asserted  at  the  Reformation, 
and  generally  embodied  in  the  articles  of  the  Church  of 
England;"  or  the  Garrick,  which  was  instituted  in  1831  for 
"the  general  patronage  of  the  drama,  for  bringing  together 
the  supporters  of  the  drama,  and  for  the  formation  of  a 
theatrical  library  with  works  on  costume.1' 

This  list  might  be  extended,  but  the  general  aims  of  thp 
modern  style  of  club  are  sufficiently  indicated  in  this 
reference  to  the  salient  features  of  the  clubs  named. 

The  architectural  elevations  of  the  London  club-houses 
are  such  as  have  lent  dignity  and  character  to  the  parts  of 
London  in  which  they  are  situated.  Pull  Mall  notably  is 
thus  now  a  street  of  palaces.  Nor  should  the  contents  of 
these  handsome  and  convenient  mansions  pass  unnoticed. 
The  Athenceumlias  probably  the  choicest  library  of  its  kind, 
consisting  mainly  of  books  of  reference,  and  including 
45,000  volumes.  The  Garrick  club  has  an  exceedingly 
valuable  collection  of  oil  and  water-colour  paintings,  chiefly 
as  might  be  expected,  relating  to  dramatic  episodes.  The 
United  Service,  the  Reform,  the  Oriental,  and  some  other 
clubs  have  an  assemblage  of  portraits  of  members  who  have 
won  fame,  or  of  paintings  of  celebrated  battles  and  public 
events.  The  furniture  and  arrangements  of  the  different 
apartments  correspond  to  the  exteriors,  every  convenience 
and  luxury  being  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  members. 

The  mode  of  election  of  members  varies.  In  some  clubs 
the  committee  alone  have  the  power  of  choosing  new 
members.  In  others  the  election  is  by  ballot  of  the  whole 

VT.  —  6 


42 


0  L  U  —  0  L  U 


club,  one  black  ball  in  ten  ordinarily  excluding.  In  the 
Athenaeum,  whilst  the  principle  of  election  by  ballot  of  the 
whole  club  obtains,  the  duty  is  also  cast  upon  the  committee 
of  annually  selecting  nine  members  who  are  to  be  "  of 
distinguished  eminence  in  science,  literature,  or  the  arts, 
or  for  public  services,"  and  the  rule  makes  stringent 
provision  for  the  conduct  of  these  elections.  On  the  com 
mittee  of  the  same  club  is  likewise  conferred  power  to 
elect  without  ballot  princes  of  the  blood  royal,  Cabinet 
ministers,  bishops,  speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons, 
judges,  &c. 

The  general  concerns  of  clubs  are  managed  by  committees 
constituted  of  the  trustees,  who  are  usually  permanent  mem 
bers  thereof,  and  of  ordinarily  twenty-four  other  members, 
chosen  by  the  club  at  large,  one-third  of  whom  go  out  of 
office  annually.  These  committees  have  plenary  powers  to 
deal  with  the  affairs  of  the  club  committed  to  their  charge, 
assembling  weekly  to  transact  current  business  and  audit 
the  accounts.  Once  a  year  a  meeting  of  the  whole  club  is 
held,  before  which  a  report  is  laid,  and  any  action  taken 
thereupon  which  may  be  necessary. 

The  entrance  fee  varies  from  £40  at  the  United  Service 
and  Army  and  Navy  clubs  to  20  guineas  at  the  Carlton 
club.  The  annual  subscription  in  like  manner  ranges  from 
10  guineas  in  the  Carlton,  Reform,  and  several  others,  to  7 
guineas  in  the  United  Service  club.  The  largest  income 
derived  from  these  and  all  other  sources  may  be  stated  to 
be  that  of  the  Army  and  Navy  club,  which  in  the  year 
1875  amounted  to  £30,813,  of  which  £19,383  was  raised 
by  entrance  fees  and  subscriptions  alone.  The  expenditure 
is,  however,  most  commonly  of  nearly  equal  amount,  and 
of  few  of  the  clubs  can  it  be  said  that  they  are  entirely  free 
from  debt.  The  number  of  members  included  in  a  London 
club  varies  from  2200  in  the  Army  and  Navy  to  475  in 
the  St  James's  club. 

Numerous  provincial  clubs  aro  established  throughout 
the  country.  In  both  Edinburgh  and  Dublin  are  clubs 
fully  coming  up  to  the  metropolitan  societies.  Nor  is  this 
great  public  convenience  lacking  in  the  cities  and  towns 
of  Europe,  the  United  States,  and  the  British  colonies. 

Of  a  different  nature  and  with  widely  different  objects 
are  the  learned  bodies  designated  publishing  clubs,  of 
which  the  Abbotsford,  the  Bannatyne,  the  Roxfatrghe,  and 
others  are  examples.  These  societies  dsvoted  themselves 
solely  to  the  editing  of  unpublished  MSS.,  or  the  reprint- 
of  rare  and  valuable  works.  (j.  c.  w.) 

Arnold  (Walter),  Life  and  Death  of  the  Sublime  Society  of  Beef  - 

Ar  I'  SI  '  ™Uirey  (J°hn)'  Lciters  °f  Eminent  Persons,  2  vols. ; 
Uarsli  (L.),  Clubs  of  London,  with  Anecdotes  of  their  Members 
Sketches  of  Character  and  Conversation,  1832,  2  vols.  ;  Notes  and 
Queries  3d  series,  vols.  1  9,  10;  Pyne  (W.  H.),  Wine  and  Wai- 
'  ^'  2  vols.;  Smyth  (Admiral),  Sketch  of  the  Use  and  Pro 
gress  of  the  Royal  Society  Club,  1860;  Timbs  (John),  Club  Life  or 
London,  with  Anecdotes  of  Clubs,  Co/ee-Houses  and  Taverns  1866 

TOJflUwi  f*Saf  °L%*ba  <mdClub  Lifa  1872  ;  Walker  (Th.)| 
The  Original  fifth  edition,  by  W.  A.  Guy,  1875;  The  Secret 
History  of  Clubs  of  all  Descriptions  [by  Ned  Ward],  1709;  Com- 
plete  and  Humourous  Account  of  all  the  Remarkable  Clubs  and 
Societies  in  the  Cities  of  London  and  Westminster  Thy  Ned  Ward! 
seventh  edition,  1,56  ; The  London  Clubs :  their  Anecdotes,  Histor',, 
Pnvat*  Rules  and  Regulations,  1853,  12mo  ;  Hume  (Rev.  A) 
Learned  Societies  and  Printing  Clubs,  1847. 

CLUB-FOOT  (Talipes}.  The  pathology  and  treatment 
of  the  various  deformities  of  the  foot,  which  are  included 
under  the  above  general  title,  come  strictly  under  ortho 
pedic  surgery.  Several  forms  of  club-foot  have  been 
recognized  by  surgeons  There  are  four  primary  forms  :— 
(1)  Talipes  equinus,  in  which  the  heel  does  not  touch  the 
ground,  the  child  resting  on  the  toes ;  (2)  Talipes  varus, 
m  which  the  foot  is  turned  inwards  and  shortened,  the 
inner  edge  of  the  foot  raised,  the  outer  edge  of  the  foot 
only  touching  the  ground ;  (3)  Talipes  calcaneus,  a  rare 


form,  in  which  the  heel  only  touches  the  ground,  the  toes 
being  raised;  (4)  Talipes  valgus,  in  which  the  foot  is  turned 
outwards.  The  third  and  fourth  varieties  are  so  rare  that 
they  are  of  no  practical  interest,  and  need  not  be  further 
alluded  to.  It  is  possible  to  confound  true  talipes  valgus 
with  flat-foot,  a  deformity  which  is  the  result  of  undue 
stretching,  from  weakness,  of  the  fascial  and  ligamentous 
structures  which  maintain  the  arched  form  of  the  foot.  In 
flat-foot  the  arch  is  lost,  the  patient  is  splay  or  flat-footed, 
and  as  a  secondary  deformity  the  foot  is  turned  outwards, 
resembling  and  often  confounded  with  true  talipes  valgus. 
The  two  common  primary  forms  of  club-foot  are  talipes 
equinus  and  talipes  varus.  These  two  varieties  are  frequently 
combined  ;  the  deformity  is  then  termed  talipes  equino-varus. 
A  shortening  or  contraction  of  one  group,  or  of  allied  groups, 
of  muscles  is  always  to  be  observed ;  as,  for  instance,  in 
talipes  equinus,  to  which  the  muscles  of  the  calf  are  con 
tracted,  or  in  talipes  varus,  in  which  the  group  of  muscles 
which  turn  the  foot  inwards  are  contracted,  or  in  talipes 
equino-varus,  in  which  both  sets  are  at  fault.  This  con 
traction  is  due  either  to  excessive  primary  irritation  of  the 
muscular  group  implicated,  or  is  secondary  to  and  the 
result  of  paralysis  of  an  opposing  group  of  muscles.  In 
certain  cases  thD  paralysis  affects  more  or  less  all  the  muscks 
of  the  limb  ;  the  result  of  this  is  a  deformity  in  the  direc 
tion  of  the  most  powerful  group.  The  primary  cause  of 
these  diseased  conditions  is  some  irritation  of  the  ceretro- 
spinal  central  nervous  system,  either  occurring  before  birth, 
and  termed  congenital,  or  appearing  after  birth,  generally 
during  the periodof  first  dentition,  and  termed  non-congenital. 
As  a  rule  well-marked  cases  are  congenital.  Such 
deformities  are  frequently  hereditary.  Both  feet  may  or 
may  not  be  affected.  Eecognition  of  club-foot  is  of  import 
ance,  because  if  not  treated  early  a  change  takes  place  in 
the  shape  of  the  bones  of  the  foot,  which  renders  treatment 
much  more  difficult,  and  in  some  neglected  cases  it  is  impos 
sible  to  restore  the  foot  to  its  normal  shape. 

It  is  to  Stromeyer  in  Germany  (1837),  and  to  Little  and 
Adams  in  England,  that  we  owe  a  true  understanding  of 
the  pathology  and  treatment  of  these  affections. 

The  following  broad  principles,  which  govern  the  treat 
ment,  are  now  universally  understood  and  adopted  by  sur 
geons: — (1)  A  subcutaneous  division,  by  the  operation  of 
tenotomy,  of  the  contracted  tendons ;  and  (2)  A  stretching 
of  the  newly  formed  embryonic  tissue  which  is  deposited 
between  the  cut  extremities  of  the  tendons  in  the  inter 
space,  the  result  of  their  retraction  after  division.  This 
is  managed  by  means  of  a  mechanical  appliance  termed 
a  club-foot  boot.  Various  forms  of  boot  have  been  used 
by  surgeons  ;  in  all  the  essential  feature  is  that  the  foot 
is  fixed  to  the  boot  by  sticking-plaster  or  by  straps,  and  the 
stretching  is  gradually  accomplished  by  the  elasticity  of 
Indian-rubber  bands,  or  by  steel  springs,  or  by  screws.  In 
this  way  the  foot  gradually  assumes  a  normal  appearance. 
As  a  general  rule,  after  it  is  evident  that  the  deformity 
is  a  persistent  one,  the  earlier  the  operation  is  per 
formed  the  better.  Only  in  exceptional  cases  should 
interference  bo  delayed  beyond  the  third  or  fourth  month 
of  life.  If  a  change  takes  place  in  the  bones,  or  if  the 
child  is  allowed  to  walk  before  treatment  of  the  deformity, 
the  cure  is  rendered  more  difficult  and  more  tedious.  In 
many  cases  when  the  child  is  young  the  cutting  operation 
will  not  be  necessary  ;  the  foot  can  be  restored  to  its  normal 
position  by  rr.echanical  appliances  alone. 

Various  rules  have  been  laid  down  for  the  proper 
performance  of  tenotomy.  The  simple  rule  to  begin  with 
the  riost  tense  tendon,  and  to  divide  it  where  it  is  most 
tense,  is  of  universal  application.  In  talipes  equinus  the 
tendo  ^  achillis,  in  talipes  varus  the  tibialis  posticits  and 
tibialis  anticus  require  division.  In  the  common  form. 


0  L  U— C  L  Y 


talipes  equino-varus,  both  groups  must  be  operated  on. 
Very  frequently  the  plantar  fascia  is  shortened  and  has 
also  to  be  divided.  After  the  operation,  which  is  greatly 
facilitated  by  the  administration  of  chloroform,  the  foot  is 
kept  at  rest  with  a  bandage  for  three  or  four  days  until 
the  small  punctures  are  healed.  The  boot  is  then  carefully 
applied,  and  gradually  the  foot  is  restored  to  its  normal 
shape  without  causing  pain,  which  interferes  with  the 
object  in  view,  namely,  a  moulding  (by  stretching)  of  the 
newly-formed  tissue  between  the  divided  ends  of  the 
tendons  If  there  is  distinct  paralysis  the  appropriate 
remedies — friction,  passive  exercise,  and  the  electric  battery 
— may  be  indicated.  The  boot  should  be  worn  for  some  time 
after  the  foot  has  regained  its  normal  appearance,  because 
there  is  always  a  tendency  for  a  considerable  period  to  the 
return  of  the  deformity.  (j.  c.) 

CLUNY,  or  CLUGNI,  a  town  of  France,  in  the  department 
of  Saone-et-Loire,  about  twelve  miles  by  rail  north-west  of 
Macon,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Grone,  a  tributary  of  the 
Saone,  crossed  there  by  two  bridges.  It  is  a  place  of 
upwards  of  4000  inhabitants,  and  carries  on  a  considerable 
agricultural  trade,  and  the  manufacture  of  pottery,  paper, 
and  vinegai.  The  main  interest  in  the  town  is  due  to  its 
specimens  of  mediaeval  architecture,  which  include,  besides 
its  celebrated  abbey,  the  church  of  Notre  Dame,  dating 
from  the  13th  century;  the  church  of  Saint  Marcel  with  a 
beautiful  spire ;  the  ruins  of  Saint  Mayeul ;  portions  of  the 
ancient  fortifications  ;  and  a  number  of  picturesque  houses 
belonging  to  various  periods  from  the  12th  century 
downwards,  classed  among  the  historic  monuments  of 
France.  A  mere  village  at  the  time  when  William  the 
Pious  and  Bernon,  abbot  of  Gigny  and  Baume,  laid  the 
foundations  of  what  was  destined  to  be  one  of  the  principal 
monasteries  of  Europe,  it  gradually  increased  with  the 
development  of  the  religious  fraternity,  and  was  raised  to 
the  rank  of  a  town.  Before  the  erection  of  St  Peter's  at 
Rome,  the  abbey  church,  which  was  consecrated  by 
Innocent  II.,  was  recognized  as  the  largest  building  of  its 
kind  in  Europe,  its  length  being  no  less  than  G56  feet  and 
its  breadth  130.  During  the  wars  of  the  16th  century  the 
abbatial  buildings  were  greatly  damaged  ;  and  in  the 
Revolution  of  1789  a  great  part  of  them  were  completely 
demolished.  Restorations  have  since  been  effected  at 
various  times,  and  different  portions  of  the  enormous  pile 
are  appropriated  to  civic  purposes.  The  abbot's  palace 
contains  a  museum  and  a  library  ;  the  cloisters  are  occu 
pied  by  a  school ;  and  the  site  of  the  abbey  church 
affords  room  for  a  Government  stud.  The  12th  century 
was  the  period  at  which  the  monks  of  Cluny  reached  the 
height  of  their  prosperity  ;  and  about  that  time  no  fewer 
than  2000  religious  establishments  throughout  Europe 
acknowledged  allegiance.  Shortly  after  they  began  to 
decline  from  the  ancient  rigidity  of  their  rule  ;  and  their 
influence  gave  way  before  the  rising  power  of  the  Cister 
cians.  Among  the  great  men  whom  they  have  produced 
are  Gregory  VII.,  Urban  II.,  and  Pascal  II.  The  town 
residence  erected  in  Paris  by  the  abbots  of  Cluny  about  the 
end  of  the  loth  century  is  still  extant,  and,  under  the  name 
of  Hotel  de  Cluny,  is  occupied  by  the  Sommerard  archaeo 
logical  collection ;  but  the  College  de  Cluny,  which  was 
founded  in  12G9  by  Ives  de  Vergy,  has  disappeared. 

CLUSIUM.     See  CHIUSI. 

CLUVER,  PHILIP  (1580-1623),  a  German  geographer 
still  regarded  as  an  authority,  was  born  at  Danzig  in  1580. 
After  travelling  in  Poland  and  Germany,  he  commenced 
the  study  of  law  at  Leyden  ;  but  he  soon  turned  his 
attention  to  geography,  which  was  then  taught  there  by 
Joseph  Scaliger.  Displeased  with  his  desertion  of  the  law, 
his  father  refused  to  support  him  ;  and  he  was  forced 
to  enter  the  army,  with  which  he  served  for  two  j7ears  in 


Bohemia  and  Hungary.  After  leaving  the  army  he  under 
took  to  get  printed  in  Holland  an  apology  for  Baron  Popel, 
who  had  been  imprisoned  by  the  emperor;  and  in 
consequence  he  was  himself  thrown  into  prison.  On  his 
release  he  visited  England,  where  he  married,  and  became 
acquainted  with  Dr  Holland  and  Dr  Prideaux.  After 
spending  some  time  in  Scotland  and  France,  he  returned  to 
Holland;  and  in  1611  he  commenced  to  publish  his  works, 
being,  after  1616,  supported  by  a  pension  from  the  Academy 
of  Leyden.  His  principal  works  are — Germania  Antique 
(161G),  Sicilicp.  Antiques  libri  duo,  Sardinia  et  Corsica 
Antiqua(lQlQ),  Italia  Antiqua  (1624),  Introductio  in  Uni- 
versam  Geographiam  (1629) 

CLYDE,  the  most  important  river  of  Scotland,  and  the 
third  in  point  of  magnitude,  has  its  origin  from  numerous 
small  streams  rising  at  a  height  of  about  1400  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea,  in  the  mountains  which  separate 
Lanarkshire  from  the  counties  of  Peebles  and  Dumfries. 
It  flows  first  in  a  northerly  direction,  with  a  slight  inclina 
tion  eastward  as  far  as  Biggar,  where,  in  time  of  floods, 
a  junction  is  sometimes  established  with  the  system  of  the 
Tweed  by  means  of  the  Biggar  Water.  After  uniting  with 
the  Douglas  near  Harperfield,  it  takes  a  north-west  course, 
passing  Lanark,kHamilton,  and  Glasgow,  and  merges  in  the 
Firth  of  Clyde  below  Dumbarton.  From  its  source  to 
Dumbarton  it  is  about  73  miles  in  length,  the  direct  district 
being  about  52.  Its  principal  tributaries  are  the  Douglas, 
the  Nethan,  the  Avon,  and  the  Cart  from  the  left,  and  the 
Medwyn,  the  Mouse,  the  Calder,  the  Kelvin,  and  the  Leven 
from  the  right.  Of  the  celebrated  Falls  of  Clyde,  three 
are  above  and  one  below  Lanark  ;  the  uppermost  is  Bon- 
nington  Linn,  the  height  of  which  is  about  30  feet  ;  the 
second  is  Corra  Linn,  where  the  water  dashes  over  the 
rock  in  three  distinct  leaps,  and  resumes  its  course  at  a 
level  84  feet  lower.  Dundaff  Linn  is  a  small  fall  of  10 
feet ;  and  at  Stonebyres  there  are  three  successive  falls, 
together  measuring  76  feet  in  height.  At  high  water  the 
Clyde  is  navigable  to  Glasgow  for  the  largest  class  of 
merchant  vessels.  See  GLASGOW. 

CLYDE,  LORD  (1792-1863),  better  known  as  SIR 
COLIN  CAMPBELL,  was  born  at  Glasgow  on  the  16th  of 
October  1792.  He  received  his  education  at  the  high 
school  of  that  city,  and  when  only  sixteen  years  of  age 
obtained  an  ensigncy  in  the  9th  foot,  through  the  influence 
of  Colonel  Campbell,  his  maternal  uncle.  The  youthful 
officer  had  an  early  opportunity  of  engaging  in  active 
service.  He  fought  under  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley  at  Vimiera, 
took  part  in  the  retreat  of  Sir  John  Moore,  and  was  present 
at  the  battle  of  Coruna.  He  shared  in  all  the  fighting  of 
the  next  Peninsular  campaign,  and  was  severely  wounded 
while  leading  a  storrning-party  at  the  attack  on  San 
Selastian.  He  was  again  wounded  at  the  passage  of  the 
Biclassoa,  and  compelled  to  return  to  England,  when  his 
conspicuous  gallantry  was  rewarded  with  the  rank  of 
captain  and  lieutenant,  without  purchase.  Campbell  held 
a  command  in  the  American  expedition  of  1814;  and 
after  the  peace  of  the  following  year  he  devoted  himself 
to  studying  the  theoretical  branches  of  his  profession.  la 
1823  he  quelled  the  negro  insurrection  in  Demerara,  and 
two  years  later  obtained  his  majority  by  purchase.  In 
1832  he  became  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  98th _ foot,  and 
with  that  regiment  rendered  distinguished  service  in  the 
Chinese  war  of  1842.  Colonel  Campbell  was  next 
employed  in  the  Sikh  war  of  1848-49,  under  Lord  Gough. 
At  Chillianwalla,  where  he  was  wounded,  and  at  the 
decisive  victory  of  Goojerat,  his  skill  and  valour  largely 
contributed  to  the  success  of  the  British  arms  ;  and  his 
"  steady  coolness  and  military  precision "  were  highly 
praised  in  official  despatches.  He  was  created  a  K.C.B.  in 
1849,  and  specially  named  in  the  thanks  of  Parliament. 


44 


0  L  Y  —  C  N  0 


After  rendering  important  services  in  India,  Sir  Colin 
Campbell  returned  home  in  1853.  Next  year  the  Crimean 
war  broke  out,  and  he  accepted  the  command  of  the 
Highland  brigade,  which  formed  the  left  wing  of  the  duke 
of  Cambridge's  division.  The  success  of  the  British  at 
the  Alma  was  mainly  due  to  his  intrepidity  ;  and  with 
his  "  thin  red  line"  of  Highlanders  he  repulsed  the  Russian 
attack  on  Balaklava.  At  the  close  of  the  war  Sir  Colin 
was  promoted  to  be  Knight  Grand  Cross  of  the  Bath,  and 
elected  honorary  D.C.L.  of  Oxford.  His  military  services, 
however,  had  as  yet  met  with  tardy  recognition  ;  but, 
when  the  crisis  came,  his  true  worth  was  appreciated. 
The  outbreak  of  the  Indian  Mutiny  called  for  a  general  of 
tried  experience;  and  on  July  11,  1857,  the  command 
was  offered  to  him  by  Lord  Palmerston.  On  being  asked 
when  he  would  be  ready  to  set  out,  the  veteran  replied, 
"  Within  twenty-four  hours."  He  was  as  good  as  his  word; 
he  left  England  the  next  evening,  and  reached  Calcutta  on 
August  13.  The  position  was  one  of  unusual  difficulty, 
but  his  energy  and  resource  did  not  fail  for  a  moment. 
Having  formed  an  army  as  hastily  as  possible,  he  marched 
with  6000  men  and  36  guns  to  the  relief  of  Lucknow. 
The  odds  against  him  were  great,  and  nothing  save  con 
summate  dexterity  of  manoeuvring  could  have  achieved 
success.  When  the  British  guns  were  silenced  by  the  fire 
of  the  rebels,  Sir  Colin  himself  headed  the  final  assault, 
carried  the  fort,  and  saved  the  besieged.  He  afterwards, 
by  his  skilful  tactics,  thoroughly  defeated  the  enemy,  and 
captured  their  strongholds, — thus  crushing  the  mutiny  and 
preserving  the  British  rule  in  India.  For  these  services 
he  was  raised  to  the  peerage  iu  1858,  by  the  title  of  Lord 
Clyde ;  and  returning  to  England  in  the  next  year  he  re 
ceived  the  thanks  of  both  Houses  of  Parliament.  He 
enjoyed  a  pension  of  £2000  a  year  until  his  death,  which 
occurred  on  the  14th  of  August  1863. 

Lord  Clyde  possessed  in  abundant  measure  all  the 
qualities  which  go  to  make  a  successful  general.  He  com 
bined  the  daring  of  the  subaltern  with  the  calm  prudence 
of  the  veteran  commander.  The  soldiers  whom  he  led 
were  devotedly  attached  to  him  ;  and  his  courteous 
demeanour  and  manly  independence  of  character  won  him 
unvarying  respect.  Though  adequate  recognition  of  his 
merits  came  slowly,  he  never  allowed  any  feeling  of  pique 
to  interfere  with  duty;  and  he  deserves  to  be  regarded 
as  one  of  the  most  distinguished  generals  that  Britain  has 
produced.  t 

CLYT.EMNESTRA,  the  daughter  of  Tyndareus  and 
Leda,  and  wife  of  Agamemnon.  See  AGAMEMNON, 

CNIDUS,  now  TEKIR,  an  ancient  city  of  Caria,  in  Asia 
Minor,  situated  at  the  extremity  of  the  long  peninsula  that 
forms  the  southern  side  of  the  Sinus  Ceramicus,  or  Gulf 
of  Cos.  It  was  built  partly  on  the  mainland  and  partly  on 
the  Island  of  Triopion,  or  Cape  Krio,  which  anciently  com 
municated  with  the  continent  by  a  causeway  and  biidge, 
and-  is  now  permanently  connected  by  a  narrow  sandy  isth 
mus.  By  means  of  the  causeway  the  channel  between 
island  and  mainland  was  formed  into  two  harbours,  of  which 
the  larger,  or  southern,  now  known  as  port  Freano,  was 
further  enclosed  by  two  strongly-built  moles  that  are  still 
in  good  part  entire.  The  extreme  length  of  the  city  was 
little  less  than  a  mile,  and  the  whole  intramural  area  is  still 
thickly  strewn  with  architectural  remains.  The  walls,  both 
insular  and  continental,  can  be  traced  throughout  their 
whole  circuit  ;  and  in  many  places,  especially  round  the 
acropolis,  at  the  north-east  corner  of  the  city,  they  are  re 
markably  perfect.  Our  knowledge  of  the  site" is  largely  due 
to  the  mission  of  the  Dilettanti  Society  in  1812,  and  the 
excavations  executed  by  Mr  C.  T.  Newton  in  1857-8.  The 
agora,  the  theatre,  an  odeum,  a  temple  of  Dionysus,  a 
temple  of  the  Muses,  a  temple  of  Venus,  and  a  great  number 


of  minor  buildings  have  been  identified,  and  the  general  plan 
of  the  city  has  been  very  clearly  made  out.  In  a  temple- 
enclosure  Mr  Newton  discovered  a  fine  seated  statue  of 
Demeter,  which  now  adorns  the  British  Museum  ;  and 
about  three  miles  south-east  of  the  city  he  came  upon  the 
ruins  of  a  splendid  tomb,  and  a  colossal  figure  of  a  lion 
carved  out  of  one  block  of  Pentelic  marble,  10  feet  in  length 
and  6  in  height,  which  has  been  supposed  to  commemorate 
the  great  naval  victory  of  Conon  over  the  Lacedaemonians  in 
394  B.C.  (see  ARCHITECTURE,  vol.  ii.  p.  412).  Among  the 
minor  antiquities  obtained  from  the  city  itself,  or  the  great 
necropolis  to  the  east,  perhaps  the  most  interesting  are  tha 
leaden  KaTa.Sto-fj.oi,  or  imprecationary  tablets,  found  in  the 
temple  of  Demeter,  and  copied  in  facsimile  in  the  appendix 
to  the  second  volume  of  Newton's  work. 

Cnidus  was  a  city  of  high  antiquity  and  probably  of 
Lacedaemonian  colonization.  Along  with  Halicarnassus 
and  Cos,  and  the  Rhodian  cities  of  Lindus,  Camirus-,  and 
lalysus,  it  formed  the  Dorian  Hexapolis,  which  held  its 
confederate  assemblies  on  the  Triopian  headland,  and  there 
celebrated  games  in  honour  of  Apollo,  Poseidon,  and  the 
nymphs.  The  city  was  at  first  governed  by  an  oligarchic 
senate,  composed  of  sixty  members,  known  as  d/Ai/i^ioi/es, 
and  presided  over  by  a  magistrate  called  an  upca-rijp  ;  but, 
though  it  is  proved  by  inscriptions  that  the  old  names  con 
tinued  to  a  very  late  period,  the  c'nstitution  underwent  a 
popular  transformation.  The  situation  of  the  city  was 
favourable  for  commerce,  and  the  Cnidians  acquired  con 
siderable  wealth,  and  were  able  to  colonize  the  island  of 
Lipara  and  founded  the  city  of  Corcyra  Nigra  in  the  Adri 
atic.  They  ultimately  submitted  to  Cyrus,  and  from  the 
battle  of  Eurymedon  to  the  latter  part  of  the  Peloponnesian 
war  they  were  subject  to  Athens.  The  Romans  easily  ob 
tained  their  allegiance,  and  rewarded  them  by  leaving  them 
the  freedom  of  their  city.  During  the  Byzantine  period 
there  must  still  have  been  a  considerable  population ;  for 
the  ruins  contain  a  large  number  of  buildings  belonging  to 
the  Byzantine  style,  and  Christian  sepulchres  are  common 
in  the  neighbourhood.  Eudoxus,  the  astronomer,  Ctesias, 
the  writer  on  Persian  history,  and  Sostratus,  the  builder 
of  the  celebrated  Pharos  at  Alexandria,  are  the  most 
remarkable  of  the  Cnidians  mentioned  in  history. 

See  Beaufort's  Ionian  Antiquities,  1811,  and  Karamania,  1818; 
Hamilton's  Researches,  1842  ;  Newton's  Travels  and  Discoveries  in 
the  Levant,  1865  ;  and  Waddington  in  the  Revue  Xumismatique, 
1851. 

CNOSSUS,  or  GNOSSUS,  the  most  important  city  of 
Crete,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Cseratus,  a  small  stream 
which  falls  into  the  sea  on  the  north  side  of  the  island. 
The  city  was  situated  at  a  distance  of  about  3  miles  from 
the  coast,  and,  according  to  the  old  traditions,  was  founded 
by  Minos,  the  mythical  king  of  Crete.  The  locality  was 
associated  with  a  number  of  the  most  interesting  legends  of 
Grecian  mythology,  particularly  with  those  which  related  to 
Jupiter,  who  was  said  to  have  been  born,  to  have  been 
married,  and  to  have  been  buried  in  the  vicinity.  Cnossus 
is  also  assigned  as  the  site  of  the  fabled  labyrinth  in  which 
the  Minotaur  was  confined,  and  a  physical  basis  for  the 
legend  may  perhaps  have  been  found  in  the  caverns  and 
excavations  of  the  district.  As  the  city  was  originally 
peopled  by  Dorians,  the  manners,  customs,  and  political 
institutions  of  its  inhabitants  were  all  Dcrian.  Along 
with  Gortyna  and  Cydonia,  it  held  for  many  years  the 
supremacy  over  the  whole  of  Crete ;  and  it  always  took  a 
prominent  part  in  the  civil  wars  which  from  time  to  time 
desolated  the  island.  When  the  rest  of  Crete  fell  under 
the  Roman  dominion,  Cnossus  shared  the  same  fate, 
and  became  a  Roman  colony.  ^Enesidemus,  the  sceptic 
philosopher,  and  Chersiphron,  the  architect  of  the  temple 
of  Diana  at  Ephesus,  were  natives  of  Cnobsus. 


4o 


C  0  A  L 


IN  its  most  general  sense  the  term  coal  includes  all 
varieties  of  carbonaceous  minerals  used  as  fuel,  but  it 
is  now  usual  in  England  to  restrict  it  to  the  particular  varie 
ties  of  such  minerals  occurring  in  the  older  Carboniferous 
formations.  On  the  continent  of  Europe  it  is  customary 
to  consider  coal  as  divisible  into  two  great  classes,  depend 
ing  upon  differences  of  colour,  namely,  brown  coal,  corre 
spending  to  the  term  "  lignite "  used  in  England  and 
France,  and  black  or  stone  coal,  which  is  equivalent  to 
coal  as  understood  in  England.  Stone  coal  is  also  a  local 
English  term,  but  with  a  signification  restricted  to  the 
substance  known  by  mineralogists  as  anthracite.  In  old 
English  writings  the  terms  pit-coal  and  sea-coal  are  com 
monly  used.  These  have  reference  to  the  mode  in  which 
the  mineral  is  obtained,  and  the  manner  in  which  it  is 
transported  to  market. 

The  root  kol  is  common  to  all  the  Teutonic  nations, 
while  in  French  and  other  Romance  languages  derivatives 
of  the  Latin  carbo  are  used,  e.g.,  charbon  de  terre.  In 
France  and  Belgium,  however,  a  peculiar  word,  kouille, 
is  generally  used  to  signify  mineral  coal.  This  word  is 
supposed  to  be  derived  from  the  Walloon  hole,  correspond 
ing  to  the  mediaeval  Latin  kulla;.  Littre"  suggests  that  it 
may  be  related  to  the  Gothic  haurja,  coal.  Anthracite  is 
from  the  Greek  a.v6pa£,  and  the  term  lithanthrax,  stone 
coal,  still  survives,  with  the  same  meaning  in  the  Italian 
litantrace. 

It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  signification  now 
attached  to  the  word  coal  is  different  from  that  which  for 
merly  obtained  when  wood  was  the  only  fuel  in  general 
use.  Coal  then  meant  the  carbonaceous  residue  obtained 
in  the  destructive  distillation  of  wood,  or  what  is  known 
as  charcoal,  and  the  name  collier  was  applied  indifferently 
to  both  coal-miners  and  charcoal-burners. 

The  spelling  "cole"  was  generally  used  up  to  the  middle 
of  the  17th  century,  when  it  was  gradually  superseded  by 
the  modern  form,  "coal."  .  The  plural,  coals,  seems  to  have 
been  used  from  a  very  early  period  to  signify  the  broken 
fragments  of  the  mineral  as  prepared  for  use. 
:al  Coal  is  an  amorphous  substance  of  variable  composition, 
ties,  and  therefore  cannot  be  as  strictly  defined  as  a  crystallized 
or  definite  mineral  can.  It  varies  in  colour  from  a  light 
brown  in  the  newest  lignites  to  a  pure  black,  often  with 
a  bluish  or  yellowish  tint  in  the  more  compact  anthracite 
of  the  older  formations.  It  is  opaque,  except  in  exceed 
ingly  thin  slices,  such  as  made  for  microscopic  investigation, 
which  are  imperfectly  transparent,  and  of  a  dark  brown 
colour  by  transmitted  light.  The  streak  is  black  in  an 
thracite,  but  more  or  less  brown  in  the  softer  varieties. 
The  maximum  hardness  is  from  2 '5  to  3  in  anthracite  and 
hard  bituminous  coals,  but  considerably  less  in  lignites, 
which  are  nearly  as  soft  as  rotten  wood.  A  greater  hardness 
is  due  to  the  presence  of  earthy  impurities.  The  densest 
anthracite  is  often  of  a  semi-metallic  lustre,  resembling 
somewhat  that  of  graphite.  Bright,  glance,  or  pitch  coal 
is  another  brilliant  variety,  brittle,  and  breaking  into  regu 
lar  fragments  of  a  black  colour  and  pitchy  lustre.  Lignite 
and  cannel  are  usually  dull  and  earthy,  and  of  an  irregular 
fracture,  the  latter  being  much  tougher  than  the  black  coal. 
Some  lignites  are,  however,  quite  as  brilliant  as  anthracite; 
cannel  and  jet  may  be  turned  in  the  lathe,  and  are  suscep 
tible  of  taking  a  brilliant  polish.  The  specific  gravity  is 
highest  in  anthracite  and  lowest  in  lignite,  bituminous 
coals  giving  intermediate  values  (see  Table  I.)  As  a  rule 
the  density  increases  with  the  amount  of  carbon,  but  in 
some  instances  a  very  high  specific  gravity  is  due  to  inter 


mixed  earthy  matters,  which  may  be  separated  by  me 
chanical  treatment. 

Coal  is  perfectly  amorphous,  the  nearest  approach  to  any 
thing  like  crystalline  structure  being  a  compound  fibrous 
grouping  resembling  that  of  gypsum  or  arragonite,  which 
occurs  in  some  of  the  steam  coals  of  S.  Wales,  and  is 
locally  known  as  "  cone  in  cone,"  but  no  definite  form  or 
arrangement  can  be  made  out  of  the  fibres.  The  impres 
sions  of  leaves,_  woody  fibre,  and  other  vegetable  remains 
are  to  be  considered  as  pseudomorphs  in  coaly  matter  of 
the  original  plant  structures,  and  do  not  actually  represent 
the  structure  of  the  coal  itself.  There  is  generally  a  ten 
dency  in  coals  towards  cleaving  into  cubical  or  prismatic 
blocks,  but  sometimes  the  cohesion  between  the  particles 
is  so  feeble  that  the  mass  breaks  up  into  dust  when  struck. 
These  peculiarities  of  structure  may  vary  very  considerably 
within  small  areas ;  and  the  position  of  the  divisional 
planes  or  cleats  with  reference  to  the  mass,  and  the  pro 
portion  of  small  coal  or  slack  to  the  larger  fragments  when 
the  coal  is  broken  up  by  cutting-tools,  are  points  of  great 
importance  in  the  working  of  coal  on  a  large  scale. 

The  divisional  planes  often  contain  small  films  of  other 
minerals,  the  commonest  being  calcite,  gypsum,  and  iron 
pyrites,  but  in  some  cases  zeolitic  minerals  and  galena 
have  been  observed.  Salt,  in  the  form  of  brine,  is  some 
times  present  in  coal.  Some  years  ago  a  weak  brine  occur 
ring  in  this  way  was  utilized  at  a  bathing  establishment 
at  Ashby-de-la-Zouche.  Hydrocarbons,  such  as  petroleum, 
bitumen,  paraffin,  &c.,  are  also  found  occasionally  in  coal, 
but  more  generally  in  the  associated  sandstones  and  lime 
stones  of  the  Carboniferous  formation.  Gases,  consisting 
principally  of  light  carburetted  hydrogen  or  marsh  gas, 
are  often  present  in  considerable  quantity  in  coal,  in  a 
dissolved  or  occluded  state,  and  the  evolution  of  these  upon 
exposure  to  the  air,  especially  when  a  sudden  diminution  of 
atmospheric  pressure  takes  place,  constitutes  one  of  the  most 
formidable  dangers  that  the  coal  miner  has  to  encounter. 

The  classification  of  the  different  kinds  of  coal  may  be  Classifica- 
considered  from  various  points  of  view,  such  as  their tion- 
chemical  composition,  their  behaviour  when  subjected  to 
heat  or  when  burnt,  and  their  geological  position  and  origin. 
They  all  contain  carbon,  hydrogen,  oxygen,  and  nitrogen, 
forming  the  carbonaceous  or  combustible  portion,  and  some 
quantity  of  mineral  matter,  which  remains  after  combustion 
as  a  residue  or  "ash."  As  the  amount  of  ash  varies  very 
considerably  in  different  coals,  and  stands  in  no  relation  to 
the  proportion  of  the  other  constituents,  it  is  necessary  in 
forming  a  chemical  classification  to  compute  the  results 
of  analysis  after  deduction  of  the  ash  and  hygroscopic 
water.  Examples  of  analyses  treated  in  this  manner  are 
furnished  in  the  last  column  of  Table  I.,  from  which  it  will 
be  seen  that  the  nearest  approach  to  pure  carbon  is  fur 
nished  by  anthracite,  which  contains  above  90  per  cent.  Anthracite. 
This  class  of  coal  burns  with  a  very  small  amount  of  flame, 
producing  intense  local  heat  and  no  smoke.  It  is  especially 
used  for  drying  hops  and  malt,  and  in  air  or  blast  fur 
naces  where  a  high  temperature  is  required,  but  is  not 
suited  for  reverberatory  furnaces.  The  American  anthracite 
is  largely  used  in  iron  smelting,  as  is  also  that  of  South 
Wales,  but  to  a  less  extent,  the  latter  having  the  disad 
vantageous  property  of  decrepitating  when  first  heated. 

The  most  important  class  of  coals  is  that  generally  known  Bitumin- 
as  bituminous,  from  their  property  of  softening  or  under-  ous  co 
going  an  apparent  fusion  when  heated  to  a  temperature  far 
below  that  at  which  actual  combustion  takes  place.     This 
term  is  founded  on  a  misapprehension  of  the  nature  of  the 


COAL 


[VARIETIES. 


occurrence,  since,  although  the  softening  takes  place  at  a 
low  temperature,  still  it  marks  the  point  at  which  destructive 
distillation  commences,  and  hydrocarbons  both  of  a  solid 
and  gaseous  character  are  formed.  That  nothing  analagous 
to  bitumen  exists  in  coals  is  proved  by  the  fact  that  the 
ordinary  solvents  for  bituminous  substances,  such  as  bisul 
phide  of  carbon  and  benzole,  have  no  effect  upon  them,  as 
would  be  the  case  if  they  contained  bitumen  soluble  in 
these  re-agents.  The  term  is,  however,  a  convenient  one, 
and  one  whose  use  is  almost  a  necessity,  from  its  having  an 
almost  universal  currency  among  coal  miners.  The  propor 
tion  of  carbon  in  bituminous  coals  may  vary  from  80  to  90 
per  cent. — the  amount  being  highest  as  they  approach  the 
character  of  anthracite,  and  least  in  those  which  are  nearest 
to  lignites.  The  amount  of  hydrogen  is  from  4i  to  6  per 


cent.,  while  the  oxygen  may  vary  within  much  wider  limits, 
or  from  about  3  to  14  per  cent.  These  variations  in  com 
position  are  attended  with  corresponding  differences  in  quali 
ties,  which  are  distinguished  by  special  names.  Thus  the 
semi-anthracitic  coals  of  South  Wales  are  known  as  ''dry"  or 
"steam  coals,"  being  especially  valuable  for  use  in  marine 
steam-boilers,  as  they  burn  more  readily  than  anthracite  and 
with  a  larger  amount  of  flame,  while  giving  out  a  great 
amount  of  heat,  and  practically  without  producing  smoke. 
Coals  richer  in  hydrogen,  on  the  other  hand,  are  more  useful 
for  burning  in  open  fires — smiths'  forges  and  furnaces — 
where  a  long  flame  is  required. 

The  excess  of  hydrogen  in  a  coal,  above  the  amount 
necessary  to  combine  with  its  oxygen  to  form  water,  is 
known  as  "  disposable  "  hydrogen,  and  is  a  measure  of  the 


TABLE  I. — Elementary  Composition  of  Coal  (the  figures  denote  the  amounts  per  cent}. 


Composition 
calculated  exclusive  of  Water, 
Sulphur,  and  Ash. 

Localities. 

Specific 
Gravity. 

Carbon. 

Hydrogen. 

Oxygen. 

Nitrogen. 

Sulphur. 

Ash. 

Water. 

Carbon. 

Hydrogen.   0.  and  N. 

A  ntUracite. 
1.  South  Wales   

1-392 
1-462 

90-39 
90-45 
82-70 

75-49 

86-80 
78-65 
78-57 
79-90 

80-07 
63.10 
82-67 

79-34 

63-29 
66-31 
50-72 

3-28 
2-43 
1-41 

4-73 
4-25 
4-65 
5-29 
4-85 

5-53 

8-91 
9-14 

10-41 

4-98 
5-63 
5-34 

2-98 
2-45 

o- 

6- 
3- 
13- 

12-88 
12-75 

8-08 
7- 

8" 

4- 

26- 
22-86 
33-18 

0-83 

85 

78 
06 
36 
1-84 
0-64 

2-12 
25 
19 

33 

24 
0-57 
2-80 

0-91 
10-35 

1-21 
0-83 
0-55 
0-39 
0-20 

1-50 
0-96 

5-32 

2-36 
0-90 

1-61 
4-67 
3-75 

10-67 
4-40 
2-49 
1-03 
1-66 

2-70 
19-78 

8-49 
2-36 

7-86 

2-00 
0-94 

1-12 
0-66 

1-13 
0-91 

93-54 
94-89 
97-34 

86-78 
92-24 
80-67 
79-70 
81-45 

85-48 
79-61 
82-67 

83-80 

66-97 
69-53 
55-11 

3-39 

2-54 
1-66 

5-43 
4-51 
4-76 
5-37 
4-92 

5-90 
11-24 
9-14 

10-99 

5-27 
5-90 
5-80 

3-82 
2-57 

1-00 

7-79 
3-25 
14-5 
14-9 
13-63 

8-62 
9-15 

8-19 

5-21 

27-76 
24-57 
39'09 

2   Pennsylvania    

3.  Peru  

Bituminous  Steam  mid 
Coking  Coal. 
4.  Eisca,  South  Wales  
5.  Aberdare,     Do  
6.  Hartley,  Northumberl'd 
7.  Dudley,  Staffordshire  ... 
8.  Strauitzen,  Styria  

1-278 

Cannel  or  Gas  Coal. 
9.  Wigan,  Lancashire  
10.  Boghead,  Scotland  
11.  Albertite,  Nova  Scotia.. 
12.  Tasmanite,  Van  Die-  ) 
man's  Land.              ( 

1-276 

1-18 
1-100 

Lignite  and  Broivn  Coal. 
13.  Cologne  

14.  Bovey,  Devonshire  
15.  Trifail,  Styria  

fitness  of  the  coal  for  use  in  gas-making.  This  excess  is 
greatest  in  what  we  know  as  cannel  coal,  the  Lancashire 
kennel  or  candle  coal,  so  named  from  the  bright  light 
it  gives  out  when  burning.  This,  although  of  very  small 
value  as  fuel,  commands  a  specially  high  price  for  gas- 
making.  Canuel  is  more  compact  and  duller  than  ordi 
nary  coal,  and  can  be  wrought  in  the  lathe  and  polished. 
These  properties  are  most  highly  developed  in  the  substance 
known  as  jet,  which  is  a  variety  of  cannel  found  in  the 
lower  oolitic  strata  of  Yorkshire,  and  is  almost  entirely 
used  for  ornamental  purposes,  the  whole  quantity  produced 
near  Whitby,  together  with  a  further  supply  from  Spain, 
being  manufactured  into  articles  of  jewellery  at  that  town. 
_  When  coal  is  heated  to  redness  out  of  contact  with  the 
air,  the  more  volatile  constituents,  water,  hydrogen,  oxygen, 
and  nitrogen  are  expelled,  a  portion  of  the  carbon  bein^ 
also  volatilized  in  the  form  of  hydrocarbons  and  carbonic 
oxide,— the  greater  part,  however,  remaining  behind,  to 
gether  with  all  the  mineral  matter  or  ash,  in  the  form  of 
coke,  or,  as  it  is  also  called,  "fixed  carbon."  The  proportion 
of  this  residue  is  greatest  in  the  more  anthracitic  or  drier 
coals,  but  a  more  valuable  product  is  yielded  by  those 
richer  in  hydrogen.  Very  important  distinctions— those  of 
caking  or  non-caking— are  founded  on  the  behaviour  of 
coals  when  subjected  to  the  process  of  coking.  The  former 
class  undergo  an  incipient  fusion  or  softening  when  heated, 
so  that  the  fragments  coalesce  and  yield  a  compact  coke, 


while  the  latter  (also  called  free-burning)  preserve  their 
form,  producing  a  coke  which  is  only  serviceable  when 
made  from  large  pieces  of  coal,  the  smaller  pieces  being 
incoherent  and  of  no  value.  The  reason  of  this  difference 
is  not  clearly  made  out,  as  non-caking  coals  are  often  of  very 
similar  ultimate  chemical  composition  as  those  in  which  the 
caking  property  is  very  highly  developed.  As  matter  of 
experience,  it  is  found  that  caking  coals  lose  that  property 
when  exposed  to  the  action  of  the  air  for  a  lengthened 
period,  or  by  heating  to  about  300  C.,  and  that  the  dust 
or  slack  of  non-caking  coal  may,  in  some  instances,  be 
converted  into  a  coherent  cake  by  exposing  it  suddenly  to 
a  very  high  temperature. 

Lignite  or  brown  coal  includes  all  varieties  which  are  Liguit 
intermediate  in  properties  between  wood  and  coals  of  the 
older  formations.  A  coal  of  this  kind  is  generally  to  be 
distinguished  by  its  brown  colour,  either  in  mass  or  in  the 
blacker  varieties  in  the  streak.  The  proportion  of  carbon  is 
comparatively  low,  usually  not  exceeding  70  per  cent., 
while  the  oxygen  and  hygroscopic  water  are  much  higher 
than  in  true  coals.  The  property  of  caking  or  yielding  a 
coherent  cake  is  usually  absent,  and  the  ash  is  often  verj> 
high.  The  specific  gravity  is  low  when  not  brought  up  by 
an  excessive  amount  of  earthy  matter.  Sometimes  it  is 
almost  pasty,  and  crumbles  to  powder  when  dried,  so  as  to 
be  susceptible  of  use  as  a  pigment,  forming  the  colour 
known  as  Cologne  earth,  which  resembles  umber  or 


CHUGIN.j 


(J  O 


In  Nassau  and  Bavaria  woody  structure  is  very  common, 
and  it  is  from  tbis  circumstance  that  the  term  lignite  is 
derived.  The  best  varieties  are  black  and  pitchy  in  lustre, 
or  even  bright  and  scarcely  to  be  distinguished  from  true 
coals.  These  kinds  are  most  common  in  Eastern  Europe. 
Lignites,  as  a  rule,  are  generally  found  in  strata  of  a  newer 
geological  age,  but  there  are  many  instances  of  perfect 
coals  being  found  in  such  strata. 

By  the  term  "ash"  is  understood  the  mineral  matter  re 
maining  unconsumed  after  the  complete  combustion  of  the 
carbonaceous  portion  of  a  coal.  This  represents  part  of 
the  mineral  matter  present  in  the  plants  from  which  the 
coal  was  originally  formed,  with  such  further  addition  by 
infiltration  and  mechanical  admixture  as  may  have  arisen 
during  consolidation  and  subsequent  changes.  The  com 
position  of  the  ashes  of  different  coals  is  subject  to  consi 
derable  variation,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  following  list  of 
analyses  : — 

TABLE  II. — Composition  of  the  Ashes  of  Coals. 


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True  Coals. 

Dowlais,  South  Wales 

39-64 

39-20 

11-84 

1-81 

2-58 

3-01 

98-03 

Ebbw  Vale,    do. 

53-00 

35-01 

3-94 

2-20 

4'-89 

0-88 

99-92 

Konigsgrube.  Silesia. 

55-41 

18-95 

16-06 

3-21 

1-87 

2-05 

1-73 

0-36 

99-IH 

Ohio  

44-60 

41-10 

7  '40 

3-61 

1-28 

1-82 

0'69 

0-29 

IOU'69 

Lignites. 

Helmstadt,  Saxony... 

17-27 

11-57 

5-57 

23-67 

2-58,  2-64  33-83 

97-13 

Edele"ney,  Hungary.. 

S6-01 

23-07 

5-05 

15-62 

3  '64 

2-38,  12-35 

98-12 

The  composition  of  the  ash  of  true  coal  approximates  to 
that  of  a  fire-clay,  allowance  being  made  for  lime,  which 
may  be  present  either  as  carbonate  or  sulphate,  and  for 
sulphuric  acid.  The  latter  is  derived  mainly  from  iron 
pyrites,  which  yields  sulphate  by  combustion.  An  indi 
cation  of  the  character  of  the  ash  of  a  coal  is  afforded  by  its 
colour,  white  ash  coals  being  generally  freer  from  sulphur 
than  those  containing  iron  pyrites,  which  yield  a  red  ash. 
There  are,  however,  several  striking  exceptions,  as  for 
instance  in  the  anthracite  from.  Peru,  given  in  Table  I., 
which  contains  more  than  10  per  cent,  of  sulphur,  and 
yields  but  a  very  small  percentage  of  a  white  ash.  In  this 
coal,  as  Avell  as  in  the  lignite  of  Tasmania,  known  as  white 
coal  or  Tasmanite,  the  sulphur  occurs  in  organic  com 
bination,  but  is  so  firmly  held  that  it  can  only  be  very 
partially  expelled,  even  by  exposure  to  a  very  high  and 
continued  heating  out  of  contact  with  the  air.  An 
anthracite  occurring  in  connection  with  the  old  volcanic 
rocks  of  Arthur's  Seat,  Edinburgh,  which  contains  a  large 
amount  of  sulphur  in  proportion  to  the  ash,  has  been 
found  to  behave  in  a  similar  manner.  Under  ordinary 
conditions,  from  |-  to  ^  of  the  whole  amount  of  sulphur 
in  a  coal  is  volatilized  during  combustion,  the  remaining 
•|  to  |-  being  found  in  the  ash. 

The  amount  of  water  present  in  freshly  raised  coals 
varies  very  considerably.  It  is  generally  largest  in  lignites, 
which  may  sometimes  contain  30  per  cent,  or  even  more, 
while  in  the  coals  of  the  coal  measures  it  does  not  usually 
exceed  from  5  to  10  per  cent.  The  loss  of  weight  by 
exposure  to  the  atmosphere  from  drying  may  be  from  -g-  to 
£  of  the  total  amount  of  water  contained. 

Coal  is  undoubtedly  the  result  of  the  transformation  of 
vegetable  matter,  mainly  woody  fibre,  by  the  partial  eli 
mination  of  oxygen  and  hydrogen  giving  rise  to  a  substance 
richer  in  carbon  than  the  original  wood, — the  mineral 
matter  being  modified  simultaneously  by  the  almost  entire 
removal  of  the  alkalies  and  lime,  and  the  addition  of 
materials  analagous  iu  composition  to  clay,  as  will  be 
seen  by  comparing  the  analyses  in  Table  IL  The 


^  L  47 

following  table,  given  by  Percy,  shows  the  relative  pro 
portions  of  the  different  components  of  mineral  fuels. 

TABLE  III. — Composition  of  Fuels  (assuming  Carbon  -  100). 


Caibon. 

Hydro 
gen. 

Oxygen. 

Disposable 
Hydrogen. 

Wood  

100 

12-18 

83-07 

rso 

Peat  

100 

9'85 

55  '67 

2'89 

Lignite  

100 

8'37 

42'42 

3'07 

•fiiiek  Coal,  S.  Staffordshire.. 
Hartley  Steam  Coal  

100 
100 

6-12 
5'91 

21-23 
18-32 

3-47 
3'62 

South  Wales  Coals  .  . 

100 

475 

5-23 

4  09 

Amevicaii  Anthracite  . 

100 

2'84 

1'74 

2'63 

Mohr  has  computed  that  the  transformation  of  wood 
into  coal  is  attended  with  a  loss  of  about  75  per  cent,  in 
weight ;  and,  having  regard  to  the  difference  in  density  of 
the  two  substances,  the  volume  of  the  coal  can  only  be 
from  -jY  to  i  of  the  woody  fibre  from  which  it  is  derived. 
The  nature  of  the  change  is  essentially  a  slow  oxidation 
under  water  or  any  covering  sufficient  to  protect  the  dead 
wood  from  the  direct  action  of  atmospheric  air,  as  -in  the 
latter  case  the  vegetable  mould  or  humus  would  be  pro 
duced.  The  products  of  such  decomposition  vary  with  the 
length  of  time  and  the  nature  of  the  plants  acted  on,  and 
in  the  case  of  anthracite  the  change  is  so  great  that  no 
portion  of  the  original  plant  structure  can  be  recognized, 
at  the  same  time  the  density  and  conductivity  for  heat 
and  electricity  are  increased.  This,  however,  is  a  case  of 
metamorphosis  analogous  to  the  transformation  of  sedi 
mentary  into  crystalline  rocks,  the  extreme  term  of  such 
metamorphosis  being  the  production  of  graphite  or  plum 
bago.  Daubre"e  has  shown  that  wood  may  be  converted 
into  anthracite  by  exposure  to  the  actiun  of  superheated 
water  at  a  temperature  of  400°  C. 

The  plants  concerned  in  the  production  of  coal  vary  very  Coal-pi  > 
considerably  in  different  geological  periods.     In  the  coal  d"cui« 
measures  proper,  acrogens,  ferns,  equise turns,  and  similar  *' ' 
allied  forms  are  most  abundant.     It  is  stated  by  some 
observers  that  entire  beds  of  coal  are  sometimes  made  up 
of  the  spores  of  ferns.     This,  however,  appears  to  depend 
upon  the  inspection  of  microscopic  sections,  and  may  not 
be  capable  of  rigorous  quantitative  demonstration.    In  the 
coals  of  newer  date  exogenous  wood  and  leaves  are  more 
common  than  in  those  of  the  coal  measures ;  the  former 
also  contain  resins,  sometimes  in  considerable  quantity. 

The  number  of  species  of  land  plants  in  the  British 
sedimentary  formations,  which  may  be  taken  as  a  measure 
of  the  comparative  prevalence  of  coal  in  the  different 
series,  is  as  follows  : — 

Devonian  strata 9  species, 

Carboniferous  do 320 

Permian  do 20 

Triassic  do 9 

Lias  and  Oolitic  do 160 

Purbeckand  Wealden  do 38 

Cretaceous  do ^ 

Tertiary  do 224 

The  most  generally  received  opinion  is  that  much  if  not 
all  coal  results  from  the  transformation  of  plants  upon 
the  site  of  their  growth.  The  principal  evidence  in  favour 
of  such  a  supposition  is  afforded  by  the  common  occur 
rence  of  a  bed  of  clay,  the  so-called  "  wider-clay,"  con 
taining  the  roots  of  plants,  representing  the  old  soil, 
immediately  below  every  coal  seam — a  fact  that  was  first 
pointed  out  by  the  late  Sir  W.  E.  Logan  in  South  Wales. 
In  Yorkshire  the  same  thing  is  observed  in  the  siliceous 
rock  called  ganister  occurring  in  similar  positions,  show 
ing  that  the  coal  plants  grew  there  upon  sandy  soils. 

The  action  of  water  in  bringing  down  drift  wood  may 
have  also  contributed  some  material,  but  much  less  than 
the  local  growth.  This  may  probably  have  been  concerned 


48 


G  0  A  L 


[SEQUENCE  OF  STRATA. 


in  the  production  of  the  very  thick  masses  of  coal  of  small 
extent  found  in  some  coal-fields  in  Southern  Europe. 

Another  theory,  that  proposed  by  Dr  Mohr,  deserves 
notice,  namely,  that  coal  may  be  of  marine  origin  and 
derived  from  the  carbonization  of  sea  weeds,  such  as  the 
great  kelp  plant  of  the  Pacific  Ocean.  This  has  been  very 
ingeniously  elaborated  by  the  author,  and  much  apparently 
.rood  evidence  adduced  in  support  (see  his  Geschichte  ckr 
°Erde  Bonn,  1875).  But  the  positive  evidence  afforded  by 
roots'  found  in  the  under  clays  is  sufficient  to  render  such 
an  hypothesis  unnecessary  in  the  majority  of  instances. 

It  must  be  remembered,  however,  that,  although  cellulose 
or  wood  fibre  is  most  probably  the  chief  material  concerned 
in  the  production  of  coal,  this  substance  is  readily  con 
vertible  into  dextrine  by  the  action  of  protein  or  analogous 
fermentescible  matters  containing  nitrogen,  a  change  that 
is  attended  with  the  loss  of  structure,  the  fibre  being  con 
verted  into  a  gummy  mass.  Some  forms  of  cellulose,  such 
as  that  in  the  lichens  known  as  Iceland  moss,  are  soluble  in 
water,  and  are  without  fibre.  The  preservation  of  recogniz 
able  woody  tissue  therefore  in  coals  can  only  be  regarded 
as  accidental,  and  any  argument  founded  upon  the  relative 
quantity  of  the  recognizable  vegetable  structures  in  mi 
croscopic  sections  is  likely  to  be  unsound,  unless  the  rela 
tive  durability  of  the  different  portions  of  the  plants  be 
taken  into  account.  Thus  the  bark  of  trees  is,  as  a 
rule,  less  perishable  than  the  solid  wood,  while  tissues  im 
pregnated  with  resinous  matters  are  almost  indestructible 
by  atmospheric  agency.  Instances  of  this  are  afforded  by 
the  fossil  trees  found  in  the  coal  measures,  which  are  often 
entirely  converted  into  siliceous  masses,  the  bulk  of  the 
wood  having  decayed  and  been  replaced  by  silica,  while 
the  bark  is  represented  by  an  external  layer  of  bright  coal. 
Fossil  resins,  such  as  amber,  are  of  common  occurrence  in 
coals,  especially  those  of  secondary  or  tertiary  age. 

In  an  investigation  of  the  coking  properties  of  the  Saar- 
briicken  coals  by  Schondorff,  it  was  found  that  they  could 
be  separated  into  three  different  materials,  which  he  dis 
tinguished  as  glance  or  bright  coal,  dull  or  striped  coal, 
and  fibrous  coal.  The  last,  which  is  known  in  England 
aa  "mother  of  coal,"  resembles  a  soft,  dull,  black  charcoal, 
containing  abundant  traces  of  vegetable  fibre,  and  yielding 
a  high  proportion  of  non-coherent  coke,  behaving,  in  fact, 
like  charcoal.  The  bright  or  glance  coal  is  without  any 
apparent  structure,  cleaving  into  cubical  masses,  contains 
but  little  mineral  matter,  and  yields  a  strong  coke.  The 
striped  coal  consists  mainly  of  a  dull  substance,  with  fine 
alternations  of  bright  matter,  and  is  essentially  a  gas  coal 
yielding  only  an  inferior  coke.  These  differences  are  sup 
posed  to  be  due  to  original  differences  in  the  substances 
from  which  the  coals  have  been  derived.  Thus  the  fibrous 
coal  may  result  from  unaltered  cellulose,  the  glance  'coal 
from  the  insoluble  mucilage  derived  from  the  maceration 
of  the  plants  in  water,  and  the  dull  coal  from  the  soluble 
parts,  such  as  gum  and  dextrine,  either  original  or  produced 
by  the  transformation  of  cellulose  and  starch.  That  some 
thing  analogous  to  a  pulping  process  has  gone  on  in  the  pro 
duction  of  coal  is  evident  from  the  intimate  intermixture 
of  the  mineral  matter  constituting  the  ash,  which  is  quite 
unrecognizable  before  burning  in  the  majority  of  instances. 
F.  Muck  (Chemische  Aphorismen  iiber  Steinkoklen, 
Bochum,  1873)  has  recorded  some  interesting  experiments 
on  the  behaviour  of  the  three  isomeric  carbohydrates, — 
cellulose,  starch,  and  gum  arabic, — which  are  all  of  the 
same  ultimate  composition,  namely,  C(!H1005.  When  sub 
jected  to  the  process  of  coking,  cellulose,  in  the  form  of 
Swedish  filter  paper,  gave  a  residue  of  6-74  per  cent,  of  a 
perfectly  non-coherent  coke,  starch  11-30  per  cent,  of  a 
bright  vesicular  coke  like  that  from  strongly  coking  coal, 
and  gum-arabic  2042  per  cent,  of  a  hard  dull  coke  re 


sembling  that  produced  from  imperfectly  coking  gas  coals. 
The  volume  of  gas  given  off  by  cellulose  and  starch  is? 
much  larger  and  of  a  higher  illuminating  power  than  that 
produced  from  gum  under  the  same  conditions. 

The  conditions  favourable  to  the  production  of  coal 
seem  therefore  to  have  been — forest  growth  in  swampy 
ground  about  the  mouths  of  rivers,  and  rapid  oscillation 
of  level,  the  coal  produced  during  subsidence  being 
covered  up  by  the  sediment  brought  down  by  the  river 
forming  beds  of  sand  or  clay,  which,  on  re-elevation,  formed 
the  soil  for  fresh  growths,  the  alternation  being  occasion 
ally  broken  by  the  deposit  of  purely  marine  beds.  We 
might  therefore  expect  to  find  coal  wherever  strata  of 
estuarine  origin  are  developed  in  great  mass ;  and  this  is 
actually  the  case, — the  Carboniferous,  Cretaceous,  and 
Oolitic  series  being  all  coal  bearing  horizons,  though  in  un 
equal  degrees, — the  first  being  known  as  the  coal  measures 
proper,  while  the  others  are  of  small  economic  value  in 
Great  Britain,  though  more  productive  in  workable  coals 
on  the  continent  of  Europe.  The  coal  measures  which 
form  part  of  the  Palaeozoic  or  oldest  of  the  three  great 
geological  divisions  are  mainly  confined  to  the  countries 
north  of  the  Equator,  Mesozoic  coals  being  more  abundant 
in  the  southern  hemisphere,  while  Tertiary  coals  seem  to 
be  tolerably  uniformly  distributed  irrespective  of  latitude. 

The  nature  of  the  coal  measures  will  be  best  understood  gequ< 
by  considering  in  detail  the  areas  within  which  they  occur  of  cai 
in  Britain,  together  with  the  rocks  with  which  they  are  ifer°l 
most  intimately  associated.     The  general  succession  of  these  " 
rocks  is  given  in  fig.  1  (cols.  1  to  4), which  is  taken  from 


Q                                     Z                                        tiTUU]                                   .j 

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Burner 

z                   |,                  SS                  SB              1 

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Sandstone 

**                               11                              ™w                             "-^ 

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S                §  -               <££               ?H 

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thrck  coa(s] 

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Series 

Shale     | 

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Sane?  stones 
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M 

g 

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with 

• 

with      \ 

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Oil  Shales 

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in  upper 

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area 

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FIG.  1.  —  Succession  of  Carboniferous  Strata. 

the  index  of  strata  issued  by  the  Geological  Survey.     The 

VOL 


COAL 


PLATE  I 


Map  of  tlie 

COAL    Fl ELDS 


GREAT  BRITAIN 


SHEWING  THE  AREAS  OF  EXPOSEC 
AND  CONCEALED  COAL  MEASURES 


1          I  Post-cairbonifeixras  rocks 
S    Submar 


<>nl\  within  ft  depth  of  4OOfi  feet  -from,  surf 


O        R         T       H 


RISK  S      E 


Cardigan 
Bay 


E      N      G      L       1 


ENCYCLOP>tDIA    BRITANNICA.    NINTH     EDITION 


VOL. 


COAL 


PLATE  h 


FIG.  1 
FOREST      OF     DEAN      COAL      H  A  S  1  N- 

Length  about  11  miles 


FIG.  2 
SOUTH  PART  OF  THE  LANCASHIRE   COALFIELJ) 


XANCHK  STF.  It 


HOST    O    N    E S    T    R    A    T 


NORTH   STAFFORDSHIRE   COALFIELD 

Leag'tli    "'•i   miles 


MILL 


SECTION  ACROSS  PART  OF  TH.E  NORTH  OF  FRANCE   COALFIELD 

Length.    abo\Lt    Zfa  miles 


ENCYCLOPEDIA    BRITAN  N  ICA  ,   N  I  NTH     EDITION 


ENGLISH    COAL-FIELDS.] 

commencement  of  the  carboniferous  period  is  marked  by 
a  mass  of  limestones  known  as  the  Carboniferous  or  moun 
tain  limestone,  which  contains  a  large  assemblage  of  marine 
fossils,  and  has  a  maximum  thickness  in  S.W.  England  and 
Wales  of  about  2000  feet.  The  upper  portion  of  this 
group  consists  of  shales  and  sandstones  known  as  the 
Yoredale  Rocks,  which  are  highly  developed  in  the  moor 
land  region  between  Lancashire  and  the  north  side  of 
Yorkshire.  These  are  also  called  the  upper  limestone 
shale,  a  similar  group  being  found  in  places  below  the 
limestone,  and  called  the  lower  limestone  shale,  or,  in 
the  North  of  England,  the  Tuedian  group.  Going  north 
ward  the  beds  of  limestone  diminish  in  thickness,  with  a 
proportional  increase  in  the  intercalated  sandstones  and 
shales,  until  in  Scotland  they  are  entirely  subordinate  to 
a  mass  of  coal-bearing  strata,  which  forms  the  most  pro 
ductive  members  of  the  Scotch  coal  fields.  The  next 
member  of  the  series  is  a  mass  of  coarse  sandstones, 
with  some  slates  and  a  few  thin  coals,  known  as  the  Mill 
stone  Grit,  which  is  about  equally  developed  in  England 
and  in  Scotland.  In  the  southern  coal-fields  it  is  usually 
known  by  the  miners'  name  of  Farewell  Rock,  from  its 
marking  the  lower  limit  of  possible  coal  working.  The 
Coal  Measures,  forming  the  third  great  member  of  the  car 
boniferous  series,  consist  of  alternations  of  shales  and  sand 
stones,  with  beds  of  coal  and  nodular  ironstones,  which 
together  make  up  a  thickness  of  many  thousands  of  feet — 
from  12,000  to  14,000  feet  when  at  the  maximum  of  deve 
lopment.  They  are  divisible  into  three  parts,  the  lower  coal 
measures,  the  middle  or  Pennant,  a  mass  of  sandstone  con 
taining  some  coals,  and  the  upper  coal  measures,  also  con 
taining  workable  coal.  The  latter  member  is  marked  by  a 
thin  limestone  band  near  the  top,  containing  Spirorlis 
carboiiarius,  a  small  marine  univalve. 

The  uppermost  portion  of  ihe  coal  measures  consists  of 
red  sandstone  so  closely  resembling  that  of  the  Permian 
group,  which  are  next  in  geological  sequence,  that  it  is  often 
difficult  to  decide  upon  the  true  line  of  demarcation 
between  the  two  formations.  These  are  not,  however, 
always  found  together,  the  coal  measures  being  often 
covered  by  strata  belonging  to  the  Trias  or  upper  New 
Hod  Sandstone  series. 

The  areas  containing  productive  coal  measures  arc 
usually  known  as  coal  fields  or  basins,  within  which  coal 
occurs  in  more  or  less  regular  beds,  also  called  seams  or  veins, 
which  can  often  be  followed  over  a  considerable  length  of 
country  without  change  of  character,  although,  like  all 
stratified  rocks,  their  continuity  may  be  interrupted  by 
faults  or  dislocations,  also  known  as  slips,  hitches,  heaves, 
or  troubles  (fig.  2). 


Fia.  2,  representing  a  seam  of  coal  k,  worked  towards  m,  interrupted 
by  faults  or  hitches.  The  fault  at  AC  is  called  an  upthrow,  that 
at  BD  a  downthrow. 

The    thickness    of    coal   seams   varies   in  this   country 


from  a  mere  film  to  05  or  40  feet;  but  in  the  south 
of  France  and  in  India  masses  of  coal  are  known  up 
to  200  feet  in  thickness.  These  very  thick  seams  are, 
however,  rarely  constant  in  character  for  any  great  distance, 
being  found  commonly  to  degenerate  into  carbonaceous 
shales,  or  to  split  up  into  thinner  beds  by  the  intercalation 
of  shale  bands  or  partings.  One  of  the  most  striking 
examples  of  this  is  afforded  by  the  thick  or  ten-yard  seam  of 
South  Staffordshire,  which  is  from  30  to  45  feet  thick  in  one 
connected  mass  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dudley,  but  splits 
up  into  eight  seams,  which,  with  the  intermediate  shales 
and  sandstones,  are  of  a  total  thickness  of  400  feet  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  coal-field  in  Cannock  Chase.  Seams 
of  a  medium  thickness  of  3  to  7  feet  are  usually  the 
most  regular  and  continuous  in  character.  Cannel  coals 
are  generally  variable  in  quality,  being  liable  to  change 
into  shales  or  black-band  ironstones  within  very  short 
horizontal  limits.  In  some  instances  the  coal  seams  may 
be  changed  as  a  whole,  as  for  instance  in  South  Wales, 
where  the  coking  coals  of  the  eastern  side  of  the  basin 
pass  through  the  state  of  dry  steam  coal  in  the  centre, 
and  become  anthracite  in  the  western  side. 

British  Coal-fidds. 

There  are  about  twenty  principal  coal-fields  of  Great 
Britain,  besides  several  smaller  ones,  whose  position  is 
shown  in  Plate  I.,  which  may  be  classed  under  three 
heads: — 1.  Those  forming  complete  basins,  entirely  cir 
cumscribed  by  the  lower  members  of  the  carboniferous 
series ;  2.  Those  in  which  one  limb  of  the  basin  only  is 
visible,  the  opposite  one  being  obscured  by  Permian  or  other 
strata  of  newer  date;  and  3.  Those  in  which  the  boun 
daries  are  formed  by  faults,  which  bringdown  the  upper 
overlying  strata  into  contact  with  the  coal  measures.  The 
South  Wales  and  Dean  Forest  basins  are  examples  of  the 
first  of  the  above  classes,  the  North  of  England  and 
Yorkshire  and  Derbyshire  fields  of  the  second,  and  the 
South  Staffordshire  of  the  third.  The  last  two  classes 
are  of  the  greatest  geological  interest,  as  giving  rise  to  the 
important  problem  of  their  probable  extension  within 
workable  limits  beneath  the  overlying  strata.  Examples 
of  the  three  different  cases  are  given  in  Plate  II., — the  first 
being  represented  by  the  section  across  the  Forest  of  Dean, 
fig.  1  ;  the  second  by  that  of  the  Lancashire  coal-fields,  fig. 
2  ;  and  the  third  by  the  North  Staffordshire  section,  fig.  3. 

The  largest  and  most  important  of  the  British  coal-fields  South 
is  that  of  South  Wales,  which  extends  from  Pontypool  in  Wales 
Monmouthshire  on  the  east,  to  Kidwelly  in  Pembrokeshire, 
a  length  of  about  50  miles,  and  from  Tredegar  on  the 
north  to  Llautrissant  on  the  south,  a  breadth  of  about  18 
miles,  in  addition  to  which  a  further  narrow  slip  of  about 
20  miles  long,  E.  and  W.,  extends  across  Pembrokeshire. 
Excluding  the  latter  portion,  it  forms  a  complete  basin  of 
an  approximately  elliptical  shape,  surrounded  by  older  rocks, 
the  Carboniferous  limestone  and  Devonian  shale  dipping 
generally  towards  the  centre.  The  basin-shaped  structure 
is,  however,  modified  by  a  central  anticlinal  axis,  which 
brings  the  lower  bed  within  reach  of  the  surface.  The 
total  thickness  of  the  coal  measures  is  estimated  at  about 
11,000  feet  on  the  south,  and  7000  feet  on  the  north  side 
in  the  western  district.  In  the  central  portion  between 
Britton  Ferry  and  the  River  Taff,  it  diminishes  to  4800 
feet  on  the  north  side,  and  is  still  further  reduced  in  Mon 
mouthshire  and  on  the  eastern  side  generally  to  about  2500 
feet.  The  coal-bearing  portions  are  divisible  into  three 
groups,  known  as-  - 

1.  Upper  Pt'imant  series. 

2.  Lower  Pennant  series. 

3.  White  Ash  series. 

The  Upper  Pennant  series  attains  the  maximum  develop- 

VI.  —  7 


50 


0  GAL 


[COAL-FIELDS. 


merit  of  about  3000  feet  on  the  south  rise  of  the  measures 
near  Swansea;  at  Neath  the  thickness  is  reduced  to  about 
1200  feet  and  in  Monmouthshire  to  between  500  and  7W 
feet  It  contains  all  the  free  burning  and  bituminous 
coals  of  the  Swansea  and  Neath  districts,  and  the  house- 
coals  of  Monmouthshire  and  the  eastern  districts,  which 
latter  contain  26  seams  above  12  inches  thick,  making  a 
total  of  about  100  feet  of  coal,  an  amount  that  increases 
westward  to  82  seams  and  182  feet.  The  Lower  Pennant 
series  averages  from  1100  to  1500  feet  between  the  faff 
Vale  and  Llanelly,  but  on  the  north  side  of  the  anticlinal 
thickens  to  3000  feet.  The  average  total  of  workable  coal 
in  seams  which  do  not  exceed  3  feet  is  25  feet,  among 
which  are  some  fair  steam  coals,  associated  in  places  with 
black-band  ironstone  and  good  manufacturing  and  house 
hold  coals,  yielding  slack  suitable  for  coking,— the  most 
valuable  among  them  being  those  of  the  Rhondda  valley. 
The  lowest  or  White  Ash  series  contains  the  bulk  of  the 
valuable  steam  and  iron  making  coals  which  have  given  the 
coal  field  its  great  reputation.  It  is  about  500  feet  thick 
on  the  eastern  side,  and  about  1000  feet  in  the  centre  of 
the  basin.  The  coals  and  accompanying  ironstone  are 
generally  thicker  and  more  abundant  on  the  south  than^on 
the  north  coast.  The  workable  coals  in  this  division 
amount  to  about  50  feet,  in  seams  varying  from  3  to  9  feet 
in  thickness.  The  western  extension  into  Pembrokeshire 
belongs  to  this  part  of  the  series ;  it  covers  about  70 
square  miles,  extending  in  a  narrow  east  and  west  belt, 
varying  from  2  to  6  miles  in  breadth  from  Tenby  to 
St  Bride's  Bay.  The  measures  are  very  much  dis 
turbed,  but  are  probably  about  1500  feet,  containing  in 
the  upper  1000  feet  8  seams  of  anthracite  of  about  18  feet 
total  thickness. 

The  total  area  of  the  coal-field  is  about  1000  square 
miles,  of  which  amount  about  153  square  miles  lie  beneath 
the  sea  in  Swansea  and  Carmarthen  Bays.  Only  one  square 
mile  is  covered  by  newer  formations. 

According  to  the  quantity  of  the  coal  produced,  the  area 
fs  divided  as  follows  : — • 

Bituminous  coal  district 410  square  miles. 

Anthracite,  ,,       410  ,, 

Intermediate,  or  Semi- Anthracite  ...180  ,, 

The  most  valuable  class  of  South  Wales  coals  is  the 
semi-anthracite  or  smokeless  steam  coal  of  the  lower 
measures,  which  is  in  constant  demand  for  the  use  of 
ocean  steamers  all  over  the  world.  It  is  principally  ex 
ported  from  Cardiff,  Neath,  and  Swansea. 

The  configuration  of  the  ground,  owing  to  the  deep  north 
and  south  valleys  of  the  Usk,  Ebbw,  Taff,  Rhondda,  and 
Neath  Rivers,  and  the  longitudinal  anticlinal  axis,  renders 
the  coals  of  comparatively  easy  access.  The  surface  rises  to  a 
height  of  about  2000  feet  above  the  sea-level,  and  in  the 
valleys  a  greater  vertical  range  is  brought  within  working 
limits  than  is  the  case  in  any  other  coal-field  of  similai 
thickness. 

Forest  of  The  Forest  of  Dean  basin  is  an  outlying  portion  of  that 
Dean  coal-  Of  South  Wales,  from  which,  as  is  shown  by  Ramsay,  it 
has  been  separated  by  denudation.  It  is  of  triangular  form, 
occupying  an  area  of  34  square  miles,  between  the  Wye 
and  the  Severn  estuary,  with  a  total  thickness  of  2765  feet 
and  31  seams,  together  42  feet  thick,  only  9  of  which  are 
above  2  feet  in  thickness.  The  depth  from  the  surface  to 
the  bottom  of  the  basin,  in  the  centre,  is  about  2500  feet 
The  lower  beds  of  sandstone  and  the  Carboniferous  lime 
stone  contain  considerable  quantities  of  brown  hematite,  ir 
irregular  deposits,  which  is  smelted  in  part  on  the  spot  anc 
partly  exported  to  other  districts.  Owing  to  the  symme 
trical  basin-shaped  form  of  the  measures  (Plate  II.  tig.  1) 
the  coals  have  been  worked  from  the  surface  downward 
along  the  outcrops  of  the  seams,  leaving  large  hollows  fo 


he  accumulation  of  water,  which  render  the  working  of  the 
ower  ground  difficult,  on  account  of  the  great  pumping- 
ower  required  to  keep  down  the  water  flowing  in  from  the 
Id  shallow  mines. 

North  of  the  Malvern  Hills  a  straggling  patch  of  coal  Severn 
neasures  extends  about  35  miles  N.  and  S.,  from  near  Bailey 
Worcester  to  Newport  in  Shropshire.  This  is  divisible  into  co 
wo  nearly  equal  areas  of  triangular  form.  The  southern 
>art  is  known  as  Forest  of  Wyre,  and  the  northern  as  Cole- 
>rookdale.  The  former  is  unimportant,  having  a  great 
hickness  of  measures  which  rest  directly  on  the  Devonian 
ocks,  but  scarcely  any  workable  coal  seams.  The  Cole- 
)rookdale  measures  rest  upon  the  Upper  Silurian  rocks,  are 
ibout  800  feet  thick,  with  about  50  feet  of  coal  in  18 
earns,  and  many  beds  of  nodular  ironstone,  which  has 
iven  the  district  a  celebrity  in  the  production  of  iron 
work,  especially  high-class  castings.  The  eastern  boundary 
s  concealed  by  overlying  Permian  strata,  and  it  was  for 
merly  supposed  that  the  productive  measures  had  been 
removed  by  denudation  on  this  side ;  but  there  is  little 
loubt  of  their  continuity  towards  South  Staffordshire. 

To  the  westward  of  Colebrookdale  are  the  two  small 
fields  of  Leebotwood  and  Shrewsbury.  These  lie  on  the 
Silurian  rocks.  The  exposed  area  of  the  former  extends 
o  1 2  square  miles ;  that  of  the  latter  (which  stretches  in 
a  crescent  shape  to  the  south  and  west  of  Shrewsbury)  to 
L8.  Both  are  partly  hidden  by  Permian  strata. 

The  South  Staffordshire  coal-field  extends  about  22  miles  S.  Staf  i 
fl".  and  S.,  from  Rugeley  to  Halesowen,  with  a  greatest  *ire  C( ; 
)readth  of  about  1 0  miles  from  Wolverhampton  to  Oldbury. 
[t  is  entirely  surrounded  byNewRed  Sandstone  rocks,  which 
in  some  places  are  faulted  against  the  coal  measures,  render 
ing  it  difficult  to  decide  upon  the  chances  of  a  profitable  ex 
tension  beneath  the  visible  boundaries.  The  coal  measures 
rest  upon  the  Upper  Silurian  rocks,  which  are  exposed 
at  several  points  within  the  area,  especially  at  Dudley  and 
the  Wren's  Nest.  This  district  is  remarkable  as  containing 
the  thickest  known  coal  seam  in  England,  the  Thick  or 
Ten  Yard  Seam,  which  varies  from  30  to  45  feet  in  thick 
ness  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dudley,  but  splits  up  north 
wards  into  several  thinner  seams  in  the  northern  or  Cannock 
Chase  district.  There  are  6  principal  seams,  with  a  total 
of  from  57  to  70  feet  in  1309  feet  of  measures.  The  field 
was  formerly  very  productive  of  clay  ironstone,  but  the 
supply  has  now  considerably  diminished.  The  coals  are 
also  subject  to  curious  alterations  in  places,  from  the  in 
trusion  of  igneous  rock,  especially  in  the  Rowley  Hills, 
near  Dudley. 

The  Warwickshire  or  Tamworth  coal-field  is  a  narrow 
strip  of  measures,  with  a  maximum  thickness  of  3000 
feet,  extending  about  12  miles  in  a  N.W.  and  S.E.  line 
from  Coventry  to  Tamworth.  It  contains  5  seams,  which 
are  mainly  worked  for  house  coal  and  steam  purposes.  It 
is  entirely  surrounded  by  New  Red  Sandstone  strata,  ex 
cept  for  a  short  distance  near  Atherstone,  where  it  is  seen 
to  rest  upon  the  millstone  grit,  which  is  altered  into 
quartzite  by  intrusive  igneous  rocks. 

The  Leicestershire  or  Ashby  coal-field  is  an  irregular  Leicesl 
patch  of  30  square  miles,  on  the  east  side  of  Charnwood  *j^™  c 
Forest,  about  midway  between  Leicester  and  Burton-on- 
Trent.  It  has  7  principal  seams,  and  probably  rests  upon 
the  mountain  limestone,  except  at  the  eastern  end,  where 
it  may  lie  upon  the  old  slatey  rocks  of  Charnwood  Forest. 
Southward  it  extends  under  the  New  Red  marl  towards 
Leicester.  In  the  centre  is  a  patch  of  barren  measures 
upon  which  the  town  of  Ashby-de-la-Zouche  stands,  after 
which  the  coal-field  is  often  named.  The  eastern  side, 
wuich  contains  the  mines  of  Whitwick,  Snibston,  and  Cole- 
Orton.  contains  some  igneous  rocks  apparently  connected 
with  those  of  Charnwood  Forest,  which  are  not  seen  on  the 


ENGLAND.] 


COAL 


51 


Z  byshire 
K  York- 
f  e  coal  - 
II. 


western  or  Moira  side,  which  contains  the  more  important 
workings,  None  of  the  seams  occurring  in  either  division 
can  be  identified  with  certainty  in  the  other,  although  only 
a  few  miles  distant.  The  total  thickness  of  the  coal 
measures  is  about  2500  feet,  the  principal  seams  occurring 
about  the  middle,  as  is  also  the  case  in  Warwickshire. 

North  of  the  Trent  the  carboniferous  strata  present  a  more 
complete  and  regular  development  than  is  seen  in  the  central 
coal-fields.  The  Carboniferous  limestone  and  millstone  grit 
formations  form  a  central  ridge  of  high  moorlands  and  hills, 
the  so-called  Pennine  chain,  in  a  gently  sloping  anticlinal, 
running  nearly  north  and  south  from  the  north  of  Derby 
shire  to  the  borders  of  Scotland.  The  coal  measures 
occur  on  both  flanks  of  this  ridge,  the  largest  connected 
mass  being  that  of  the  Derbyshire  and  Yorkshire  coal 
field,  which  extends  north  and  south  for  about  60  miles 
from  Bradford  to  within  a  few  miles  from  Derby,  where 
it  is  covered  by  the  New  Bed  Sandstone  formation.  The 
exposed  breadth  varies  from  9  miles  at  the  south  end  to 
22  miles  at  the  north.  The  measures  dip  regularly  at  a 
low  angle  to  the  eastward,  and  pass  under  the  Permian  or 
magnesian  limestone  formation,  which  forms  the  eastern 
boundary  continuously  from  Nottingham  through  Worksop 
and  Doncaster  to  Wakefield.  The  total  thickness  of 
measures  is  about  4000  feet  (with  about  20  seams),  be 
longing  to  the  middle  and  lower  ganister  series,  the  upper 
series  being  absent.  A  generalized  section  of  the  strata  in 
this  coal-field  is  given  in  the  fifth  column  of  fig.  1.  The 
principal  seams  are  the  Black  shale,  or  Silkstone,  from  5 
to  7  feet  thick,  which  is  extensively  worked  as  a  house 
coal,  and  the  Top  hard,  or  Barnsley  coal,  which  is  much 
used  for  steam  purposes.  At  the  north  end  of  the 
field,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Leeds  and  Bradford,  two 
thin  seams,  known  as  the  Low  Moor  black  bed  and 
better  bed,  remarkable  for  their  exceptional  purity,  are 
used  for  iron-making  purposes  at  Bowling  and  Low 
Moor.  Iron  ores  are  also  found  in  considerable  quantity 
on  the  Derbyshire  side  of  the  field,  which  are  smelted  at 
Butterly  and  other  works  near  Chesterfield.  The  area 
covered  by  the  magnesian  limestone  formation  has  been 
proved  by  several  borings  and  sinkings,  the  first  winning 
having  b?-°n  opened  at  Shireoak  near  Worksop,  where  the 
Top  hard  coal  was  reached  at  1548  feet  below  the  surface. 
It  is  estimated  that  about  two-thirds  of  the  total  area  of 
this  field  is  to  be  looked  for  within  the  concealed  part. 

On  the  west  side  of  the  Pennine  axis,  and  between  the 
same  parallels  as  the  Derbyshire  and  Yorkshire  coal-fields, 
are  those  of  North  Staffordshire  and  Lancashire,  which  ex 
tend  from  Longton  on  the  south  to  Colne  on  the  north,  the 
continuity  being,  however,  broken  by  a  small  fold  of  the 
Carboniferous  limestone  shales,  which  is  brought  to  the 
surface  between  Macclesfield  and  Congleton.  Parallel  to 
this  group,  however,  and  to  the  eastward  of  it,  is  situated  the 
small  but  important  coal-field  of  North  Staffordshire,  also 
known  as  the  Pottery  coal-field.  It  has  an  exposed  area 
of  about  94  square  miles,  which  is  very  irregular  in  form, 
being  17  miles  in  greatest  breadth  E.  to  W.,  and  about  13 
miles  from  N.  to  S.  The  south-eastern  portion,  which  is 
nearly  detached,  is  known  as  the  basin  of  Cheadle,  or 
Froghall,  which  is  chiefly  remarkable  for  a  band  of  cal 
careous  iron  ore  formerly  exported  to  Staffordshire,  but 
now  nearly  exhausted.  The  main  or  western  portion  con 
sists  of  a  mass  of  strata  about  5000  feet  thick,  with  37 
•searns  of  coal,  out  of  which  22,  measuring  together  97  feet, 
are  over  2  feet  in  thickness ;  in  addition  to  which  there 
are  many  valuable  beds  of  ironstone,  both  argillaceous  and 
black-band.  The  strata,  which  are  less  regularly  arranged 
than  those  of  S.  Lancashire,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  trans 
verse  sections,  figs.  2  and  3  in  Plate  II.,  being  bent  in 
contrasted  curves,  and  much  broken  by  faults,  form  the 


eastern  limb  of  a  basin  having  a  general  westerly  dip, 
which  carries  them  in  a  short  distance  below  the  New  lied 
marl  plain  of  Cheshire. 

The  Lancashire  coal-field  is  of  an  irregular  four-sided  Lancashire 
form.  The  greatest  breadth,  from  Oldham  on  the  east  to  coal-field. 
Saint  Helen's  on  the  west,  is  about  52  miles,  and  the  length, 
from  Burnley  on  the  north  to  Ashton-under-Lyne,  about 
1 9  miles.  Within  the  area  are,  however,  two  large  islands 
of  the  millstone  grit,  which  divide  the  northern  or  Burnley 
district  from  the  main  coal-field  of  Wigan  and  Manchester. 
This  barren  area  is  about  compensated  by  a  tongue  of  coal 
measure,  which  extends  southward  from  Stockport  to 
Macclesfield.  The  thickness  of  the  measure  is  A'ery  great, 
and  as  the  ground  is  much  broken  by  faults,  and  the  beds 
dip  at  a  high  angle,  the  workings  have  extended  a  greater 
depth  than  in  any  other  district,  the  deepest  workings 
being  at  Rose  Bridge  pits  near  Wigan,  which  have  been  sunk 
to  815  yards,  and  at  Dukinfield,  east  of  Manchester,  where 
the  Astley  pit  is  672  yards  deep,  and  the  coals  have 
been  wrought  to  a  total  depth  of  772  yards  by  inclines. 
The  greatest  thickness  is  observed  in  the  Manchester  dis 
trict,  where  the  total  section  is  as  follows,  according  to 
Hull. 


Upper  Coal  Measures 
2013  feet. 

Middle  Coal  Measures 
4247  feet. 

Lower  Coal  Measures 
Ganister,  1370  feet. 

Millstone  Grit, 

Limestone  Shale,  about 


Limestone  series, 600  feet 

To  Oppenshaw  Coal, 600 

To  Yard  Coal, 485 

Barren  Measures, 1678 

Unknown  Strata, 

Sod  Mine  to  Black  Mine,  ...  2000 
Black  Mine  to  Royley  Mine,  897 
Eoyley  Mine  to  Kougk  Rock,  1370 

2000 

...  2000 


There  is  a  total  of  100  feet  of  coal  in  workable  seams 
(exceeding  2  feet),  which  are  chiefly  situated  in  the  3000 
feet  forming  the  bottom  of  the  middle  and  top  of  the 
lower  coal  measures.  In  the  Wigan  district  there  are  18 
workable  seams,  about  65  feet  in  all,  the  total  section 
being:  — 

Upper  Measures,  barren,  ..................  1500  feet. 

Middle  Measures,  mass  seams,  .........  2550     ,, 

Ganister  Measures,  .......................  1800     ,  , 

The  Wigan  district  is  remarkable  for  the  production  of 
a  large  quantity  of  cannel  coal. 

In  the  Burnley  district  the  lower  and  middle  coal 
measures  together  are  from  2500  to  3000  feet  in  thick 
ness,  the  upper  measures  being  unrepresented. 

The  coal-field  of  Northumberland  and  Durham  lies 
north  of  that  of  Yorkshire,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Pennine 
axis.  In  the  intermediate  ground  between  Leeds  and 
Darlington,  about  55  miles,  the  lower  Carboniferous  rocks 
are  directly  overlain  by  the  magnesian  limestone,  which 
preserves  the  north  and  south  course  observed  further 
south  until  it  reaches  the  sea  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tyne. 
The  coal-field  extends  north  and  south  from  Darlington 
through  Durham  to  the  mouth  of  the  Coquet,  about  65 
miles,  with  a  greatest  breadth  of  about  22  miles  in  Durham. 
From  the  Tyne  to  the  Coquet  the  eastern  boundary  is 
formed  by  the  sea,  while  in  the  remaining  area,  from  the 
Tyne  to  the  Tees,  which  is  included  in  Durham,  the  coal 
measures  dip  beneath  the  magnesian  limestone.  The 
measures  are,  as  a  rule,  very  regular,  their  dip  being  lower 
than  that  observed  in  other  districts..  ;The  total  thickness 
is  about  2000  feet,  with  16  seams  of  coal,  together  about 
47  feet  thick.  The  millstone  grit  is  continuously  exposed 
below  the  coal  measures  along  the  eastern  edge  as  far  as 
the  Tees,  where  it  is  overlapped  by  the  magnesian  lime 
stone  and  Triassic  rocks,  so  that  there  is  a  portion  of 
the  coal-field  hidden  beyond  the  exposed  southern  bound 
ary,  but  the  extent  is  probably  not  large.  The  seaward 
extension  has  been  proved  in  several  deep  mines  in  the 


Nortlmm- 
berland 

anc*  ^ur~ 
C° 


COAL 


[COAL-FIELDS. 


neighbourhood  of  Sundcrland,  more  especially  at  Ryhope 
and  Monkwearmouth  which  are  worked  at  a  depth  of 
about  1850  feet  to  a  short  distance  from  the  shore.  At 
these  points  the  coals  are  nearly  flat,  but  at  Harton,  near 
Shields,  they  rise  to  the  eastward,  proving  that  the  centre 
of  the  basin  has  there  been  passed.  The  best  estimate 
gives  1  1  feet  of  coal,  and  about  1  G  square  miles  of  area, 
as  the  probable  extent  of  this  submarine  portion  of  the 
coal  measures.  The  character  of  the  coal  produced 
varies  in  the  different  parts  of  the  basin.  The  southern 
and  western  districts  adjoining  Bishop  Auckland  and 
Ferry  hill  produce  a  strongly  caking  coal,  which  is  chiefly 
employed  in  the  manufacture  of  a  pure  and  dense  coke 
for  use  in  the  Cleveland  and  Cumberland  iron  works, 
a  considerable  amount  being  also  exported  for  foundry  use. 
The  central  district,  adjoining  Newcastle  and  Sundcrland, 
produces  the  best  class  of  house  coal,  known  in  London 
under  the  name  of  Wallsend,  from  the  pits  on  the  Tyne 
where  it  was  originally  mined,  .which  were  close  to  the 
eastern  termination  of  the  wall  built  by  the  Romans  to 
protect  the  country  between  the  Tyne  and  the  Solvvay 
from  the  incursions  of  the  Picts.  These  collieries  have 
been  long  since  abandoned,  but  the  name  is  still  given 
in  the  London  market  to  the  best  Durham  house  coals, 
and  even  to  much  that  has  been  produced  in  other 
places,  as  indicating  a  coal  of  superlative  excellence.  The 
great  merit  of  Wallsend  coal  is  in  its  small  proportion  of 
ash,  which  also,  being  dark  -coloured,  is  not  so  obtrusive  on 
the  hearth  as  the  white  ash  generally  characteristic  of  the 
Midland  coals.  The  strongly  caking  property,  and  the  large 
amount  of  gas  given  out  in  burning,  tend  to  produce  a 
bright  and  enduring  fire.  In.  the  district  north  of  the 
Tyne  the  produce  is  principally  steam  coal,  which  is 
known  as  Hartley  coal,  being  named  after  one  of  the 
principal  collieries.  It  is  largely  used  for  sea-going 
steamers,  and  was  lately  in  use  in  the  Royal  Navy  mixed 
with  South  Wales  coal,  a  combination  which  was  supposed 
to  give  a  higher  evaporating  value  in  raising  steam  than 
when  either  class  was  burnt  alone.  Although  of  a  lower 
calorific  power,  and  making  more  smoke  than  South  Wales 
coal,  the  north  country  coal  deteriorates  less  rapidly  than 
the  former  when  stored  in  hot  climates.  There  are  two 
small  coal-fields  in  the  mountain  limestone  district  of  the 
Tyne  near  Hexham,  and  another  on  the  Solway  at  Can- 
nobie;  these  are,  however,  of  small  importance. 

The  Cumberland  field  extends  along  the  coast  of  the 
South  Irish  Channel  from  Saint  Bees  northward  for  15 
miles  to  Maryport,  where  it  turns  eastward  for  about  1  7 
miles,  and  is  exposed  with  constantly  diminishing  breadth 
until  it  disappears  under  the  Permian  rocks  of  the  Vale  of 
Eden.  The  greatest  breadth  is  about  5  miles  at  White- 
haven  and  Workington,  but.  as  in  Northumberland  and 
Durham,  the  beds  dip  and  the  coals  have  been  worked 
below  the  sea  to  a  distance  of  1  J  miles  from  the  shore  or 
2£  miles  from  the  pit.  The  total  thickness  of  the  mea- 
sitres  is  1500  feet,  with  three  workable  seams.  The  pro 
duce  is  largely  consumed  within  the  district,  a  considerable 
portion  of  the  export  being  to  Belfast  and  other  Irish  ports. 

Denbigh-  The  coal  measures  of  North  Staffordshire  and  Lanca 
shire  reappear  on  the  western  side  of  the  plain  of  Cheshire 

coal  '-fields.  in  the  coal-nelds  of  Denbighshire  and  Flintshire,  which 
form  a  nearly  continuous  tract  from  the  neighbourhood  of 
Oswestry  through  Ruabon  and  Wrexham  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Dee,  and  along  the  Welsh  coast  near  Mostyn.  The 
.separation  between  them  is  formed  by  a  slight  roll  in  the 
mountain  limestone  near  Gresford,  corresponding  to  that 
dividing  the  two  coal-fields  on  the  eastern  out-crop.  The 
Denbighshire  field  is  about  18  miles  long,  having  7  seams, 
together  from  26  to  30  feet  in  thickness.  The  principal 
workings  are  near  lluabon,  where  there  are  several  large 


coal 


collieries  producing  a  much  esteemed  house  coal.  The 
Flintshire  field  is  about  15  miles  long.  The  greatest 
breadth  is  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Mold,  whence  it  nar 
rows  in  a  N.W.  direction,  being  covered  by  the  estuary  of 
the  Dee.  At  Mostyn  coal  has  been  extensively  worked 
under  the  river,  but  great  difficulty  was  experienced  in 
keeping  the  mines  clear  of  water.  The  details  of  the 
measures  in  this  district  have  not  been  fully  worked  out, 
but  the  southern  portion  is  the  most  valuable.  The  higher 
measures  contain  six  seams,  including  some  valuable  beds 
of  caunel,  the  total  being  about  28  feet.  In  the  northern 
district  bordering  the  Dee  the  beds  are  much  disturbed 
by  faults,  but  the  deeper  coals  are  said  to  be  of  good  quality. 

The  basin  formed  by  the  North  Wales,  Lancashire,  and 
North  Staffordshire  coal-field  is  probably  the  most  extensive 
tract  of  coal  measures  in  the  country,  as  it  may  be 
assumed  to  extend  under  the  overlying  Triassic  strata 
under  the  Dee  and  the  Mersey  to  South  Lancashire  and 
across  the  plain  of  Cheshire,  an  area  of  800  to  1000  square 
miles.  Much  of  this,  however,  is  far  beyond  workable 
limits,  the  depth  to  the  top  of  the  coal  measures  being 
estimated  at  10,000  feet  below  the  surface  at  the  point  of 
greatest  depression.  The  area  within  the  limits  of  4000 
feet  below  the  surface,  which  has  been  assumed  as  a 
possible  maximum  working  depth,  may  be  seen  by  refer 
ence  to  Plate  I. 

There  is  a  small  coal-field  in  the  Island  of  Anglesea, 
which  is  interesting  for  its  geological  peculiarities,  but  it 
is  of  very  small  economic  value. 

The  Somersetshire  coal-field  appears  at  the  surface  in 
the  form  of  several  disconnected  patches,  the  largest  of 
which  extends  northward  of  Bristol  for  about  12  miles, 
while  the  remainder  stretches  southward  for  about  the  same 
distance  to  the  Mendip  hills.  The  Carboniferous  lime 
stone  is  seen  at  many  places  along  the  western  flank,  but 
the  connection  is  generally  hidden  by  a  peculiar  modifi 
cation  of  the  New  Red  Sandstone  known  as  the  Dolomitic 
Conglomerate,  which  overlaps  both  formations  indifferently. 
Towards  the  east  the  measures  are  further  obscured  by  the 
overlap  of  the  lias  and  oolitic  rocks,  this  being  the  only  field 
in  which  such  an  overlap  takes  place  in  England.  The 
exposed  area  of  the  coal  measures  is  only  about  14  square 
miles,  but  it  is  estimated  that  they  extend  over  238  square 
miles,  the  remainder  being  concealed  by  overlying  strata. 
The  character  of  the  measures  is  similar  to  those  of  South 
Wales  and  Dean  Forest,  namely  an  upper  and  lower  pro 
ductive  series  separated  by  a  nearly  barren  mass  of  Pen 
nant  sandstones.  The  sections,  which  vary  very  consider 
ably,  are  summarized  by  Prestwich  as  follows: — • 

Upper  series 2600  feet  thick,  with  16  seams,  together  26  ft.  10  in.  thick. 

Pennant  sandstone,  2500  to  SOOO          ,,       4        „  „  50 

Lower  series, 2SUO    „        „  26  C6        6 


Together, 7900  to  8400  46  93         4 

The  disturbance  of  the  strata  by  faults  is  much  greater 
than  in  any  other  British  coal-field.  The  whole  series 
is  squeezed  into  a  comparatively  narrow  trough,  which 
throws  the  bottom  of  the  basin  to  about  8000  feet  below 
the  surface.  The  coals  are  in  some  instances  tilted  up 
vertically,  or  even  turned  over,  a  kind  of  disturbance 
which  is  usually  attended  with  considerable  shattering  of 
the  strata.  In  one  instance  the  upper  series  of  measures 
have  been  shifted  horizontally  by  an  inclined  or  slide 
fault  for  a  distance  of  about  200  feet  above  the:  lower 
series.  In  spite  of  the  difficulties  caused  by  these  disturb 
ances,  coal  seams  of  only  a  foot  in  thickness  are  regularly 
worked  in  Somersetshire,  which  is  far  below  the  limits 
considered  to  be  profitable  in  other  districts. 

The  coal-bearing  strata  of  Scotland1  are  confined  to  the 

1  For  the  following  account  of  the  coal-fields  of  Scotland  the  writer 
is  indebted  to  Mr  J.  Geikie,  F.R.S. 


SCOTLAND.] 


GOAL 


53 


Carboniferous  formation,  the  only  exceptions  being  the  little 
patch  of  Oolitic  coal  at  Brora  in  Sutherland  and  certain 
thin  seams  which  occur  intercalated  among  the  Miocene 
volcanic  rocks  of  the  Western  Islands.  The  Scottish  Car 
boniferous  Formation  is  divisible  into  four  series,  viz., — 
1.  Coal  Measures;  2.  Millstone  Grit;  3.  Carboniferous 
Limestone  series ;  4.  Calciferous  Sandstone  series.  Coal  is 
confined  chiefly  to  the  first  and  third  of  these  groups,  but 
in  West  Lothian  and  Mid-Lothian  the  lowest  (calciferous 
sandstones)  yields  some  coals,  one  of  which  has  been  worked 
(Houston  coal,  6  feet  thick).  These  coals  are  associated 
with  the  well-known  "  oil-shales,"  forming  a  peculiar  deve 
lopment  of  the  upper  portion  of  the  calciferous  sandstone 
series  which  is  not  repeated  elsewhere  in  Scotland.  The 
millstone  grit  contains  no  workable  coals.  The  coal  bear 
ing  strata  of  the  coal  measures  and  limestone  series  are 
irregularly  distributed  over  the  central  or  lowland  district 
of  the  country  between  a  line  drawn  from  St  Andrews  to 
Ardrossan,  and  a  second  line  traced  parallel  to  the  first 
from  Dunbar  to  Girvan.  Throughout  this  region  the 
strata  are  disposed  in  a  series  of  basins,  of  which  there 
are  properly  speaking  only  three,  namely, — (1)  The  basin 
of  Mid-Lothian  and  Fifeshire,  which  is  bounded  on  the  west 
by  the  calciferous  sandstone  series  and  some  older  strata, 
forming  the  Peritland  hills,  Arthur's  Seat,  the  rolling 
ground  that  extends  west  of  Edinburgh  into  Linlithgow- 
shire,  and  the  heights  behind  Burntisland  in  Fifeshire,  and 
in  the  east  by  the  barren  sandstones  and  igneous  rocks  of 
the  calciferous  sandstone  series  in  the  east  of  Hadding- 
tonshire  and  Fifeshire;  (2)  The  basin  of  Lanarkshire 
and  Stirlingshire,  the  eastern  boundary  of  which  begins  in 
the  south  at  Wilsontown,  and  runs  north  by  Bathgate  and 
Borrowstounness  to  the  borders  of  Clackmannan,  extends 
west  to  the  foot  of  the  Campsie  and  Kilbarchan  Hills,  and 
is  separated  by  the  Paisley  and  Dunlop  Hills  from  (3)  the 
basin  of  Ayrshire,  the  main  mass  of  which  is  bounded  in 
the  south  and  east  by  the  valley  of  the  Doon,  the  Silurian 
uplands  behind  Dalmellington  and  New  Cumnock,  and  the 
calciferous  sandstone  and  Old  Red  Sandstone  heights  which 
overlook  the  heads  of  the  Ayr  and  Irvine  valleys.  Two 
small  outlying  coal-fields  lie  beyond  these  boundary  lines, 
viz.,  the  Girvan  and  Sanquhar  (Dumfriesshire)  coal 
fields,  but  both  belong  geologically  to  the  Ayrshire  basin. 
Although  there  are  thus  only  three  great  basins,  it  is  usual, 
nevertheless,  to  speak  of  five  principal  coal-fields,  each  of 
which  is  named  after  the  county  in  which  it  is  roost 
abundantly  developed.  Thus  we  have  the  coal-fields  of 
Ayrshire,  Lanarkshire,  Stirlingshire,  Fifeshire,  and  Mid- 
Lothian. 

/•shire.  Ayrshire  Coal-fields. — The  Ayrshire  basin,  owing  to 
undulations  and  faultings  of  the  strata,  comprises  a  number 
of  subsidiary  coal-fields,  such  as  those  of  Girvan,  Sanquhar 
(Dumfriesshire),  Dalmellington,  New  Cumnock,  Lugar  and 
Muirkirk,  Kilmarnock,  Kilwinning,  Dairy,  &c.  The  coal 
measures  of  this  basin  are  of  variable  thickness ;  they 
contain  from  5  to  8  and  11  principal  coal-seams,  yielding 
a  united  thickness  of  from  13  ft.  to  40  ft.  The  Carboni 
ferous  limestone  series  of  Ayrshire  sometimes  contains  no 
workable  seams  of  coal,  while  occasionally  its  seams  eqiial 
or  surpass  in  number  and  thickness  those  of  the  coal  mea 
sures.  Thus  in  the  Girvan  field  there  are  7  coals  with  an 
aggregate  thickness  of  50  feet,  while  at  Muirkirk  the  same 
number  yield  a  thickness  of  40  feet  of  workable  coal.  The 
Ayrshire  coals  consist  chiefly  of  common  coals,  including 
"  hard"  or  "  splint"  and  "  soft"  varieties.  In  some  districts 
the  intrusion  of  igneous  rocks  has  converted  certain  seams 
into  "blind  coal,"  a  kind  of  anthracite,  much  used  for 
steam  purposes.  Gas  or  parrot  coal  (so  called  from  its 
dr.- crepitating  or  chattering  when  heated)  is  met  with  here 
aud  there,  chiefly  near  New  Cumnock.  Parrot  coal  often 


occurs  in  thin  lines  or  bands,  which,  when  intercalated  aud 
alternating  with  dark  carbonaceous  ironstone  and  coaly 
matter,  form  seams  of  what  is  called  black-band  ironstone. 
The  Ayrshire  black-bands  occur  chiefly  at  Dairy,  Lugar, 
and  Dalmellington. 

Lanarkshire  Coal-fields. — These  are  the  most  extensive  Lanark 
in  Scotland,  covering  an  area  of  not  less  than  150  square  shire, 
miles.  The  coal  measures,  which  attain  a  thickness  of 
upward  of  2000  feet,  contain  about  18  workable  coals; 
but  all  these  are  not  continuous  throughout  the  whole  coal 
field,  while  some  are  too  thin  in  places  to  pay  the  cost  of 
working.  At  their  best  they  yield  an  aggregate  thickness 
of  70  feet  or  thereabout,  but  in  many  places  they  do  not 
average  more  than  40  or  30  feet,  or  even  less.  The  lime 
stone  series  is  well-developed  in  the  Lanarkshire  coal-fields, 
but  it  is  a  very  variable  group,  as  indeed  is  the  case 
throughout  Scotland.  It  consists  of  upper,  middle,  and 
lower  groups,  tho  coals  being  confined  chiefly  to  the  middle 
group,  only  one  or  two  seams  occurring  in  the  lower, 
while  in  the  upper  only  one  seam  occasionally  attains  a 
workable  thickness.  The  principal  coals  of  the  limestone 
series  vary  in  number  from  1  to  9,  their  aggregate  thick 
ness  seldom  reaching  more  than '15  feet.  The  Lanarkshire 
coals  consist  chiefly  of  varieties  of  common  coal,  namely, 
hard  or  splint,  soft,  dross,  &c.  But  here  and  there  excel 
lent  gas  coal  is  worked,  as  at  Auchenheath,  Wilsontown, 
<fec.,  the  former  being  considered  the  finest  of  all  the  Scotch 
gas  coals.  Another  well-known  parrot  coal  is  that  of  Bog 
head  near  Bathgate,  the  subject  of  much  litigation.  Par 
rot  or  gas  coal  frequently  occurs  forming  a  part  of  mussel- 
band  and  black-band  ironstones,  which  seams,  when  traced 
along  their  crop,  are  often  seen  to  pass  into  gas  coal.  The 
best  known  blackbands  are  those  wrought  at  Palacecraig, 
Airdrie,  and  Quarter,  Bellside,  Calderbraes,  Bowhousebay 
and  Braco,  Goodockhill  and  Crofthead,  Earnockmuir, 
Possil,  Garscadden,  and  Johnstone. 

At  Quarrelton,  Renfrewshire,  an  abnormal  development 
of  coal  seams  occurs  below  the  horizon  of  the  main  or 
Hurlet  limestone,  which  is  usually  the  lowest  important 
bed  in  the  limestone  series.  The  strata  underlying  that 
limestone  contain  here  and  there  irregular  lenticular 
patches  of  coal,  never  of  any  value.  At  Quarrelton,  how 
ever,  a  number  of  these  seams  come  together,  and  form  a 
mass  of  coal  more  than  30  feet  thick. 

Stirlingshire  Coal-fields. — These  embrace  the  coal-fields  Stirling 
of  Falkirk,  Carron,  and  Grangemouth,  Slamannan,  Clack-  sllire< 
mannan,  and  Borrowstounness.  In  the  Falkirk,  Carron, 
and  Grangemouth  fields,  the  coal  measures  are  about  600 
feet  thick,  and  contain  9  workable  seams  of  coal,  yielding 
an  aggregate  thickness  of  30  or  31  feet;  the  thickest  seam 
is  only  4  feet.  In  the  Slamannan  field,  the  coal  measures 
are  some  720  feet  thick,  and  show  G  workable  coals,  yielding 
an  aggregate  thickness  of  15  or  16  feet,  the  thickest  seam 
being  4  J  feet.  A  small  outlier  of  coal  measures  at  Coney- 
park,  however,  gives  a  depth  of  1140  feet  of  strata,  con 
taining  12  workable  coals  (two  of  which  are  7  feet  thick  re 
spectively),  which  yield  an  aggregate  thickness  of  44  feet. 
The  coal  measures  of  the  Clackmannan  district  attain  a 
thickness  of  900  feet,  and  yield  10  workable  seams  of  coal 
(thickest  seam  9  feet)  with  an  united  thickness  of  41  feet. 
The  limestone  measures  of  the  Stirlingshire  basins  contain, 
as  a  rule,  few  coal  seams.  Where  these  are  best  developed, 
they  vary  in  number  from  5  (Bannockburn)  to  1 1  seams 
(Oakley);  and  their  aggregate  thickness  ranges  from  ll£ 
feet  to  37  feet.  The  coals  embrace  the  variety  usually  met 
with  in  Scotland,  viz.,  hard  (or  splint)  and  soft  coals,  some 
of  the  seams  being  good  caking  coals.  Good  gas  coal  was 
formerly  obtained  at  Oakley;  and  other  coarse  parrot  coals 
occur  in  various  parts  of  the  fields.  Oil  shale  and  black- 
band  ironstone  are  alsoltnet  with.  The  coal-field  of  Bor- 


COAL 


[COAL-FIELDS. 


rowstounness  is  remarkable  for  containing  thick  sheets  of 
basalt  rocks,  which  are  of  contemporaneous  origin,  and  do 
not  alter  the  beds  that  rest  upon  them. 

Mid-  M 'id -Lothian   and   Fifeshire    Coal   Fields.— The   Mid 

lothian.  Lothian  coal  field  is  disposed  in  what  are  for  Scotland 
unusually  symmetrical  and  unbroken  lines.  The  basins 
lie  with  their  principal  synclinal  axes  from  north  to  south. 
In  the  deepest  basin  the  coal  measures  lie  in  a  trough  2£ 
miles  broad  and  9  miles  in  length,  stretching  from  the  sea 
at  Musselburgh  through  Dalkeith  to  Carrington.  The 
trough  is  underlaid  by  the  millstone  grit  (Roslin  Sandstone 
or  Moor  Rock),  whose  outcrop  surrounds  that  of  the  coal 
measures  in  a  band  rarely  more  than  half  a  mile  broad. 
The  Carboniferous  limestone  series  rises  from  beneath  the 
basin  of  millstone  grit  and  coal  measures  on  its  west  side, 
and  crosses  at  a  high  angle,  in  a  band  about  a  mile  in 
breadth,  through  Portobello,  Gilmerton,  and  Penicuik. 
South  of  Penicuik  the  millstone  grit  forms  another  basin 
at  Auchencorse  Moss,  but  the  trough  is  not  deep  enough 
to  bring  in  the  coal  measures.  West  of  Dalkeith  the 
limestone  series  forms  a  shallow  undulating  basin  with  an 
outcrop  of  about  7  miles  broad,  extending  from  the  sea  at 
Cockenzie  by  Tranent  and  Pathhead.  The  Dalkeith  basin 
of  the  coal  measures  has  a  total  thickness  of  1180  feet. 
There  are  14  coal  seams  of  a  workable  thickness,  with  an 
aggregate  of  43  ft.  4  in.  The  limestone  series  of  Mid- 
Lothian  contains  numerous  coal  seams.  The  total  thick 
ness  of  the  series  is  1582  feet,  with  23  workable  coal  seams, 
aggregating  68  ft.  3  in.  The  "great  seam"  averages 
between  8  and  11  feet,  and  in  one  place  is  12  ft.  6  in.  thick. 
The  coals  of  the  Mid-Lothian  basins  are  of  the  usual 
varieties  met  with  in  Scotland.  The  basins  of  the  Mid- 
Fifeshire.  Lothian  coal-fields  reappear  on  the  southern  coast  of  Fife, 
and  are  undoubtedly  continuous  (though  somewhat  de 
nuded)  beneath  the  Firth  of  Forth.  A  segment  of  the 
western  half  of  the  coal  measures  trough  (the  prolongation 
of  that  of  Dalkeith)  extends  from  Dysart  by  Markinch, 
Ken  no  way,  and  Largo  Bay.  On  the  north  this  trough  is 
bounded  by  faults,  and  on  the  east  and  south  it  is  covered 
by  the  sea.  Measured  from  Coaltown  to  Methil  (at  right 
angles  to  the  line  of  strike)  the  thickness  of  the  coal 
measure  strata  exposed  to  view  may  be  roughly  estimated 
at  4600  feet ;  but  as  the  centre  of  the  basin  is  not  reached 
at  the  coast,  the  total  thickness  of  strata  is  not  seen.  There 
are  about  11  workable  seams,  with  an  aggregate  of  61  feet. 
The  Dysart  Main  coal  is  16  feet  thick.  Another  little 
basin,  comprising  the  lower  seams  of  the  coal  measures, 
occurs  at  Kinglassie.  The  Dysart  or  Leven  coal  measure 
basin  occupies  about  18  square  miles,  and  that  of  Kin 
glassie  from  3  to  4.  The  limestone  series  of  Fife  lies  in 
several  much  broken  basins  on  the  south  side  of  the  Ocliils 
and  Lomond  Hills  from  Alloa  to  Earlsferry.  The  prin 
cipal  coal  fields  in  this  series  are  those  of  Dunfermline, 
Halbeath,  Lochgelly,  and  Kelty;  but  coals  have  been 
worked  in  many  other  places,  as  at  Ceres,  Radernie, 
Largo ^  Ward,  Markinch,  &c.  The  coal-bearing  strata 
vary  in  thickness,  but  do  not  exceed  600  feet.  In 
the  Dunfermline  coal-field  there  are  10  seams,  \\ith  an 
aggregate  thickness  of  4 1  feet,  llalbeath  coal-field  yields 
<  seams,  with  an  aggregate  thickness  of  29|  feet; 
Lochgelly  coal-field  contains  some  1-i  seams,  with  an 
aggregate  thickness  of  about  65  feet ;  in  the  Kclty  and 
Heath  coal-field  there  are  12  seams,  yielding  an  aggre 
gate  of  43i  feet.  The  workable  seams  in  these  separate 
fields  range  in  thickness  from  about  2  feet  up  to  10  and  14 
feet.  The  14  feet  coal  of  Lochgelly  is  divided  by  thin  ribs 
of  stone,  which  thicken  out  eventually  so  as  to  "divide  the 
coal  into  5  separate  workable  seams,  which,  with  the  inter 
vening  strata,  yield  a  thickness  of  10  fathoms  of  strata. 
It  is  worth  noting  that,  in  the  lower  Carboniferous  rocks 


of  Fifeshire,  two  coals  are  worked  at  Balcarmo  and  else 
where.     As  a  rule,  this  series  in  Scotland  is  barren. 

The  carboniferous  strata  of  Ireland  consist  chiefly  of 
the  Carboniferous  limestone,  which  covers  the  greater  por 
tion  of  the  island  in  one  connected  mass.  The  coal 
measures  have  probably  been  at  one  time  nearly  as  exten 
sive,  but  they  have  been  almost  entirely  removed  by 
denudation,  the  largest  remaining  basins  being  that  of 
Castlecomer,  near  Kilkenny,  and  another  in  the  west, 
between  Tralee,  Mallow,  and  Kilarney.  In  the  north  the 
small  basin  of  Coal  Island,  on  the  west  side  of  Lough 
Neagh,  is  partly  covered  by  New  Red  Sandstone  strata, 
and  trials  have  been  made  to  discover  a  possible  extension 
of  the  coal  measures  in  the  valley  of  the  Lagan,  between 
Belfast  and  Lisburn. 

The  two  coal  fields  of  South  Wales  and  Somersetshire  Probal 
differ  from  those  of  the  central  and  northern  counties  in 
their  strike  or  direction,  their  longer  axes  being  placed  east 
and  west,  instead  of  north  and  south,  which  is  the  prevail- 
ing  direction  of  the  latter, — the  strata  in  the  Somersetshire 
area  being  sharply  bent  and  broken  on  a  north  and  south 
line  in  a  manner  which  is  not  seen  elsewhere  in  this 
country,  but  is  reproduced  on  a  much  larger  scale  in  the 
north  of  France  and  Belgium.  The  most  easterly  point  in 
England  at  which  the  coal  measures  have  been  worked  is 
near  Bath,  where  the  overlying  Liassic  and  New  Red  Sand 
stone  strata  are  .about  360  feet  thick,  beneath  which  the 
coal  has  been  followed  for  some  5  or  6  miles  from  the 
outcrop.  From  this  point  nothing  certain  is  known  of 
their  extension  until  we  reach  the  neighbourhood  of  Valen 
ciennes,  where  a  coal  field,  known  as  that  of  Hainault 
and  Valenciennes,  extends  with  a  general  east  and  west 
strike  as  far  as  Namur,  a  distance  of  65  miles.  AtNamur 
the  width  is  about  2  miles,  near  Charleroi  from  7  to  8,  and 
through  the  north  of  France  from  6  to  7.  Only  the  eastern 
half,  between  Charleroi  and  Namur,  comes  to  the  surface, 
the  western  portion  being  covered  by  Tertiary  and  Creta 
ceous  strata.  Within  30  miles  of  Calais  the  coal  measures 
end,  the  shales  of  the  Carboniferous  limestone  having 
been  pierced  in  a  boring  of  1113  feet  deep  at  the  latter 
place.  East  of  Namur  the  coal  measures  come  in  again 
at  Li6ge,  continuing  for  about  45  miles,  with  a  width  of 
from  3  to  8  miles  to  beyond  Aix  la  Chapelle,  where  they 
are  divided  by  a  ridge  of  Carboniferous  limestone  into  two 
parallel  basins,  covered  by  Cretaceous  and  newer  deposits, 
till  they  appear  again  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Rhine 
in  the  valley  of  the  Ruhr,  in  the  great  Westphalian  basin, 
which  is  probably  the  largest  in  Europe. 

The  same  general  structure  is  apparent  along  the  whole 
of  this  line,  which,  from  the  western  end  of  the  South 
Wales  basin  to  Frome,  and  from  the  N,  of  France  to  the 
Ruhr,  is  about  470  miles  long.  The  measures  generally 
dip  regularly  from  N.  to  S.  along  the  northern  line  of  out 
crop  where  it  is  known,  but  on  the  southern  side  they  are 
bent  into  sharp  folds  by  the  elevation  force  which  has  up 
lifted  the  underlying  Carboniferous  limestone  and  Devonian 
strata  along  an  east  and  west  line,  extending  from  the 
old  slaty  rock  of  the  Ardennes  to  the  Mendip  Hills  and 
the  western  part  of  Pembrokeshire.  The  known  coal  fields 
extend  for  about  350  miles  out  of  the  above  amount  of  470, 
and  from  the  similarity  of  their  position  and  structure  many 
gealogists  are  of  opinion  that  other  basins  similarly  placed 
may  be  reasonably  supposed  to  exist  in  the  intermediate 
ground  between  Somersetshire  and  Belgium.  This  subject 
has  been  treated  in  great  detail  by  Mr  Godwin  Austen  and 
Prof.  Prestwich  in  the  Reports  of  the  Royal  Commission 
upon  Coal.  The  probable  direction  of  this  axis  is  shown 
on  the  map,  Plate  I.  The  only  actual  determinations 
of  the  rocks  made  within  this  area  have  been  in  two 
borings  at  Kentish  Town  and  Harwich.  In  the  former, 


CONTINENTAL  EUROPE.] 


COAL 


sandstones,  supposed  to  be  of  Devonian  age,  were  reached 
below  the  Cretaceous  strata  at  1113  feet,  and  in  the 
latter  the  Carboniferous  limestone  shale  at  1025  feet.  The 
most  likely  positions  for  the  coal  measure  trough  are  con 
sidered  byPrsstwich  to  be  in  Essex  and  Hertfordshire,  while 
Mr  Godwin  Austen  places  them  in  the  valley  of  the 
Thames  or  under  the  North  Downs.  The  latter  seems  to 
be  the  more  probable  than  the  line  further  north.  The 
point,  however,  is  purely  speculative  in  the  absence  of 
any  trial  borings  as  guides ;  and  a  great  number  of  these 
would  certainly  be  required  before  any  generalization  as  to 
the  position  of  workable  coal  measures  even  within  a  wide 
range  could  be  accepted.  The  deep  boring  on  the  southern 
part  of  the  Wealden  area,  near  Hastings,  which  it  was  sup 
posed  would  have  thrown  a  considerable  amount  of  light  on 
this  matter,  has  hitherto  been  without  other  result  than  the 
proof  of  the  existence  of  a  totally  unexpected  and  exceed 
ingly  great  thickness  of  the  upper  Oolitic  clays,  similar  to 
what  is  known  on  the  French  coast,  near  Boulogne. 

On  the  south  side  of  the  Mendip  axis  a  very  large  area 
in  Devonshire  is  occupied  by  the  lowest  coal  measures  or 
culm  series,  which  consist  almost  entirely  of  clay  slates, 
with  a  few  beds  of  anthracite  in  the  northern  portion  of  the 
district,  near  Barnstaple  and  Bideford.  These  are  only 
worked  to  a  small  extent,  their  principal  use  being,  not  for 
fuel,  but  as  a  pigment  for  covering  iron-work,  which  is 
known  as  Bideford  black. 

The  coal-bearing  areas  of  Secondary  and  Tertiary  age  in 

the  United  Kingdom  are  of  very  small  importance.  In 
-p.  T  .  ,: P  .,  ,  •  <•  <•  •»!•• 

Devonshire  a  lignite- bearing  series  of  strata  of  Miocene 

age  occurs  in  the  flank  of  the  granite  of  Dartmoor  at 
Bovey  Traeey,  near  Newton  Abbot.  This  is  principally 
remarkable  for  its  associated  clays,  which  are  derived  from 
the  waste  of  the  granite,  and  contain  numerous  impressions 
of  dicotyledonous  leaves  and  other  plant  remains.  The  coal 
is  a  lignite  resembling  a  mere  heap  of  tree  stems  drifted 
together  and  partially  decomposed.  It  is  nut  now  worked, 
the  original  excavations  being  filled  with  water ;  and  as 
the  demand  is  restricted  to  supplying  the  wants  of  the 
local  potteries,  there  is  no  opening  for  profitable  mining.  - 

In  the  Great  Oolite  of  Yorkshire,  some  thin  seams  of  coal 
or  lignite  were  formerly  worked  at  numerous  points  upon  the 
moors  between  the  Cleveland  Hills  and  the  Vale  of  Picker 
ing.  The  most  important  product  of  this  district,  however, 
i-a  the  jet  which  is  obtained  from  the  waste  of  coal-bearing 
strata  of  the  same  age  along  the  cliffs  near  Whitby,  where 
it  is  manufactured  into  ornaments.  The  largest  Oolitic 
coal  deposit  in  this  country  is  that  of  Brora  in  Sutherland, 
where  a  seam  of  about  3£  feet  in  thickness  has  been 
worked  at  intervals  for  a  considerable  period,  but  never  to 
any  considerable  extent  except  during  the  prevalence  of 
high  prices  in  the  coal  trade. 

Another  area  in  which  coal  is  found  in  strata  of  Second- 
ary  a°e  *S  tliat  °^  Scania,  near  Helsingborg,  in  south- 
western  Sweden, in  the  three  coal-fields  of  Hoganas,Stabbarp, 
and  R6ddinge.  These  are  situated  in  the  uppermost  Triassic 
or  Rhuetic  series.  At  the  first,  which  is  the  most  im 
portant  locality,  the  strata  vary  from  100  to  800  feet  in 
thickness,  with  two  seams  of  coal  respectively  1  and  4^  feet 
in  thickness.  There  is  a  good  fire-clay  associated  with  the 
lower  seam,  which  is  extensively  worked  for  fire  bricks  and 
pottery,  a  large  proportion  of  the  coal  being  used  on  the  spot. 
In  the  Danish  Island  of  Bornholm  similar  coal-bearing  strata, 
probably  of  Liassic  age,  form  a  narrow  belt  along  the  south 
and  south-west  coast,  which  it  is  supposed  may  continue 
under  the  alluvial  plain  of  the  Baltic  into  Pomerania. 

The  Coal-fields  of  the  Continent  of  Europe. 

The  coal-fields  of  the  continent  of  Europe,  though  more 
scattered  and  dietui'bod  than  those  of  England,  may  be  simi 


larly  divided  into  two  groups  according  to  tlieir  geolo 
gical  structure,  the  first  being  those  in  which  the  series  is 
complete,  the  coal  measures  being  symmetrically  arranged 
upon  the  Carboniferous  limestone  and  Devonian  strata. 
Examples  of  this  structure  are  afforded  by  the  long  line  of 
coal-fields  extending  through  the  north  of  France  and 
Belgium  to  the  Rhine  valley  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Ardennes,  and  those  of  the  more  easterly  district  of  Silesia 
and  of  the  north  of  Spain.  The  remaining  and  far  more 
numerous  European  coal-fields  are  either  contained  in 
hollows  in  crystalline  schists,  or  rest  on  the  older  Palaeozoic 
rocks,  e.g.,  the  central  and  southern  French  basins,  and 
those  of  Saxony  and  Bohemia.  Further  east,  in  central 
and  southern  Russia,  the  order  observed  in  Scotland  is 
reproduced,  there  being  a  large  development  of  coal  in  Car 
boniferous  limestone  strata,  and  something  of  the  same 
kind  seems  to  be  probably  the  case  in  China. 

The  best  developed  portions  of  the  Franco-Belgian  coal-  Franco- 
field  are  seen  within  the  territory  of  Belgium,  the  westerly 
extension  into  France  being  entirely  covered  by  a"  great 
thickness  of  newer  strata.  Commencing  at  the  eastern 
side,  the  first  field  or  basin  is  that  of  Liege,  which 
extends  from  tne  Prussian  frontier  near  Verviers  in  a 
S.W.  direction  for  about  45  miles,  the  greatest  breadth 
being  about  9  miles  near  Li<%e.  The  principal  working 
points  are  concentrated  on  the  western  edge,  where  the 
lower  beds  rest  on  the  Carboniferous  limestone,  the  eastern 
portion  being  partly  covered  by  Cretaceous  and  Tertiary 
strata.  The  number  of  coal  seams  is  83,  the  upper  series 
of  31  being  so-called  fat  coals,  suitable  for  coking  and 
smiths'  fires ;  the  middle  series  of  2 1  seams  are  semi-dry- 
or  flaming  coals ;  and  the  remainder  or  lower  series  of  31 
are  dry,  lean,  or  semi-anthracitic  coals.  The  upper  series, 
which  are  the  most  valued,  are  found  only  in  a  small  area 
near  the  centre  of  the  basin  at  Ougre'e,  near  Li6ge.  The 
seams  vary  from  6  inches  to  5^  feet  in  thickness,  the 
average  being  barely  3  feet.  This  order  of  succession  is 
observed  in  the  whole  of  the  districts  along  this  axis.  The 
same  general  structure  also  prevails  throughout  the  strata 
which  have  a  comparatively  small  slope  on  the  northern 
crop,  and  are  very  sharply  contorted,  faulted,  or  broken 
along  on  the  south  side  of  the  basins.  The  local  terms 
platteurs  and  dressants  are  used  to  distinguish  the  flat  and 
steep  portions  of  the  coals  respectively. 

The  next  basin,  that  of  the  Sambre,  extends  for 
about  30  miles  from  Namur  to  Charleroi,  the  greatest 
exposed  breadth  being  about  9|  miles.  The  western  and 
a  greater  part  of  the  northern  side  are  covered  by  Tertiary 
strata,  which  are  very  heavily  watered.  At  Montceau, 
near  Charleroi,  there  are  73  seams,  which  pass  through  the 
various  conditions  of  fat,  flaming,  and  dry  coals,  from  above 
downwards,  according  to  the  order  already  described. 

The  most  important  development  of  the  coal  measures 
in  Belgium  is  in  the  basin  of  Mous,  which  extends  from 
Mons  to  Thulin,  a  length  of  about  14  miles,  with  a  breadth 
of  about  7  or  8  miles,  a  large  portion  of  the  area  being 
covered  by  newer  strata.  The  number  of  known  coal 
seams  is  157,  out  of  which  number  from  117  to  122  are  con 
sidered  to  be  workable,  their  thicjmess  varying  generally 
between  10  and  28  inches,  only  a  very  few  exceeding  3 
feet.  These  are  classified,  according  to  position,  into  the 
following  groups,  which  are  taken  as  a  standard  for  the 
whole  of  the  north  of  France  and  Belgium: — 

1.  Upper  series   (charbon  flemi),   47  seams.      These, 
which  occur  chiefly  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Mons,  are  very 
rich  bituminous  coals,  especially  adapted  for  gasmaking. 

2.  Hard  coal  series   (charbon  dur),  21  seams.     These 
are,  in  spite  of  their  name,  soft  caking  coals,  less  rich  in 
volatile  matter  than  the  flenu,  but  excellent  for  coking 
purposes. 


56 


COAL 


[COAL-FIELDS. 


3.  Forge  coal  series,  29  seams.     These  are  chiefly  used 
for  smithy  purposes  and  iron  works,  but  the  lower  mem 
bers  approximate  to  dry  steam  coals. 

4.  Dry  or  lean  coals,  20  to  25  seams,  forming  the  bot 
tom  series.     They  are  of  small  value,  being  chiefly  used  for 
brick  or  lime  burning. 

The  amount  of  compression  to  which,  the  strata  have 
been  subjected  in  these  coal-fields,  has  caused  them  to  be 
sharply  contorted  into  zig-zag  folds.  In  the  neighbour 
hood  of  Mons  a  single  seam  may  be  passed  through  six 
times  in  a  pit  of  350  yards  vertical  depth,  and  the  strata, 
which  if  flat  would  be  9  miles  broad,  are  squeezed  into  a 
space  7  miles  across  and  about  8200  feet  deep  to  the 
bottom  of  the  basin.  At  Charleroi  the  compression  is  still 
greater,  a  breadth  of  8|  miles  of  flat  strata  being  nar 
rowed  to  rather  less  than  half  that  quantity  by  contortion 
into  22  zig-zag  folds. 

The  thickness  of  the  overlying  Tertiary  and  Cretaceous 
strata  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Moris  is  from  500  to  900 
feet;  towards  the  French  frontier  the  thickness  is  between 
200  and  400  feet,  and  at  Valenciennes  about  250  feet. 
At  Aniche  these  overlying  measures,  or  terrains  morts,  are 
400  feet  thick,  below  which  the  coal  measures  are  found 
to  contain  23  feet  of  coal  in  12  seams.  At  Anzin,  near 
Denain,  there  are  18  seams,  together  39  feet,  which,  is 
about  the  maximum  development  in  the  north  of  France. 
This  coal-field,  which  was  unknown  before  1734,  has 
reached  a  very  high  state  of  production  in  spite  of  great 
difficulties  interposed  by  the  water  bearing  strata  covering 
the  coal  measures.  It  extends  for  about  45  miles,  dimi 
nishing  in  extent  and  value  to  the  westward.  The  struc 
ture  is  very  similar  to  that  of  the  Belgian,  one  of  the 
most  remarkable  features  being  the  inclined  fault  called 
the  cran  de  retour,  which  brings  the  lower  or  dry  coal 
series  of  the  north  side  against  the  higher  coking  coals  of 
the  south  side,  as  shown  in  the  section,  Plate  II.  fig.  4. 

At  Hardinghen,  near  Boulogne,  a  small  patch  of  disturbed 
coal  strata  was  formerly  worked.  These  are  now  supposed 
to  be  of  the  age  of  the  Carboniferous  limestone. 

The  coal-fields  of  central  and  southern  France  are  mostly 
small  in  area  and  irregular  in  structure,  with  at  times 
remarkable  single  accumulations  of  coal  of  enormous  thick 
ness,  which  do  not,  however,  extend  for  any  distance.  The 
most  important  basin  is  that  of  Saint  Etienne  and  Rive 
de  Gier,  south  of  Lyons,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Rhone. 
It  is  of  triangular  form,  about  28  miles  long,  with  a  base 
of  8  miles.  The  thickness  of  the  three  principal  seams  at 
the  latter  place  is  about  33  feet,  but  at  Saint  Etienne 
there  are  from  15  to  18  seams,  making  together  about 
112  feet  in  a  total  depth  of  measures  of  about  2500  fe.et. 

The  basin  of  the  Saone  et  Loire,  near  Chalons  and 
Autun,  is  about  25  miles  long  in  a  S.W.  and  N.E.  line.  At 
Creusot,  on  the  north  crop,  the  coals,  which  are  in  places 
extremely  thick  (the  main  seam  averaging  40  feet,  but  occa 
sionally  swelling  out  to  130  feet),  dip  at  a  high  angle  below  a 
covering  of  New  Red  Sandstone  strata,  and  appear  in  a  modi 
fied  form,bothas  regards  thickness  and  position,  on  the  south 
side  at  Blanzy.  An  attempt  has  been  made  to  prove  the 
continuity  of  the  series  in  the  bottom  of  the  basin  by  a  deep 
boring,  which  was,  however,  abandoned  at  a  depth  of  over 
3000  feet  without  passing  through  the  overlying  strata.  At 
Moutchanin  a  remarkable  seam  or  mass  of  coal  was  found 
extending  for  about  650  yards,  with  a  thickness  varying 
from  60  to  200  feet  at  the  surface,  which,  however,  df- 
minished  to  one  half  60  yards  down,  and  wedged  out  at 
1 40  yards  deep.  Another  coal  field  of  considerable  im 
portance  is  that  of  Alais  and  Grand  Combe  near  Nimes, 
which  is  partly  covered  by  Liassic  strata,  and  has  a  total 
maximum  thickness  of  80  feet  of  coal. 

In  addition  to  these  must  be  mentioned  the  anthracitic 


series  of  the  Alps,  which  extend  along  the  flanks  of  that 
chain  from  Savoy  and  the  Tarentaise  into  Styria  and 
Carinthia.  They  are  of  small  economic  importance. 

The  Secondary  and  Tertiary  coals  of  France  are  of  com 
paratively  small  importance.  Lignite  is  worked,  among 
other  places,  near  Dax  in  the  Pyrenees,  and  at  Trets 
and  Fuveau  near  Marseilles. 

The  coal-fields  of  Prussia,  situated  on  the  extension  of  Germ; 
the  Franco-Belgian  axis,  are  the  two  small  basins  of  the 
Inde  and  Worm,  east  of  Adelnau,  near  Stolberg  and  Esch- 
vveiler,  which  are  included  in  single  sharply  sloped  folds 
of  the  mountain  limestone,  and  the  great  Westphalian 
basin  east  of  the  Rhine,  in  the  valley  of  the  Ruhr.  The 
latter,  which  is  one  of  the  most  important  in  Europe, 
extends  for  about  30  miles  east  and  west  from  Essen  to 
Dortmund.  The  breadth  is  unknown;  the  beds  are  exposed 
for  about  15  miles  at  the  broadest  part,  but  the  actual 
boundaries  to  the  north  and  north-east  are  hidden  by  Creta- 
taceous  rocks.  The  greatest  depth  from  the  surface  to  the 
bottom  of  the  basin  is  probably  about  5000  feet.  It  is 
divided  lengthways  by  transverse  axes  of  elevation  into 
four  principal  basins,  besides  several  smaller  ones.  The 
total  thickness  of  measures  already  proved  is  from  6000 
to  8000  feet,  with  about  130  seams  of  coal,  together 
about  300  feet  thick.  These  are  divided  into  three  series 
by  two  bands  of  barren  measures.  The  thickness  of 
the  individual  coal  seams  varies  from  8  inches  to  7  feet. 
Seventy -six  are  considered  to  be  workable,  having  a  combined 
thickness  of  205  feet,  and  54  are  unworkable,  containing  42 
feet  of  coal.  The  proportion  of  workable  coal  to  the  whole 
thickness  of  strata  is  as  1  to  33.  The  order  of  succession 
as  regards  quality  is  similar  to  that  observed  in  Belgium, 
the  most  highly  valued  gas  and  coking  coals  being  at  the 
top  of  the  series,  and  the  dry  semi-anthracitic  seams  at  the 
bottom.  On  the  south  side  of  the  axis  of  the  Rhenish  De 
vonian  strata,  which  is  the  high  ground  known  as  the  Eifel 
and  Hunsruck,  carboniferous  strata  reappear  in  what  is 
known  as  the  Pfalz-Saarbriicken  basin,  occupying  a  rect 
angular  area  between  Bingen,  Donnersberg,  Saarbriicken, 
and  Mettlach,  about  60  miles  long  and  20  miles  broad, 
the  productive  coal  measures  being  restricted  to  a  triangular 
space  of  about  175  square  miles  in  the  S.W.  corner.  The 
Carboniferous  limestone  is  absent,  but  the  thickness  of  the 
coal  measures  is  very  great,  the  upper  or  Ottweiler  series 
measuring  from  6500  to  11,700  feet,  with  about  20  feet  of 
coal  in  different  parts  of  the  district,  and  the  lower  or 
Saarbriicken  series  from  9000  to  5200  feet,  with  82 
workable  and  142  unworkable  coal  seams,  making  a  total 
of  about  350  to  400  feet  of  coal.  The  greatest  thickness 
of  the  upper  strata  is  found  in  those  localities  where  the 
lower  are  thinnest,  but  the  total  thickness  is  computed  to  be 
about  20,000  feet  in  the  thickest  known  section.  The  coals 
of  the  lower  division  are  divided  into  groups  by  certain  well- 
marked  horizons,  usually  prominent  seams,  which  have  this 
peculiarity  that  the  best  coking  and  gas  coals  are  found  ir?, 
the  bottom  of  the  series,  and  the  drier  ones  at  the  top,  thus 
reversing  the  order  observed  in  the  basins  on  the  northern 
slope.  The  amount  of  hygroscopic  water  in  the  coal 
is  also  found  to  diminish  downwards. 

In  the  district  between  the  Ems  and  the  Weser,  are 
situated  the  small  coalfields  of  Ibbenbiiren,  on  the  easterly 
extension  of  the  Westphalian  basin,  and  the  Piesberg,  near 
Osnabriick,  which  are  of  true  Carboniferous  age.  Besides 
these,  there  is  a  curious  development  of  coal  in  the  Weal- 
den  strata  which  extend  in  a  narrow  discontinuous  band 
E.  andW.  for  about  150  miles.  The  coals  are  or  have  been 
worked  at  Tecklenburg  and  Borgloh  in  the  Teutoburger 
Wald,  at  Biickeburg  in  Schaumburg,  and  in  the  Osterwald 
south  of  Hanover.  The  coal  seams  are  small  and  of  infe 
rior  quality,  but  are  interesting  as  showing  how  nearly  the 


OEBMA.NX.J 


0  0  A  L 


Oi 


conditions  prevailing  at  the  time  of  the  older  coal  measures 
were  repeated  over  a  part  of  the  same  area  in  Cretaceous 
times.  There  are  traces  of  thin  discontinuous  coal-beds  in 
the  Wealden  strata  of  Sussex,  but  nowhere  approaching 
to  the  extent  of  those  in  the  Wealden  strata  of  N.  Germany. 
In  the  low  ground  north  of  Halle,  small  and  irregular 
patches  of  coal  measures  are  found  at  Wettin,  Lobejun, 
and  Plotz.  These  are  probably  the  remains  of  a  single 
coal-field  which  has  been  disturbed  and  broken  up  at  the 
time  of  the  eruption  of  a  great  mass  of  igneous  rocks 
which  is  found  in  a  nearly  central  position  between  them. 
The  coal  measures  are  also  found  in  the  Thiiringer  Wald, 
the  Schwarzwald,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Harz,  and  in  the 
Bavarian  Oberpfalz,  but  none  of  these  localities  are  im 
portant  as  centres  of  production.  In  Saxony  there  are  two 
principal  coal-fields,  the  first  being  that  of  the  Plauens'che 
Grand,  near  Dresden,  which  is  chiefly  interesting  for  the 
very  disturbed  condition  of  the  measures,  and  the  conse 
quent  difficulty  in  working ;  and  the  other  that  of  Zwickau, 
which  is  one  of  the  most  important  in  Europe.  It  forms  an 
elliptical  basin,  about  20  miles  long,  between  Zwickau  and 
Chemnitz,  and  from  6  to  7  miles  in  maximum  breadth,  the 
greater  portion  being  covered  by  New  Red  Sandstone  strata. 
The  coal  measures,  which  rest  upon  old  argillaceous  schists, 
are  about  1700  feet  thick  at  a  maximum,  containing  12 
principal  seams  of  coal,  besides  several  smaller  ones.  The 
most  important  is  the  so-called  soot  coal  (Russkohle),  which 
at  times  attains  to  a  thickness  of  25  feet.  'The  series  is 
divided  by  Geinitz  into  groups,  according  to  the  prevailing 
character  of  the  associated  fossil  plants,  as  follows  : — 

1.  Zone  of  Ferns,  corresponding  to  the  upper  group. 

2.  Zone  of  Annularia  and  Calamites,  or  middle  group. 

3.  Zone  of  Sigillaria,  or  lower  group. 

A  fourth,  or  Sagenaria  zone,  found  in  Silesia,  corresponding 
to  the  culm  measures  of  Devonshire,  completes  this  classi 
fication. 

The  most  important  coal-fields  of  Eastern  Europe  are 
those  of  Silesia.  The  Carboniferous  limestone  series  and 
the  lowest  coal  measures  or  culm  strata  reappear  in  these 
basins,  and  are  associated  with  numerous  valuable  mineral 
deposits,  mainly  of  zinc  and  lead  ore.  The  coal-field  of 
Lower  Silesia  and  Bohemia  forms  a  basin  between  Glatz, 
Waldenburg,  Landshiit,  and  Schatzlar,  about  38  miles 
long  and  22  miles  broad.  The  number  of  seams  from  3^ 
to  5  feet  thick  is  very  considerable  (from  35  to  50); 
but  it  is  difficult  to  trace  any  one  continuously  for  any 
great  distance,  as  they  are  liable  to  change  suddenly  in 
character.  The  lower  seams  usually  lie  at  a  higher  angle 
than  those  above  them.  There  does  not  appear  to  be  any 
relation  between  the  coking  power  of  the  coals  and  their 
geological  position,  and  the  same  seam  often  varies  in 
quality  in  neighbouring  mines. 

The  upper  Silesian  coal  district  extends  in  several  dis 
connected  masses  from  Mahrisch-Ostrau  in  Moravia,  in 
a  N.W.  direction,  by  Rybnik  and  Gleiwitz  in  Prussia, 
and  Myslowitz  in  Poland,  being  held  partly  by  Austria, 
Prussia,  and  Russia,  the  Prussian  portion  between  Zrabze 
and  Myslowitz  being  the  most  important,  extending  over 
20  miles  in  length,  by  nearly  15  in  breadth.  The  greatest 
thickness  of  coal  in  workable  seams  (from2|-  to  GO  feet  thick) 
is  estimated  at  a  total  of  333  feet,  the  thickness  of  the 
measures  beingabout  10,000  feet.  A  very  large  proportion  of 
this  coal-field  is  hidden  by  New  Red  and  Cretaceous  strata. 

The  Tertiary  coals  or  lignites  of  Germany  are  of  consider 
able  importance,  being  distributed  over  large  areas,  the 
seams  often  attaining  a  great  thickness,  although  rarely 
continuous  for  any  great  distance.  The  principal  deposits 
are  situated  in  the  lower  parts  of  the  valleys  of  the  Rhine 
and  the  Elbe,  in  Nassau,  and  in  the  high  ground  of  the 
Rhon  in  Bavaria.  The  lignite  district  of  the  Rhine  ex 


tends  from  near  Bonn  down  to  Deutz  and  Bensberg  below 
Cologne.  The  pigment  known  as  Cologne  earth  is  a  sepia- 
coloured  lignite,  which  can  be  ground  to  a  fine  powder 
when  dried.  In  Nassau  the  so-called  bituminous  wood,  a 
variety  of  lignite  containing  flattened  masses  of  wood  of  a 
light  brown  colour,  is  very  common.  The  produce  of 
these  districts  is  mainly  consumed  for  house  fuel  and  steam 
boilers,  some  small  quantity  having  been  used  for  the  pro 
duction  of  paraffin  and  photogen  oil. 

The  coal-fields  of  the  empire  of  Austria-Hungary  are  of  Austria. 
very  considerable  interest,  from  the  great  diversity  in 
their  geological  position.  Coals  of  Carboniferous  age  are 
mainly  confined  to  the  northern  provinces  of  Bohemia, 
Moravia,  and  Silesia ;  but  in  Hungary  and  the  Alpine- 
lands,  especially  in  Styria,  coals  of  Tertiary  age  are  found, 
which  approach  very  closely  in  composition  and  quality  to 
those  of  the  coal  measures. 

First  in  importance  among  the  former  class,  is  the  basin 
of  Pilsen  in  Bohemia,  which  covers  an  area  of  about  300 
square  miles.  It  rests  upon  Silurian  shale,  and  is 
covered  unconformably  by  Permian  conglomerate  and  sand 
stone.  The  coals  vary  considerably  in  different  localities ; 
the  total  thickness  of  the  workable  seams,  from  3  to  5  in 
number,  does  not  exceed  20  feet.  There  is  a  remarkable 
bed  of  slaty  cannel  in  the  upper  part  of  the  series,  which 
contains  animal  remains  of  Permian  types  associated  with 
the  ordinary  coal  flora.  Another  important  basin,  that  of 
Schlan-Kladno,  E.  of  Prague,  appears  along  the  north  edge 
of  the  Silurian  strata,  extending  for  about  35  miles  E. 
and  W.  At  Kladno,  where  it  is  best  developed,  it  contains 
two  principal  seams,  of  which  the  upper  is  from  10  to  20 
feet,  and  the  lower  or  main  seam  from  19  to  40  feet  thick. 

At  Rossitz,  near  Briinn,  in  Moravia,  a  belt  of  coal 
measure,  resting  upon  crystalline  rocks,  has  been  consider 
ably  worked.  There  are  three  seams,  together  from  27  to  30 
feet  thick.  These  beds  are  said  to  be  the  equivalent  of 
the  upper  seams  of  Pilsen  and  Kladno. 

In  Moravia,  Silesia,  and  Poland  the  coal  measures  are 
associated  with  the  mountain  limestone,  which  in  Central 
Germany,  east  of  Westphalia,  is  generally  absent.  The 
upper  Silesian  coal-field  is  situated  in  Prussia,  Austria,  Sile 
sia,  and  Russian  Poland,  the  largest  portion  being  in  the  first 
country.  The  area  of  this  basin  is  about  1700  square  miles, 
a  considerable  portion  of  it  being  hidden  by  Secondary 
and  Tertiary  strata.  In  the  Austrian  portion  at  Ostrau  in 
Moravia  there  are  370  seams,  of  which  117  are  workable, 
with  a  thickness  of  about  350  feet  of  coal.  The  largest 
seams  are  situated  in  the  upper  series,  the  principal  one 
being  about  13  feet  thick.  The  coals  of  the  neighbour 
hood  of  Ostrau  are  very  full  of  gas,  which  occasionally  finds 
its  way  into  the  cellars  of  the  houses  in  the  towrn,  besides 
giving  off  large  quantities  of  fire  damp  in  the  workings. 
A  bore  hole  put  down  150  feet  to  a  seam  of  coal  in  1852, 
gave  off  a  stream  of  gas  which  was  ignited  at  the  surface, 
and  has  continued  to  burn,  with  a  flame  many  feet  in 
length,  to  the  present  time.  The  same  coal-field  extends  into 
the  district  of  Cracow,  where  it  contains  numerous  seams  of 
great  thickness,  which,  however,  have  been  but  partially 
explored.  In  the  Austrian  Alps  anthracitic  coals  occur 
at  various  points  along  the  northern  slopes,  in  strata  of  the 
age  of  the  culm  measures,  but  nowhere  in  any  great  quan 
tity.  In  the  Carpathian  countries  true  coal  measures  are 
not  largely  developed,  the  principal  locality  being  near 
Reschitza  in  the  Banat,  where  4  seams,  from  3  to  10  feet 
in  thickness,  are  worked  to  a  certain  extent. 

At  Steyerdorf,  near  Oravicza  on  the  Danube,  a  remark 
able  coal-field  is  found  in  the  Lias.  There  arc  5  seams, 
from  3  to  7  feet  in  thickness,  which  are  bent  into  an 
anticlinal,  besides  being  disturbed  by  numerous  faults.  The 
coal  is  of  a  very  good  quality,  yielding  a  coke  suitable  for 

V.   —  S 


58 


GOAL 


[COAL-FIELDS 


iron-smelting.  The  annual  production  is  about  260,000 
tons.  Similar  coals  occur  in  the  Lias  at  Dreukowa,  and  near 
Fiinfkirchen,  where  there  are  25  workable  seams,  together 
about  80  feet  thick,  also  of  a  good  coking  quality,  but  very 
tender  in  working,  making  a  great  deal  of  slack. 

Secondary  coals  occur  in  the  Trias  and  Oolitic  strata  at 
various  points  in  the  Alps,  but  are  only  of  local  interest. 

In  the  Gosau  strata  belonging  to  the  chalk,  coaL  is 
worked  at  various  points  in  the  Alpine  lands,  the  average 
annual  production  being  about  25, 000  tons.  Eocene  coals 
occur  in  Dalmatia,  and  Miocene  lignite  in  the  Vienna  basin 
in  Southern  Moravia,  one  seam,  about  10  feet  thick,  cover 
ing  an  area  of  about  120  square  miles.  In  the  Styria-Hun- 
garian  Tertiary  basin,  Tertiary  coals  are  developed  on  a 
very  great  scale,  especially  in  Styria,  at  Salgo  Tarjan  in 
N.  Hungary,  and  in  the  depression  between  the  Matra  and 
the  crystalline  rocks  of  Upper  Hungary.  These  localities 
represent  only  those  best  known  by  workings,  many  more 
being  undeveloped.  The  lignite  beds  are  often  of  great 
thickness,  e.g.,  70  feet  at  Hrastuigg,  and  130  feet  at  Trifail. 
The  production  of  Tertiary  coal  in  Styria  is  about  500,000 
tons  annually.  At  Leoben  and  Fohnsdorf,  lignites  are 
worked  of  a  quality  closely  approaching  to  that  of  Carboni 
ferous  coal,  and  are  largely  consumed  in  the  production  of 
iron  and  steel,  having  almost  entirely  replaced  charcoal  in 
the  local  forges.  In  Bohemia,  Miocene  brown  coal  strata 
cover  a  very  large  area,  the  principal  basins  being  those 
of  Eger,  Carlsbad,  and  Teplitz,  together  about  COO  square 
miles,  the  main  seam  occasionally  attaining  a  thickness  of 
over  100  feet,  The  trade  in  this  coal  is  very  considerable 
along  the  entire  valley  of  the  Elbe. 

The  coal-fields  of  Russia  have  been  but  imperfectly 
known  until  a  comparatively  recent  period,  when  the  de 
mand  for  fuel  caused  by  the  extension  of  railways  and  the 
increase  in  manufacturing  industries  has  stimulated  ex 
plorations,  which  have  resulted  in  the  discovery  of  coal- 
bearing  strata  of  considerable  magnitude  and  extent. 
These  belong  to  the  period  of  the  Carboniferous  limestone, 
like  the  lower  coals  of  Scotland. 

In  Central  Russia  the  coal-bearing  area  belonging  to 
the  Carboniferous  limestone  is  said  to  cover  about  13,000 
square  miles,  the  centre  of  the  basin  being  at  Tula,  S.  of 
Moscow.  There  are  two  principal  seams,  3  ft.  G  in.  and  7 
feet  thick,  in  the  bottom  of  the  series  near  the  top  of  the 
Old  Red  Sandstone.  The  coal  is  of  inferior  quality,  con 
taining  about  12  to  16  per  cent,  of  ash,  and  from  2  to  5 
per  cent,  of  sulphur. 

In  Southern  Russia,  between  the  river  Donetz  and  the 
head  of  the  sea  of  Azoff,  a  more  important  coal-field  occurs, 
also  in  the  Carboniferous  limestone,  covering  an  area. of 
11,000  square  miles.  There  are  sixty  seams  of  coal,  forty- 
four  being  workable,  with  a  total  thickness  of  114  feet. 
The  best  is  a  dry  or  semi-anthracitic  coal,  resembling  that 
of  South  Wales.  At  Lugan  and  Lissitchia  Balka,  a  thick 
ness  of  30  feet  of  coal  is  found  in  900  feet  of  strata. 

In  the  Ural,  coal  is  found  in  sandstones,  iuterstratified  in 
the  Carboniferous  limestone  in  the  district  north  of  Perm, 
between  the  parallels  of  57'  and  60°  N.  latitude.  The  strata 
dip  at  a  high  angle  to  the  west,  under  the  Permian 
strata.  The  thickest  coals  are  at  Lithwinsk  at  the  northern 
end,  where  there  are  three  seams  worked,  measuring  from 
30  to  40  feet  each ;  further  south  they  become  thinner. 
The  coals  appear  to  be  similar  in  quality  to  those  of  the 
central  coal-field. 

In  Poland,  about  Bendzin  and  Lagorze,  N.  of  Myslo- 
witz,  an  extension  of  the  Upper  Silesian  coal-field  covers 
an  area  of  about  80  square  miles,  being  partly  covered  by 
Permian  strata.  Nine  seams  of  coal  are  known,  varying 
from  3  to  20  feet  in  thickness ;  but  they  do  not  occur  to 
gether,  except  in  a  small  part  of  the  centre  of  the  basm. 


The  aggregate  thickness  of  coal  is  about  60  feet.  This  is 
the  only  district  in  which  true  coal  measure  strata  are 
found  in  European  Russia. 

Among  the  southern  countries  of  Europe,  the  first  place  Span 
must  be  given  to  the  coal-fields  of  Spain,  but  even  these 
are  of  comparatively  small  importance,  when  measured  by 
a  northern  standard,  consisting  of  a  few  small  and  scattered 
basins,  in  which  both  Carboniferous  and  Secondary  coals  are 
represented.  The  Carboniferous  limestone  acquires  a  con 
siderable  development  in  the  Cantabrian  chain  along  the 
north  coast,  and  is  associated  with  overlying  coal  measures 
near  Oviedo  and  Leon.  In  the  former  area  the  coals  are 
often  considerably  disturbed,  becoming  anthracitic  at  the 
same  time.  The  best  seams  are  from  5  to  8  feet  thick.  In 
the  Satero  valley  near  Sotillo,  N.E,  of  Leon,  a  seam  called 
El  Carmen,  averaging  60  feet,  is  sometimes  100  feet  thick, 
and  is  said  to  be  in  places  associated  with  another  which  is 
occasionally  180  feet  thick.  Another  basin  of  importance 
is  that  of  Belmez  and  Espiel,  occupying  a  narrow  valley  iu 
older  Palajozoic  strata,  about  20  miles  north  of  Cordova, 
which  has  recently  been  traversed  by  a  railway  connecting 
it  with  the  main  lines  from  Lisbon  and  Cadiz.  This  pro 
duces  coking  and  gas  coals  of  good  quality,  which  are  in 
considerable  demand  for  smelting  in  the  lead  and  other 
mineral  districts  in  the  neighbourhood.  The  other  principal 
localities  are  at  Villaneuva  del  Rio  near  Seville,  and  San 
Juan  de  la  Abaderas  in  Catalonia.  Coals  of  Neocomian 
age  are  found  at  Montalban,  in  the  province  of  Teruel,  and 
lignites  of  Miocene  age,  among  other  places,  at  Alcoy  in 
Valencia,  and  Galas  in  Catalonia. 

In  Portugal  a  small  tract  of  lower  Carboniferous  strata,  Portuga 
containing  anthracite,  occurs  at  San  Pedro  de  Cova,  near 
Coimbra,  but  the  produce  is  very  small. 

In  Italy  there  is  very  little  Carboniferous  coal,  what  does  Italy. 
occur  being  mainly  of  an  anthracitic  character  in  very  dis 
turbed  strata  in  the  Piedmontese  Alps.      Tertiary  lignites 
are  worked  at  several  places  in  Tuscany  and  in  Naples,  but 
the  total  output  is  inconsiderable  when  measured  by  the 
standards  of  more  northern  countries. 

Extra-European  Coal-fields. 

In  Turkey,  Carboniferous  coal  is  found  at  Heraclea  in  Turkey. 
Asia  Minor,  and  has  been  worked  from  time  to  time,  but 
hitherto  without  much  influence  upon  the  coal  produce  of 
Europe.   Lignites  are  known  to  occur  near  Smyrna,  and  in 
the  Lebanon  and  various  other  points  in  Syria. 

It  is  doubtful  whether  any  Carboniferous  coal  exists  in  Africa. 
Africa.  Coal-bearing  strata,  probably  of  the  age  of  the 
New  Red  Sandstone,  the  so-called  Karoo  beds,  cover  a  con 
siderable  area,  both  in  the  Cape  Colony  and  Natal,  but 
little  is  known  of  the  details  of  the  coal-beds  beyond  state 
ments  of  the  excellence  of  the  quality  of  the  coals.  Lig 
nite  occurs  in  the  high  lands  of  Abyssinia,  and  probably  at 
numerous  other  points  in  the  interior. 

The  coal-bearing  strata  of  India  occur  in  numerous  de-  India, 
tached  basins,  which  are  widely  distributed  over  the  whole 
peninsula,  their  aggregate  area,  however,  being  but  small. 
The  principal  development  is  in  the  valley  of  the  Damodar 
river,  one  of  the  southern  tributaries  of  the  Hugli,  the 
largest  coal  field  being  that  of  Raniganj,  on  the  line  of 
th a  East  Indian  Railway,  about  140  miles  W.  of  Calcutta, 
wluch  covers  an  area  of  about  500  square  miles.  It  is  a 
basin  resting  upon  crystalline  schists,  and  partly  covered 
by  Triassic  sandstones  iu  the  centre,  and  by  jungle  and 
alluvium,  to  the  eastward,  so  that  the  real  area  is  not  yet 
known.  The  strata  are  divisible  into  three  series  as 
follows  : — 

Upper  or  Raniganj  series — coal-bearing. 

Middle  or  Ironstone  series — no  coals. 

Lower  or  Barrakur  series — coal-bearing. 


5IA.] 


C  0  A  L 


59 


The  total  thickness  may  be  from  3000  to  4000  feet ;  the 
ironstone  series  is  a  group  of  shales  containing  nodular 
ironstone  about  1500  feet  thick,  but  diminishing  westward. 
Numerous  coal  seams  are  worked  at  different  points,  but 
they  cannot  be  traced  continuously  for  more  than  a  short 
distance  without  change.  In  the  upper  series  an  average 
of  11  seams/  together  about  120  feet  thick,  are  known  in 
the  eastern  or  Raniganj  district,  and  13  seams,  together 
100  feet,  on  the  western  side.  'Occasionally  single  seams 
acquire  a  great  thickness  (from  20  to  80  feet),  but  the 
average  of  those  worked  locally  is  from  12  to  18  feet.  In 
the  lower  series,  4  seams,  together  G9  feet,  are  known.  The 
coals  are  generally  of  inferior  quality,  containing  a  con 
siderable  amount  of  ash,  and  are  non-coking  in  character. 
The  coals  of  the  lower  series  are  better,  yielding  fairly  good 
coking  and  gas  coal  at  Sanktoria,  near  the  Barrakur  River. 

A  small  coal-field  at  Kurhurbali,  near  Luckeeserai,  on 
the  East  Indian  Railway,  has  recently  been  developed  to  a 
considerable  extent  for  locomotive  purposes.  It  covers 
about  1 1  square  miles,  with  an  aggregate  of  3  seams,  vary 
ing  from  9  to  33  feet  in  thickness.  They  are  of  better 
quality  than  those  of  any  other  Indian  cool-field  at  present 
known,  and  are  of  great  value  to  the  railway,  which  is  now 
supplied  with  fuel  at  a  lower  rate  than  probably  any  other 
railway  company  in  the  world. 

There  are  several  other  coal-fields  in  Bengal,  especially 
that  at  Jherria,  near  the  sacred  mountain  of  Parisnath, 
those  south  of  Hazaribagh,  and  those  on  the  Sone  River, 
but  none  are  as  yet  developed  to  any  extent,  being  away 
from  the  great  lines  of  communication.  On  the  western 
side  of  India  the  principal  workings  are  at  Mopani,  on  the 
Nerbudda,  on  the  line  of  the  Great  Indian  Peninsular  Rail 
way,  the  coal  being  used  by  the  railway.  It  is  of  inferior 
quality,  and  the  strata  are  inclined  at  a  considerable  angle, 
rendering  the  working  difficult. 

_  In  the  Central  Provinces  a  new  coal-field  of  considerable 
extent  has  been  recently  discovered,  almost  entirely  by 
boring,  on  the  Wardha  and  Chanda  districts,  on  the  upper 
tributaries  of  the  Godaveri,  a  considerable  portion  being 
within  the  Nizam's  province  of  Berar.  It  is  probable  that 
this  may  become  one  of  the  most  important  sources  of  coal 
supply  for  Central  and  Western  India,  but  no  great  amount 
of  work  has  as  yet  been  done  upon  it. 

Besides  the  above,  there  are  several  other  known  coal 
fields,  for  details  of  which  the  reader  is  referred  to  the 
Reports  of  the  Geological  Society  of  India. 

The  age  of  the  Indian  coals  is  generally  supposed  to 
be  Permian,  the  only  fossils  that  have  been  found  in  them 
being  plants  which  are  referred  to  Permian  types  in 
Europe.  If,  however,  the  overlying  sandstones,  containing 
reptilian  fossils,  generally  reputed  to  be  of  Triassic  age, 
should,  as  seems  likely,  prove  to  be  Permian,  it  is  not 
improbable  that  the  coal-bearing  strata  may  actually  belong 
to  the  period  of  the  upper  coal  measures,  and  the  Indian 
coal-fields  would  then  be  strictly  analogous  to  the  deep 
irregular  basins  of  Southern  France  and  Central  Europe, 
with  which  they  have  many  structural  points  in  common. 
No  marine  strata,  or  anything  approximating  to  the  char 
acter  of  the  Carboniferous  limestone,  are  known  anywhere 
on  the  plains  of  India,  although  they  are  found  in  the  salt 
range  of  the  Punjab  and  in  the  Himalayas. 

The  coal-fields  of  China  are  known,  from  the  researches  of 
Baron  von  Richthofen,  Prof.  Pumpelly,  and  other  travellers, 
to  cover  a  very  large  area,  comparable  only  with  those  of 
North  America;  but,  as  may  be  imagined,  no  very  detailed 
information  has  as  yet  been  obtained  concerning  them. 
According  to  the  first-named  authority,  there  are  no 
newer  formations  than  the  Trias  in  China  other  than  alluvial 
deposits  of  enormous  thickness,  but  Palaeozoic  strata,  from 
the  Silurian  Howards,  are  developed  on  a  very  large 


scale.  Coal  of  Carboniferous  age  exists  in  Manchuria, 
mostly  in  inaccessible  mountain  valleys,  and  further  west 
all  along  the  Great  Wall.  Near  Peking  there  are  beds  95 
feet  thick,  which  supply  the  city  with  fuel.  The  most 
extensive  development  is  to  the  west  and  north-west,  on 
the  south  of  the  great  mountain  range  which  stretches 
across  Western  China,  where  there  is  an  area  of  Carboni 
ferous  strata  of  100,000  square  miles.  The  great  plain 
of  China  is  bounded  by  a  limestone  escarpment  from 
2000  to  3000  feet  high,  which  is  capped  by  a  plateau 
covered  by  30,000  square  miles  of  coal  measures,  in 
which  the  coal  seams,  30  feet  thick,  lie  perfectly  hori 
zontal  for  200  miles,  and  are  reported  to  extend  beyond 
the  frontier  into  Mongolia.  Most  of  the  localities  are,  how 
ever,  far  in  the  interior.  The  coal  of  Shantung,  though 
not  near  good  harbours,  is  the  most  accessible  of  all  Chinese 
coal  from  the  sea.  It  also  occurs  in  the  other  maritime 
provinces,  but  in  districts  offering  fewer  facilities  for  export. 
It  is  obvious,  from  the  enormous  dimensions  given  to  these 
coal-fields,  that  it  will  be  a  long  time  before  anything  like 
a  moderately  accurate  estimate  of  their  value  can  be 
obtained. 

In  Japan  coal  is  worked  at  several  points,  but  no  detailed  Japan 
account  of  the  mode  of  its  occurrence  has  been  published. 
At  the  island  of  Takasima,  near  Nagasaki,  a  colliery  is 
worked  by  the  Japanese  Government  for  the  supply  of  their 
steamers  on  a  tolerably  large  scale. 

In  the  great  islands  of  the  Indian  and  South  Pacific 
Oceans,  coal-bearing  strata  are  known  at  many  different 
points ;  but  in  the  absence  of  systematic  investigation,  no 
general  estimate  can  be  formed  of  their  position,  extent,  or 
value.  In  the  Dutch  settlements,  coal  has  been  found  in 
Sumatra  and  Borneo,  the  best  known  deposit  being  that  of  Borneo. 
Pengaron,  on  the  south-east  of  the  latter  island,  where  a  mine 
has  bsen  worked  by  the  Dutch  authorities  for  several  years. 
The  section  of  the  strata,  as  proved  by  a  level,  shows  a 
series  of  15  seams  above  1  foot  in  thickness,  together  about 
36  feet,  in  about  520  feet  of  measures,  6  of  these  having 
been  worked.  The  best  appear  to  be  somewhat  similar  to 
the  steam  coal  of  the  North  of  England.  In  the  British 
settlement  of  Labuan,  off  the  north  coast  of  Borneo,  5  Labuan. 
workable  seams,  together  about  27  feet  thick,  are  estimated 
to  cover  the  whole  island.  This  is  probably  of  Tertiary 
age,  but  approximates  in  composition  to  many  of  the  non- 
coking  coals  of  the  coal  measures.  The  Labuan  coal  is 
also  remarkable  for  containing  large  masses  of  fossil  resin. 

The  most  important  southern  coal  deposits,  however,  are  Australia 
those  of  Australia,  which  extend,  with  short  intervals,  from 
the  Gulf  of  Carpentaria  to  Bass's  Straits.  In  the  northern 
districts,  the  distribution  appears  to  be  somewhat  similar  to 
that  seen  in  South  America,  Secondary  and  Tertiary  basins 
occupying  the  ground  near  the  sea,  while  true  Carboniferous 
coal  is  found  further  inland;  but  in  New  South  Wales, 
where  their  development  is  greatest,  older  coal-bearing 
strata  extend  along  the  eastern  slope  of  the  continent,  be 
tween  the  parallels  of  29  and  35  degrees  S.  latitude,  covering 
a  very  large  area  in  several  detached  portions,  the  largest 
probably  exceeding  12,000  miles,  and  come  down  to  the  sea. 
The  principal  workings  are  situated  near  Newcastle,  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Hunter  River,  at  Wollongong,  60  miles 
south  of  Sydney,  and  at  Hartley,  about  90  miles  inland. 
The  coal  seams  vary  from  3  to  30  feet  in  thickness  Li  the 
Newcastle  district,  16  seams  above  three  feet  thick  being 
known.  The  coals  are  mainly  of  a  free-burning  class,  but 
some  are  bituminous,  giving  a  good  coke.  In  the  upper 
most  part  of  the  series  oil  shales  and  cannel  are  found.  The 
age  of  the  Australian  coal  measures  has  been  the  subject  of 
considerable  controversy.  Formerly  it  was  supposed  that 
they  were  Oolitic,  from  the  supposed  affinities  of  the  fossil 
plants ;  but  it  has  since  been  shown  that  the  coal -bearing 


COAL 


[COAL.  FIELDS. 


portions  of  the  series  are  interstratifiecl  with  marine  strata, 
containing  fossils  of  Carboniferous  and  Devonian  types.  The 
same  association  is  observed  in  the  coal  series  of  Bowen 
River  in  Queensland,  and  on  those  of  the  Mersey  River  in 
Tasmania,  showing  the  extension  of  the  Carboniferous  strata 
in  a  chain  of  detached  basins  from  the  20th  to  the  40th 
parallel  of  S.  lat,  or  about  1400  miles.  In  Queensland  the 
strata  are  estimated  to  cover  an  area  of  24,000  square  miles, 
•without  taking  into  account  possible  extension  under  the 
Cretaceous  strata  of  the  interior.  Up  to  the  present  time, 
however,  very  little  has  been  done  towards  their  develop 
ment,  the  districts  in  which  they  occur  being  too  far  from 
the  settled  portions  of  the  country.  The  principal  mines 
now  open  are  on  newer  strata  of  Cretaceous  age  nearer  the 
sea,  at  Ipswich,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Brisbane.  Some 
of  these  coals  are  remarkably  like  those  of  South  Durham, 
and  yield  a  good  hard  coke,  suitable  for  blast-furnace 
purposes. 

New  Zea-  True  coal  measures  are  not  known  to  exist  in  New  Zea 
land-  land,  but  coal-bearing  strata  of  two  different  periods  have 
been  described  by  Dr  Hector,  Dr  Haast,  Captain  Hutton, 
and  other  geologists.  The  newer  series  yield  a  lignite, 
which  is  described  in  the  reports  as  hydrous  coal ;  while 
the  older,  which  is  probably  of  Cretaceous  or  Jurassic  age, 
yields  a  superior  class  of  combustible,  known  as  anhydrous 
coal.  These  minerals  occur  at  many  different  points  in 
the  two  larger  islands,  and  although  no  systematic  detailed 
account  of  them  is  as  yet  available,  a  considerable  amount  of 
information  on  this  subject  is  contained  in  the  various  geolo 
gical  reports  published  by  the  New  Zealand  surveyors. 
North  In  North  America,  the  Carboniferous  strata  are  divided 
America,  by  geologists  into  two  principal  groups, — the  lower  or 
sub-Carboniferous,  which  correspond  to  the  Carboniferous 
limestone  of  Europe,  and  the  Carboniferous,  which  includes 
the  millstone  grit  and  coal  measures. 

The  first  of  these  is  about  5000  feet  thick  in  Penn 
sylvania,  consisting  mainly  of  shales  and  sandstones ;  but 
in  the  Mississippi  valley,  in  Illinois,  Iowa,  and  Missouri,  a 
considerable  thickness  of  limestone  is  developed  in  this 
part  of  the  series.  In  the  former  region  some  thin  coal 
seams  are  found,  the  relation  between  the  two  areas  being 
in  this  respect  similar  to  that  of  the  Carboniferous  lime 
stone  in  England  to  the  coal-bearing  formations  of  similar 
age  in  Scotland. 

The  millstone  grit  forms  a  mass  of  sandstones  and 
conglomerates  from  1200  to  1400  feet  thick  in  Eastern 
Pennsylvania,  but  thins  rapidly  to  the  westward,  being  only 
from  100  to  250  feet  thick  in  Ohio  and  Tennessee.  In 
Arkansas,  the  compact  siliceous  rock  known  as  novaculite, 
or  Arkansas  hone  stone,  occurs  in  this  member  of  the  Car 
boniferous  series. 

The  coal  measures  proper  cover  a  very  large  area,  both 
in  the  United  States  and  in  Canada.  First  in  importance  is 
the  Appalachian  coal-field,  covering  about  60,000  square 
miles,  extending  through  parts  of  Pennsylvania,  Ohio, 
Virginia,  eastern  Kentucky,  Tennessee,  and  Alabama.  The 
maximum  thickness  of  strata  is  from  2500  to  3000  feet ; 
that  of  included  coal  is  120  feet  near  Pottsville,  G2  feet  at 
Wilkesbarre,  and  about  25  feet  at  Pittsburg,  showin"  a 
gradual  diminution  to  the  westward.  The  most  persistent 
coal  is  the  Pittsburg  seam,  which  is  known  over  an  area 
measuring  225  miles  by  100  miles,  but  with  a  thickness 
varying  from  2  to  1 4  feet. 

The  anthracite  district  of  central  Pennsylvania  occupies 
an  area  of  about  G50  miles  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Susque- 
hanna  River.  The  strata  between  Pottsville  and  Wyo 
ming,  which  belong  to  the  lowest  portion  of  the  coal 
measures,  are  probably  about  3000  feet  thick,  but  it 
is  difficult  to  arrive  at  an  exact  estimate,  owing  to  the 
numerous  folds  and  contortions.  There  are  from  ten  to 


twelve  seams  above  3  feet  in  thickness ;  the  principal  one, 
known  as  the  Mammoth  or  Baltimore  vein,  is  29-|  feet 
thick  at  Wilkesbarre,  and  in  places  even  exceeds  60  feet. 

The  Illinois  and  Missouri  basin  covers  a  considerable 
part  of  these  States,  as  well  as  of  Indiana  and  Kentucky, 
Iowa,  Kansas,  and  Arkansas.  Its  area  is  estimated  at 
60,000  square  miles,  the  thickness  varying  from  600  feet 
in  Missouri  to  3000  feet  in  western  Kentucky.  The 
aggregate  thickness  of  coal  is  about  70  feet.  A  good 
furnace  coal  is  obtained  in  Indiana,  the  so-called  block 
coal  of  Brazil  near  Ind'ianopolis,  which,  like  the  splint 
coals  of  Scotland  and  those  of  Staffordshire,  can  be  used 
in  the  blast  furnace  without  coking. 

In  Michigan  a  nearly  circular  area  of  coal  measures,  of 
about  5000  square  miles,  occurs  in  the  lower  peninsula 
between  lakes  Huron  and  Erie.  The  thickness  is  only 
120  feet,  and  the  coals  unimportant. 

Other  coal-bearing  areas  of  less  value  are  known  in 
Texas  and  Rhode  Island. 

The  Carboniferous  strata  are  largely  developed  in  the 
eastern  provinces  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  notably  ic 
New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia.  The  lower  Carbonifer 
ous  group  here  consists  of  about  6000  feet  of  red  sand 
stones  and  green  marls,  with  thick  beds  of  fossiliferous 
limestones,  accompanied  by  gypsum.  The  limestones  in 
crease  in  thickness  southward.  In  this  series  occurs  the 
peculiar  pitch-like  or  asphaltic  coal  of  the  Albert  mine  in 
New  Brunswick,  of  which  an  analysis  is  given  in  Table  I., 
supra.  The  overlying  coal  measures,  including  the  mill 
stone  grit,  occupy  an  area  estimated  at  18,000  square 
miles.  The  whole  thickness  of  this  group  at  South, 
Joggins  is  about  14,750  feet,  with  76  included  coal  seams, 
together  45  feet  in  thickness,  which  are  contained  in  the 
middle  division  of  the  series.  At  Pictou  there  are  six 
seams,  together  measuring  80  feet  in  thickness.  The  coal 
measures  in  this  area  approach  more  near  to  the  great  coal 
fields  of  Europe  in  thickness  than  those  of  the  other 
American  Carboniferous  districts.  Rocks  of  Carboniferous 
age  occur  in  various  places  on  both  flanks  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  and  in  the  Arctic  Archipelago,  but  have  not  yet 
been  explored. 

Lignite-bearing  strata  of  Cretaceous  and  Tertiary  age 
occupy  a  very  considerable  area  in  the  central  and  western 
portions  of  North  America,  especially  in  the  upper 
Missouri  and  Saskatchewan  valleys,  in  Utah  and  Texas, 
and  in  California,  Oregon,  and  Vancouver  Island.  In 
the  last  locality  coal  has  been  extensively  mined  near 
Nanaimo,  on  the  east  coast,  for  several  years  past,  in  strata 
of  Cretaceous  age.  Tertiary  lignites  are  worked  in  Belling- 
ham  Bay,  at  Goose  Bay  in  Oregon,  and  at  Monte  Diabolo, 
near  San  Francisco.  The  lignitic  formations  of  the  eastern 
flank  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  which  are  considered  by 
Hayden  to  occupy  a  position  between  the  Cretaceous  and 
Eocene  Tertiary  strata,  occupy  an  area  estimated  at  about 
50,000  square  miles  within  the  United  States,  and  extend 
both  northward  into  Canada  and  southward  into  Mexico. 

In  South  America  coal,  probably  of  Carboniferous  age,  South 
is  found  in  the  Brazilian  provinces  of  Sao  Pedro,  Rio Americ 
Grande  do  Sul,  and  Santa  Catharina,  and  in  the  neighbouring 
state  of  Uraguay.  The  largest  area  is  that  known  as  the 
Candiota  coal-field,  which  is  exposed  for  about  50  miles  in 
the  valley  of  the  river  of  the  same  name.  The  sections  ex 
posed  show  5  seams  from  9  to  25  feet  each,  or  together 
about  65  feet  of  coal.  Other  basins  are  known  at  S. 
Sepe"  and  S.  Jeronimo,  on  the  Jacahahay  River.  The 
latter  is  the  only  point  at  which  mines  are  worked,  as 
the  coals,  though  thinner  than  those  of  the  other  localities 
mentioned,  are  situated  within  the  reach  of  navigable 
waters,  having  only  to  bear  a  land  carriage  of  8  miles  to 
the  river. 


MINING. 1 


COAL 


Cl 


On  the  west  coast  of  South  America,  Cretaceous  coals 
are  worked  at  Lota,  iu  Chili,  and  at  Sandy  Point,  in  the 
Straits  of  Magellan.  In  Peru  both  Secondary  and  Carboni 
ferous  coals  are  known  at  various  points  in  the  interior,  the 
former  occupying  a  position  on  the  first  rise  of  the  table 
land  of  the  Andes,  while  the  latter  occur  in  higher  ground, 
at  a  greater  distance  from  the  coast.  Good  coal  is  also 
found  at  many  points  in  the  Santa  valley. 

Much  of  the  Peruvian  coal  has  undergone  considerable 
disturbance  and  metamorphism  subsequent  to  its  deposi 
tion.  At  Porton,  45  miles  east  of  Truxillo,  a  ridge  of 
coal-bearing  sandstones  has  been  changed  into  a  hard 
quartzite,  with  an  interstratified  seam  of  anthracite  in  a 
nearly  vertical  position.  The  coal  is  remarkable  as  con 
taining  a  large  amount  of  sulphur  (see  analysis  Table  I.). 
The  hitherto  inaccessible  position  of  these  places,  which 
are  usually  more  than  10,000  feet  above  the  sea-level, 
has  prevented  the  development  of  coal-mining  in  Peru  ; 
but  the  extension  of  railways  into  the  mountains  will 
probably  bring  them  into  importance,  by  stimulating  a 
local  demand  for  fuel. 

Extent  of  existing  Workable  Coal. 

The  following  summary  of  the  amount  of  coal  estimated 
as  workable  remaining  in  the  different  districts,  which  is 
taken  from  the  report  of  the  Royal  Commission  on  coal,  and 
founded  upon  investigations  made  in  the  years  18G6-71, 
furnishes  an  approximate  measure  of  the  comparative  value, 
present  and  prospective,  of  the  different  coal-fields  of  the 
United  Kingdom.  The  quantities  represent  the  probable 
aggregate  yield  of  all  seams  above  1  foot  thick. 


Coal-Fields. 


Within  4000  feet. 
Tons. 


Coal  remaining  in  exposed  Coal-fields. 

Below  4000  feet. 
Tons. 

32,456,208,913         4,109,987,004 

265,000,000 
4,218,970,762         1,885,340,220 


South  Wales, 

Forest  of  Dean, 

Somersetshire,    

South  Staffordshire, \ 

Shropshire, f 

Forest  of  Wy  re f 

Clee  Hills, ) 

Leicestershire 

Warwickshire,  

North  Wales, 

Anglesea,  

North  Staffordshire, 

Yorkshire  and  Derbyshire, 
Yorkshire  (Oolitic,  &c.)  ... 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire,  . 
Northumberland  and 

Durham, 

Cumberland, 

Scotland, 

do        (Oolitic), 

Ireland, 


1,906,119,768 

836,798,734 

458,652,714 

2,005,000,000 

5,000,000 

3,825,488,105 

18,172,071,433 

70,000,000 

5,546,000,000 

10,036,660,236 

405,203,792 

9,839,965,930 

3,500,000 

155,600,000 


1,000,785,488 
234,728,010 

90,000,000 


90,206,240,387         7,320,840,722 

The  quantity  estimated  as  lying  above  the  workable  limit 
of  4000  feet  under  the  Permian  and  other  formations,  in  the 
central  and  northern  counties  of  England,  is  56,248,000,000 
tons,  covering  an  area  of  2044  square  miles,  in  addition 
to  which,  in  the  flat  ground  between  the  Mersey,  Denbigh 
shire,  the  North  Staffordshire  hills,  Cannock  Chase,  and 
Colebrookdule,  a  further  area  of  843  square  miles  at  inac 
cessible  depths  is  computed  to  contain — 

Between  4000  and  6000  feet,  29,341,649,067  tons. 

„         6000  ,,    10000    „     15,302,741,333     ,, 

41,144,300,400     , 
Adding  to  this  the  amount 
below  4000  feet  from  the  previous  table,     7,320,840,722     ,, 


Total  unavailable  coal, 48,465,141,122     ,, 

As  compared  with 146,454,240,387     ,, 

the  quantity  of  workable  coal,  as  made  up  of   the   two 


amounts,  90,200,240,387  and  56,248,000,000  tons,  given 
above.  From  this  it  follows  that,  out  of  the  probable  total 
quantity  of  coal  in  the  P>ritish  coal  measures,  rather  more 
than  three-fourths  may  become  available  for  consumption, 
or  about  1170  times  the  amount  of  the  present  annual  out 
put  of  125  million  tons. 

Similar  estimates  have  been  formed  for  the  coal-fields 
of  other  countries,  especially  in  France  and  Germany,  but 
it  is  doubtful  whether  the  necessary  structural  details  are 
sufficiently  well  known  to  admit  of  more  than  a  tolerably 
rough  guess  being  made. 

COAL-MINING. 

The  opening  and  laying  out,  or,  as  it  is  generally  called,  Prelimin- 
"  winning,"  of  new  collieries  is  rarely  undertaken  without  a  ary  trial 
preliminary  examination  of  the  character  of  the  strata  by  coal-work 
means  of  borings,  either  for  the  purpose   of  determining  ings' 
the  number  and  nature  of  the  coal-seams  in  new  ground, 
or  the  position  of  the  particular  seam  or  seams   which  it 
is  proposed  to  work  in  extensions  of  known  coal-fields. 


A/.3 


N.4 


The  principle  of  proving  a  mineral  field  by  boring  is 
illustrated  by  figure  3,  which  represents  a  line  direct  from 
the  dip  to  the  rise  of  the  field,  the  inclination  of  the 
strata  being  one  in  eight.  No.  1  bore  is  commenced  at 
the  dip,  and  reaches  a  seam  of  coal  A,  at  40  fathoms ;  at 
this  depth  it  is  considered  proper  to  remove  nearer  to 
the  outcrop,  so  that  lower  strata  may  be  bored  into  at  a  less 
depth,  and  a  second  bore  is  commenced.  To  find  the 
position  of  No.  2,  so  as  to  form  a  continuous  section,  it  is 
necessary  to  reckon  the  inclination  of  the  strata,  which  is 
1  in  8  :  and  as  bore  No.  1  was  40  fathoms  in  depth,  we 
multiply  the  depth  by  the  rate  of  inclination,  40  x  8  =  320 
fathoms,  which  gives  the  point  at  which  the  coal  seam  A 
should  reach  the  surface.  But  there  is  generally  a  certain 
depth  of  alluvial  cover  which  requires  to  be  deducted, 
and  which  we  call  3  fathoms,  then  (40  -  3  =  37)  x  8  =  296 
fathoms ;  or  say  286  fathoms  is  the  distance  that  the 
second  bore  should  be  placed  to  the  rise  of  the  first,  so  as 
to  have  for  certain  the  seam  of  coal  A  in  clear  connection 
with  the  seam  of  coal  B.  In  bove  No.  3,  where  the  seam 
B,  according  to  the  same  system  of  arrangement,  should 
have  been  found  at  or  near  the  surface,  another  seam  C  is 
proved  at  a  considerable  depth,  differing  in  character  and 
thickness  from  either  of  the  preceding.  This  derangement 
being  carefully  noted,  another  bore  to  the  outcrop  on  the 
same  principle  is  put  down  for  the  purpose  of  proving  the 
seam  C  ;  the  nature  of  the  strata  at  first  is  found  to  agree 
with  the  latter  part  of  that  bored  through  in  No.  3,  but 
immediately  on  crossing  the  dislocation  seen  in  the  figure 
it  is  changed,  and  the  deeper  seam  D  is  found. 

The  evidence  therefore  of  these  bores  (3  and  4)  indicates 
some  material  derangement,  which  is  then  proved  by  other 
bores,  either  towards  the  dip  or  the  outcrop,  according 
to  the  judgment  of  the  borer,  so  as  to  ascertain  the  best 
position  for  sinking  pits. 

The  methods  of  boring  are  similar  to  those  adopted  for  Methods  of 
deep  wells,  or  in  other  departments  of  mining.     For  shal-  boring. 


U  O  A  L 


[MINING. 


low  bores,  the  boring  is  generally  with  wrought  iron  rods 
screwed  together  in  lengths,  armed  with  a  cutting  chisel 
and  workin^  by  percussion,  the  tool  being  lifted  by  hand 
and  allowed  to  fall  with  its  full  weight  upon  the  rock. 
The  pounded  material  is  removed  at  intervals,  by  substi 
tuting  a  shell  pump  or  tube  with  valves  at  the  bottom, 
whose  action  is  similar  to  that  of  the  foot  valves  of  an 
ordinary  lifting  pump.  The  sludge  brought  to  the  sur 
face  indicates  the  nature  of  the  ground  passed  through. 
In  very  deep  borings,  however,  the  use  of  rigid  rods  and 
fixed  tools  is  found  to  present  two  serious  evils,  namely, 
the  excessive  weight  on  the  tool  caused  by  the  increased 
length  of  the  rods,  and  the  great  length  of  time  required 
to  withdraw  the  tool  and  remove  the  detritus.  The  first 
of  these  difficulties  has  been  overcome  by  the  _use  of  the 
free  falling  cutters,  where  the  tool,  instead  of  being  attached 
rigidly  to"  the  rod,  moves  in  a  guide-block  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  be  lifted  with  the  rods,  falling  freely  when 
the  top  of  the  stroke  is  reached.  The  rods,  when  lowered, 
pick  up  the  tool  at  the  bottom  of  the  hole  in  readiness 
for  the  next  lift.  By  this  means  the  momentum  of  the 
tool  is  kept  constant  whatever  may  be  the  weight  of  rods 
employed. 

The  use  of  a  wire  rope  winding  on  a  drum,  instead  of 
rods  for  suspending  the  boring  tool,  allows  the  latter  to  be 
withdrawn  and  replaced  with  much  greater  rapidity  than  can 
be  done  with  rods.  This  method  has  been  very  successfully 
adopted  by  Messrs  Mather  &  Platt  of  Salford.  But  perhaps 
the  best  methods  of  expeditious  boring  are  those  (Fauvelle's) 
whereby  the  detritus  is  removed  as  it  forms  by  con 
tinuously  flushing  out  the  hole  with  water,  hollow  rods 
being  used  down  which  the  water  flows  while  it  rises  through 
the  annular  space  between  the  rod  and  the  lining  tube  of 
the  bore  hole.  This  has  the  advantage  of  giving  a  clear 
surface  for  the  tool  to  cut  on,  instead  of  its  having  to  work 
through  its  own  sludge,  as  is  the  case  when  the  shell  pump 
is  only  used  at  intervals.  Of  late  years  the  value  of  boring 
for  exploratory  purposes  has  been  much  increased  by  the 
adoption  of  tubular  or  crown  borers,  which  cut  out  an  annu 
lar  groove,  leaving  a  core  of  unbroken  rock  in  the  centre, 
which  is  then  brought  out  by  a  grapnel  in  a  solid  piece. 
One  of.  the  m^st  successful  of  these  methods  is  that  due  to 
Leschot  of  Geneva,  where  a  rotating  cutter,  armed  with 
amorphous  black  diamond,  the  hardest  known  substance, 
is  used,  the  detritus  being  continuously  removed  by  water 
on  Fauvelle's  plan.  The  machinery  adopted  for  this  pur 
pose,  as  modified  by  Messrs  Beaumont  &  Appleby.  has  been 
employed  with  great  success  to  bore  holes  exceeding  2000 
feet  in  depth. 

Methods  of  The  working  of  coal  may  be  conducted  either  by  means 
working,  of  levels  or  galleries  driven  from  the  outcrop  in  a  valley,  or 
by  shafts  or  pits  sunk  from  the  surface.  In  the  early  days 
of  coal  mining,  open  working,  or  quarrying  from  the  out 
crop  of  the  seams,  was  practised  to  a  considerable  extent ; 
but  there  are  now  few  if  any  places  in  England  where 
this  can  be  done.  In  1873  there  could  be  seen,  in  the  thick 
coal  seams  of  Bengal,  near  Raniganj,  a  seam  about  50 
feet  thick  laid  bare,  over  an  area  of  several  acres,  by 
stripping  off  a  superficial  covering  varying  from  10  to  30 
feet,  in  order  to  remove  the  whole  of  tbe  coal  without  loss 
by  pillars.  Such  a  case,  however,  is  quite  exceptional. 
The  operations  by  which  the  coal  is  reached  and  laid  out 
for  removal  are  known  as  "winning,"  the  actual  working 
or  extraction  of  the  coal  being  termed  "getting."  In 
the  accompanying  figure,  No.  4,  A  B  is  a  cross  cut-level,  by 
which  the  seams  of  coal  1  and  2  are  won,  and  C  D  a  ver 
tical  shaft  by  which  the  seams  1,  2,  and  3  are  won.  When 
the  field  is  won  by  the  former  method,  the  coal  lying  above 
the  level  is  said  to  be  "  level-free."  The  mode  of  winning 
by  level  is  of  less  general  application  than  that  by  shafts° 


as  the  capacity  for  production  is  less,  owing  to  the  smaller 
size  of  roadways  by  which  the  coal  must  be  brought  to  the 


Fig.  4. 

surface,  levels  of  large  section  being  expensive  and  difficult 
to  keep  open  when  the  mine  has  been  for  some  time  at 
work.  Shafts,  on  the  other  hand,  may  be  made  of  almost 
any  capacity,  owing  to  the  high  speed  in  drawing  which 
is  attainable  with  proper  mechanism,  and  allow  of  the 
use  of  more  perfect  arrangements  at  the  surface  than  can 
usually  bo  adopted  at  the  mouth  of  a  level  on  a  hill  side. 
A  more  cogent  reason,  however,  is  to  be  found  in  the  fact 
that  the  principal  coal-fields  are  in  flat  countries,  and  where 
the  coal  can  only  be  reached  by  vertical  sinking. 

The  methods  adopted  in  driving  levels  for  collieries  are 
generally  similar  to  those  adopted  in  other  mines.  The 
ground  is  secured  by  timbering,  or  more  usually  by  arching 
in  masonry  or  brick- work.  Levels  like  that  in  fig.  4,  which 
are  driven  across  the  stratification,  or  generally  anywhere  not 
in  coal,  are  known  as  "  stone  drifts."  The  sinking  of  colliery 
shafts,  however,  differs  considerably  from  that  of  other  mines, 
owing  to  their  generally  large  size,  and  the  difficulties  that 
are  often  encountered  from  water  during  the  sink  in  sc.  The 

O  O 

actual  coal  measure  strata,  consisting  mainly  of  shales 
and  clays,  are  generally  impervious  to  water,  but  when 
strata  of  a  permeable  character  are  sunk  through,  such  as 
the  magnesian  limestone  of  the  north  of  England,  the 
Permian  sandstones  of  the  central  countries,  or  the  chalk 
and  greensand  in  the  north  of  France  and  Westphalia, 
special  methods  are  required  in  order  to  pass  the  water 
bearing  beds,  and  to  protect  the  shaft  and  workings  from 
the  influx  of  water  subsequently.  Of  these  methods  one 
of  the  chief  is  the  plan  of  tubbing,  or  lining  the  excava 
tion  with  an  impermeable  casing  of  wood  or  iron,  gene 
rally  the  latter,  which  is  built  up  in  segments  forming 
rings,  that  are  piled  upon  each  other  throughout  the 
whole  depth  of  the  water-bearing  strata.  This  method 
necessitates  the  use  of  very  considerable  pumping  power 
during  the  sinking,  as  the  water  has  to  be  kept  down  in 
order  to  allow  the  sinkers  to  reach  a  water-tight  stratum 
upon  which  the  foundation  of  the  tubbing  can  be  placed. 
This  consists  in  a  heavy  cast-iron  ring,  known  as  a 
wedging  crib,  or  curb,  also  fitted  together  in  segments, 
which  is  lodged  in  a  square-edged  groove  cut  for  its  recep 
tion,  tightly  caulked  with  moss,  and  wedged  into  posi 
tion.  Upon  this  the  tubbing  is  built  up  in  segments, 
usually  from  10  to  12  being  required  for  the  entire  cir 
cumference,  the  edges  being  made  perfectly  true.  The 
thickness  varies  according  to  the  pressure  expected,  but 
may  be  taken  at  from  f  to  1|  inches.  The  inner  face  is 
smooth,  but  the  back  is  strengthened  with  angle  brackets 
at  the  corners.  A  small  hole  is  left  in  the  centre  of  each 
segment,  which  is  kept  open  during  the  fitting  to  prevent 
undue  pressure  upon  any  one,  but  is  stopped  as  soon  as  the 
circle  is  completed.  In  the  north  of  France  and  Belgium 
wooden  tubbings,  built  of  polygonal  rings,  were  at  one  time 
in  gc.ieral  use.  The  polygons  adopted  were  of  20  or  more 
sides  approximating  to  a  circular  form. 

The  second  principal  method  of  sinking  through  water 
bearing  ground  is  that  which  was  first  adopted  by  M. 


Sinking 
shafts . 


Pnenma- 

sinking. 


MIXING. 


C  0  A  L 


Trigor,  in  France,  and  has  also  been  used  by  civil 
engineers  in  putting  down  deep  foundations  for  bridge 
piers,  namely,  by  compressed  air.  The  shaft  is  lined  with 
a  cylinder  of  "wrought  iron,  within  which  a  tubular  cham 
ber,  provided  with  doors  above  and  below,  known  as  an 
air-lock,  is  fitted  by  a  telescopic  joint,  which  is  tightly 
packed  so  as  to  close  the  top  of  the  shaft  air-tight.  Air  is 
then  forced  into  the  inclosed  space  by  means  of  a  compressing 
engine,  until  the  pressure  is  sufficient  to  oppose  the  flow 
of  water  into  the  excavation,  and  to  drive  out  any  that 
may  collect  in  the  bottom  of  the  shaft  through  a  pipe 
which  is  carried  through  the  air-sluice  to  the  surface.  The 
miners  work  in  the  bottom  in  the  same  manner  as  divers 
in  an  -  ordinary  diving-bell.  Access  to  the  surface  is 
obtained  through  the  double  doors  of  the  air  sluice,  the  pres 
sure  being  reduced  to  that  of  the  external  atmosphere 
when  it  is  desired  to  open  the  upper  door,  and  increased  to 
that  of  the  working  space  below  when  it  is  intended  to 
communicate  with  the  sinkers,  or  to  raise  the  stuff  broken 
in  the  bottom.  This  method  has  been  adopted  in  various 
sinkings  on  the  Continent.  At  Bracquenie,  near  Mons, 
the  miners  worked  in  an  atmosphere  up  to  45  !b  pressure 
on  the  square  inch,  without  experiencing  any  great  difficulty, 
but  they  were  found  to  be  more  susceptible  to  pulmonary 
disorder  upon  changes  of  weather  than  those  who  worked 
under  the  ordinary  conditions  of  pressure. 

The  third  method  of  sinking  through  water-bearing 
strata  is  that  of  boring,  adopted  by  Messrs  Kind  &  Chau- 
dron  in  Belgium  and  Germany.  For  this  purpose  a  horizon 
tal  bar  armed  with  vertical  cutting  chisels  is  used,  which 
cuts  out  the  whole  section  of  the  shaft  simultaneously.  In 
the  first  instance,  a  smaller  cutting  frame  is  used,  boring 
a  hole  from  3  to  5  feet  in  diameter,  which  is  kept  some  50  or 
GO  feet  in  advance,  so  as  to  receive  the  detritus,  which  is 
removed  by  a  shell  pump  of  large  size.  The  large  trepan 
or  cutter  weighs  about  16  tons,  and  cuts  a  hole  of  from 
9  to  15  feet  in  diameter.  The  water-tight  lining  may  be 
either  a  wrought  iron  tube,  which  is  pressed  down  by  jack 
screws  as  the  bore  hole  advances,  or  cast-iron  tubbing  put 
together  in  short  complete  rings,  in  contradistinction  to 
the  old  plan  of  building  them  up  of  segments.  The 
tubbing,  which  is  considerably  less  in  diameter  than  the 
bore  hole,  is  suspended  by  rods  from  the  surface  until  a  bed 
suitable  for  a  foundation  is  reached,  upon  which  a  sliding 
length  of  tube,  known  as  the  moss  box,  bearing  a  shoulder, 
which  is  filled  with  dried  moss,  is  placed.  The  whole 
weight  of  the  tubbing  is  made  to  bear  on  the  moss,  which 
squeezes  outwards,  forming  a  completely  water-tight  joint. 
The  interval  between  the  back  of  the  tubbing  and  the  sides 
of  the  bore  hole  is  then  filled  up  with  concrete,  which  on 
setting  fixes  the  tubbing  firmly  in  position. 

The  introduction  of  these  special  methods  has  consider 
ably  simplified  the  problem  of  sinking  through  water-bear 
ing  strata.  Some  of  the  earlier  sinkings  of  this  kind,  when 
pumps  had  to  be  depended  on  for  keeping  down  the  water, 
were  conducted  at  great  cost,  as,  for  instance,  at  South 
Hetton,  and  more  recently  Ryhope,  near  Sunderland, 
through  the  magnesian  limestone  of  Durham. 

The  size  and  form  of  colliery  shafts  varies  in  different  dis 
tricts,  but  the  tendency  is  now  generally  to  make  them 
round,  and  from  12  to  15  feet  in  diameter.  In  the  Midland 
counties,  from  7  to  9  feet  is  a  very  common  size,  but  larger 
dimensions  are  adopted  where  a  large  production  is  re 
quired.  At  Bagillt,  on  the  Dee,  a  shaft  of  22  feet  in 
diameter  was  commenced  a  few  years  ago,  but  was  reduced 
in  diameter  a  short  distance  down.  Since  the  accident  at 
Hartley  colliery,  caused  by  the  breaking  of  the  pumping 
engine  beam,  which  fell  into  the  shaft  and  blocked  it  up, 
whereby  the  whole  company  of  men  in  the  mine  were 
starved  to  death — it  has  been  made  compulsory  upon 


mine  owners  to  have  two  pits  for  each  working,  in  place 
of  the  single  one  divided  by  walls  or  brattices  which  was 
formerly  thought  sufficient.  Ths  use  of  two  indepen 
dent  connections — whether  separate  pits  or  sections  of  the 
same  pit,  between  the  surface  and  the  workings — is  neces 
sary  for  the  service  of  the  ventilation, — fresh  air  from  the 
surface  being  carried  down  one,  known  as  the  "  downcast," 
while  the  foul  or  return  air  of  the  mine  rises  through  the 
other  or  "  upcast"  pit  back  to  the  surface.  Where  the  mine  is 
heavily  watered,  it  is  often  necessary  to  establish  a  special 
engine  pit,  with  pumps  permanently  fixed,  or  a  division  of 
one  of  the  pits  may  be  devoted  to  this  purpose.  The  use 
of  direct-acting  high-pressure  pumping  engines  placed  at 
the  bottom  of  the  shaft  has  become  common  during  the  last 
ten  years.  They  have  the  advantage  of  doing  away  with  the 
heavy  reciprocating  rod  from  the  engine  at  the  surface,  and 
may  be  worked  either  by  steam  pipes  carried  down  the  pit, 
or,  what  is  now  more  common,  by  boilers  underground, 
which  supply  also  steam  for  the  underground  hauling 
engines.  Where  the  water  does  not  accumulate  very 
rapidly  'it  is  a  very  common  practice  to  allow  it  to  collect 
in  a  pit  or  sump  below  the  working  bottom  of  the  shaft, 
and  to  draw  it  off  in  a  water  tub  or  bucket  by  the  main 
engine,  when  tlie  latter  is  not  employed  in  raising  coal. 

The  laying  out  of  a  colliery,  after  the  coal  has  been  won,  Laying  out 
by  sinkings  or  levels,  may  be  accomplished  in  various  ways,  workings. 
according  to  the  nature  of  the  coal,  its  thickness  and  dip,  and 
the  extent  of  ground  to  be  worked.  In  the  South  Stafford 
shire  and  other  Midland  coal-fields,  where  only  shallow  pits 
are  required,  and  the  coals  are  thick,  a  pair  of  pits  may  be 
sunk  for  a  very  few  acres,  while  in  the  North  of  England, 
on  the  other  hand,  where  sinking  is  expensive,  an  area  of 
some  thousands  of  acres  may  be  commanded  from  the 
same  number  of  pits.  In  the  latter  case,  which  represents 
the  most  approved  practice,  the  sinking  is  usually  placed 
about  the  centre  of  the  ground,  so  that  the  workings  may 
radiate  in  every  direction  from  the  pit  bottom,  with  the 
view  of  employing  the  greatest  number  of  hands  to  ad 
vantage.  Where  a  large  area  cannot  be  commanded,  it  is 
best  to  sink  to  the  lowest  point  of  the  field  for 
the  convenience  of  drawing  the  coal  and  water  which 
become  level-free  in  regard  to  the  pit.  Where  properties 
are  much  divided,  it  is  always  necessary  to  maintain  a 
thick  barrier  of  unwrought  coal  between  the  boundary  of 
the  mine  and  the  neighbouring  workings,  especially  if  the 
latter  are  to  the  dip.  If  a  prominent  line  of  fault  crosses 
the  area,  it  may  usually  be  a  convenient  division  of  the 
field  into  sections  or  districts.  The  first  process  in  laying 
out  the  workings  consists  in  driving  a  gallery  on  the  level 
along  the  course  of  the  coal  seam,  which  is  known  as  a  "  dip 
head  level,"  and  a  lower  parallel  one,  in  which  the  water 
collects,  known  as  a  "  lodgment  level."  Galleries  driven  at 
right  angles  to  these  are  known  as  "  dip  "  or  "  rise  headings," 
according  to  their  position  above  or  below  the  pit  bottom. 
In  Staffordshire  the  main  levels  are  also  known  as  "gate 
roads."  To  secure  the  perpendicularity  of  the  shaft,  it  is 
necessary  to  leave  a  large  mass  or  pillar  of  the  seam  un 
touched  around  the  pit  bottom.  This  pillar  is  known  in 
Scotland  as  the  "  pit  bottom  stoop."  The  junction  of  the 
levels  with  the  pit  is  known  as  the  "  pit  eye ; "  it  is  usually 
of  an  enlarged  section,  and  lined  with  masonry  or  brick 
work,  so  as  to  afford  room  for  handling  the  waggons  or 
trams  of  coal  brought  from  the  working  faces.  In  this 
portion  of  the  pit  are  generally  placed  the  furnaces  for 
ventilation,  and  the  boilers  required  for  working  steam- 
engines  underground,  as  well  as  the  stables  and  lamp  cabin. 

Figs.  5  and  G  represent  the  pit  bottom  arrangements 
at  Cambois  colliery  in  Northumberland,  which  are  of  an  ex 
tremely  commodious  character.  There  are  four  large 
Cornish  boilers,  supplying  steam  to  the  engines  drawing 


coals  from  the  workings,  as  well  as  to  a  direct-acting  pump 
ing  engine,  the  flame  and  smoke  being  discharged  by  drifts 
into  the  upcast  pit.  For  the  purpose  of  handling  large 
pieces  of  machinery  and  boilers,  the  level  at  the  bottom  is 
increased  to  a  chamber  18  feet  high,  and  roofed  with 
rolled  iron  girders  of  a  double  T  section.  To  protect  the 
fillers  working  at  the  bottom,  strong  diagonal  guard  timbers 
are  placed  at  S  in  order  to  deflect  any  materials  falling 
down  the  shaft,  and  prevent  them  falling  into  the  work 
ings.  This  is  an  unusually  large  example,  but  is  taken 
from  a  pit  in  the  highest  state  of  development,  and  making 
a  very  large  daily  outturn. 


Fia.  5. — Pit  eye,  Gambols  Colliery — Vertical  Section. 

Method  of       The  removal  of  the  coal  after  the  roads  have  been  driven 
working      may  be  effected  in  many  different  ways,  according  to  the 

out  coal. 


Pillar 

working. 


FIG.  6. — Pit  bottom  arrangements,  Cambois  Colliery 

custom  of  the  district,  These  may,  however,  all  be  con 
sidered  as  modifications  of  two  systems  viz.,  pillar  work 
and  long-wall  work,  In  the  former,  which  is  also  known 
as  "port  and  stall"  or  "  bord  and  pillar"  in  the  north  of 
England,  "pillar  and  stall"  in  South  Wales,  and  "stoop 
and  room  "  in  Scotland,  the  field  is  divided  into  strips  by 
numerous  openings  driven  parallel  to  the  main  rise  head 
ings,  called  "  bords "  or  "  bord  gates,"  which  are  again 
divided  by  cutting  through  them  at  intervals,  so  as  to 
leave  a  series  of  pillars  arranged  chequer-wise  over  the 
entire  area.  These  pillars  are  left  for  the  support  of  the 
roof  as  the  workings  advanc.3,  so  as  to  keep  the  mine  open 
and  free  from  waste.  Fig.  1,  Plate  III.  represents  the  oldest 
form  of  this  class  of  working  as  practised  in  Scotland,  from 
which  it  will  be  seen  that  if  the  size  of  the  pillar  is  equal 
to  tho  wiilth  of  the  stall  or  excavation,  about  f  of  the 


[MINING. 

whole  seam  will  be  removed,  the  remainder  being  left  in 
the  pillars.  A  portion  of  this  may  be  got  by  the  process 
known  as  robbing  the  pillars,  but  the  coal  so  obtained  is 
liable  to  be  very  much  crushed  from  the  pressure  of  the 
superincumbent  strata.  This  crushing  may  take  place 
either  from  above  or  below,  producing  what  are  known  as 
"  creeps  "  or  "  sits." 

A  coal  seam  with  a  soft  pavement  and  a  hard  roof  is 
the  most  subject  to  a  "  creep."  The  first  indication  is  a 
dull  hollow  sound  heard  when  treading  on  the  pavement  or 
floor,  probably  occasioned  by  some  of  the  individual 
layers  parting  from  each  other  as  shown  at  a  fig.  7  ; 


FIG.  7. — "  Creeps"  in  Coal-Mines. 

the  succeeding  stages  of  creep  are  shown  at  b,  c,  d,  f,  and 
g,  in  the  same  figure ;  the  last  being  the  final  stage,  when 
the  coal  begins  to  sustain  the  pressure  from  the  overlying 
strata,  in  common  with  the  disturbed  pavement. 

"  Sits  "  are  the  reverse  of  creeps ;  in  the  one  case  the 
pavement  is  forced  up,  and  in  the  other  the  roof  is  forced 
or  falls  down,  for  want  of  proper  support  or  tenacity  in 
itself.  This  accident  generally  arises  from  an  improper 
size  of  pillars  ;  some  roofs,  however,  are  so  difficult  to 
support  that  sits  take  place  where  the  half  of  the  coal  is 
left  in  pillars. 

Fig.  8  will  convey  a  general  idea  of  the  appearance  of 
sits, — k,  m,  n  showing  different  stages. 


FIG.  8. — "  Sits  "  in  Mines. 

The  modern  method  of  pillar  working  is  shown  in  Plate 
IV.  In  the  Northumberland  steam-coal  district,  where  it 
is  carried  out  in  the  most  perfect  manner,  the  boards  are 
5  to  6  yards  in  width,  while  the  pillars  are  22  yards  broad 
and  30  yards  long,  which  are  subsequently  got  out  on 
coming  back.  In  the  same  figure  is  also  shown  the  method 
of  working  whole  coal  and  pillars  at  the  same  time,  a  barrier 
of  two  or  three  ranges  of  pillars  or  a  rib  of  solid  coal  being 
left  between  the  working  in  the  solid  and  those  in  the 
pillars.  The  space  from  which  the  entire  quantity  of 
coal  has  been  removed  is  known  in  different  districts  as  the 
"goaf,"  "gob,"  or  "  waste." 

Fig.  9  represents  the  Lancashire  system  of  pillar- 
working.  The  area  is  laid  out  by  two  pairs  of  level  drifts, 
parallel  to  each  other,  about  150  yards  apart,  which 
are  carried  to  the  boundary.  About  100  yards  back  from 
the  boundary  a  communication  is  made  between  these 
levels,  from  which  other  levels  are  driven  forward,  dividing 
the  coal  into  ribs  of  about  25  or  30  yards  wide,  which  are 
then  cut  back  by  taking  off  the  coal  in  slices  from  the  level 
tov  ards  the  rise  in  breadths  of  about  six  yards.  By  this 
method  the  whole  of  the  coal  is  got  backwards,  the  main 
roads  being  kept  in  solid  coal ;  the  intermediate  levels  not 
being  driven  till  they  are  wanted,  a  greater  amount  cf  sup- 


VOL 


COAL 


pj.ATi;nr 


BOK..H9    ATSTU    BANKS 


HJtFBKEXVE  '''•': 
c     I      Jnors 

Mappings, 
lir  crossing. 

-tinn  nl' air  current 


fy.J. 
PILLAR    WORKING 


ENCYCLOP/tDIA    BRITANNICA,   NINTH     EDITION 


MODES   OF   WORKING.] 


COAL 


65 


port    is   given,  and  the  pillars  are  less  crushed    than  is 
usual  in  pillar  working. 


,:    8   0  U   N    D    A    R  Y 

Fio.  9. — Lancashire  method  of  working  Coal 

In  the  South  Wales  system  of  working,  cross  headings  are 
driven  from  the  main  roads  obliquely  across  the  rise  to  get 
a  sufficiently  easy  gradient  for  horse  roads,  and  from 
these  the  stalls  are  opened  out  with  a  narrow  entrance,  in 
order  to  leave  support  on  either  side  of  the  road,  but  aftsr- 
wards  widening  to  as  great  a  breadth  as  the  seam  will 
allow,  leaving  pillars  of  a  minimum  thickness.  The  cha 
racter  of  such  workings  is  very  irregular  in  plan,  and  as  the 
ventilation  is  attended  with  considerable  difficulty,  it  is  now 
becoming  generally  superseded  by  more  improved  methods. 

The  second  great  principle  of  working  is  that  known  as 
long-wall  or  long-work,  in  which  the  coal  is  taken  away 
either  in  broad  faces  from  roads  about  40  or  50  yards 
apart  and  parallel  to  each  other,  or  along  curved  faces 
between  roads  radiating  from  the  pit  bottom — the  essential 
feature  in  both  cases  being  the  removal  of  the  whole  of 
the  coal  at  once,  without  first  sub-dividing  it  into  pillars, 
to  be  taken  away  at  a  second  working.  The  roof  is  tem 
porarily  supported  by  wooden  props  or  pack  walling  of  stone, 
for  a  sufficient  breadth  along  the  face  to  protect  the  work 
men,  and  allow  them  to  work  together  behind.  The  general 
character  of  a  long- wall  working  is  shown  iu  fig.  10,  which 


Fid.  10. — Long-will  method  of  working  Coal  in  Derbyshire. 

represents  an  area  of  about  500  acres  of  the  bottom  hard 
steam  coal  at  Shipley  in  Derbyshire.  The  principal  road 
extends  from  the  shafts  southward ;  and  on  both  sides  of 
it  the  coal  has  been  removed  from  the  light-shaded  area  by 
cutting  it  back  perpendicularly  towards  the  boundaries, 
along  faces  about  50  yards  in  length,  those  nearest  to  the 
shaft  being  kept  in  advance  of  those  farther  away,  pro 
ducing  a  step-shaped  outline  to  the  face  of  the  whole  coal. 
It  will  be  seen  that  by  this  method  the  whole  of  the  seam, 
with  the  exception  of  the  pillars  left  to  protect  the  main 
roadways,  is  removed.  The  roads  for  drawing  the  coal  from 


the  working  faces  to  the  shaft  are  kept  open  by  walling 
through  the  waste  or  goaf  produced  by  the  fall  of  the  un 
supported  roof.  The  straight  roads  are  the  air-ways  for 
carrying  pure  air  from  the  down-cast  shaft  to  the  working 
faces,  while  the  return  air  passes  along  the  faces  and  back 
to  the  up-cast  by  the  curved  road.  The  above  is  the  method 
of  working  long-wall  forward,  i.e.,  taking  the  coal  iu 
advance  from  the  pit  towards  the  boundary,  with  roads 
kept  open  through  the  gob.  Another  method  consists  in 
driving  towards  the  boundary,  and  taking  the  coal  back 
ward  towards  the  shafts,  or  working  homeward,  allowing 
the  waste  to  close  up  without  roads  having  to  be  kept 
open  through  it.  This  is  of  course  preferable,  but  is  only 
applicable  where  the  owner  of  the  mine  can  afford  to 
expend  the  capital  required  to  reach  the  limit  of  the  field 
in  excess  of  that  necessary  when  the  raising  of  coal  pro 
ceeds  pari  passu  with  the  extension  of  the  main  roads. 
Fig.  9  is  substantially  a  modification  of  this  kind  of  long- wall 
work.  Plate  III.  fig  2,  represents  a  method  of  working  prac 
tised  in  the  South  Yorkshire  district,  known  as  bords  and  South 
banks.  The  field  is  divided  by  levels  and  headings  into  Yorks 
rectangular  banks,  while  from  the  main  levels  bords  or  method- 
wickets  about  30*  yards  wide,  separated  from  each  other  by 
banks  of  about  the  same  width,  are  carried  forward  in  long- 
wall  work,  as  shown  on  the  left  side  of  the  figure,  the  waste 
being  carefully  packed  behind  so  as  to  secure  the  ventila 
tion.  When  these  have  been  worked  up  to  the  extremity, 
as  shown  on  the  right  side,  the  intermediate  bank  is 
removed  by  working  backward  towards  the  level.  This 
system,  therefore,  combines  both  methods  of  long-wall 
working,  but  is  not  generally  applicable,  owing  to  the  diffi 
culty  of  ventilation,  due  to  the  great  length  of  air-way  that 
has  to  be  kept  open  around  the  waste  on  each  bank. 

The  relative  advantages  of  the  different  methods  may  be 
generally  stated  as  follows.  Long-wall  work  is  best  suited 
for  thin  coals,  and  those  having  a  good  roof,  i.e.,  one  that 
gives  way  gradually  and  fills  up  the  excavation  made  by 
removing  the  coal  without  scaling  off  suddenly  and  falling 
into  the  working  faces,  when  practically  the  whole  of  the 
coal  may  be  removed.  Against  these  advantages  must  be 
placed  the  difficulties  attending  the  maintenance  of  roads 
through  the  goaves,  and  in  some  cases  the  large  proportion 
of  slack  to  round  or  large  coal  obtained.  Pillar  working,  in 
the  whole  coal,  is  generally  reputed  to  give  a  more  advan 
tageous  proportion  of  round  coal  to  slack,  the  latter  being 
more  abundantly  produced  on  the  removal  of  the  pillars,  but 
as  these  form  only  a  small  portion  of  the  whole  seam,  the 
general  yield  is  more  advantageous  than  in  the  former 
method.  The  ventilation  of  pillar  working  is  often  attended 
with  difficulty,  and  the  coal  "is  longer  exposed  to  the  influ 
ence  of  the  air,  a  point  of  importance  in  some  coals,  which 
deteriorate  in  quality  when  exposed  to  a  hot  damp  atmo 
sphere.  The  great  increase  in  the  size  of  the  pillars  in 
the  best  modern  collieries  worked  upon  this  principle  has, 
however,  done  much  to  approximate  the  two  systems  to  an 
equality  in  other  respects. 

The  working  of  very  thick  seams  presents  certain  special  Working 
peculiarities,  owing  to  the  difficulties  of  supporting  the  roof  tnick 
in  the  excavated  portions,  and  supplying  fresh  air  to  the  sc 
workings.     The  most  typical  example  of  this  kind  of  work 
ing  in  England  is  afforded  by  the  thick  coal  of  South 
Staffordshire,  which  consists  of  a  series  of  closely  associated 
coal  seams,  varying  from  8  to  12  or  13,  divided  from  each 
other  by  their  partings,  but  making  together  one  great  bed 
of  from  25  to  40  feet  or  more  in  thickness.     The  partings 
together  do  not  amount  to  more  than   2  or  3  feet.     The 
method  of  working  which  has  been  long  in  use  is  repre 
sented  in  fig.  11.     The  main  level  or  gate  road  is  driven 
in  the  benches   coal,   or  lower  part  of  the  seam,  while  a 
smaller   drift   for  ventilation,   called   an   air   heading,   is 

VI  -  9 


f)f> 


(J  0  A  L 


[MINING. 


carried  above  it  in  one  of  the  upper  beds  called  the  slipper 
coal  From  the  gate  road  a  heading  called  a  bolt-hole  is 
opened,  and  extended  into  a  large  rectangular  chamber, 
known  as  a  "  side  of  work,"  large  pillars  being  left  at  regular 


Fro.  11.— South  Staffordshire  method  of  working  Thick  Coal. 


intervals,  besides  smaller  ones  or  cogs.  The  order  in  which 
the  coal  is  cut  is  shown  in  the  dotted  and  numbered  squares 
in  the  figure.  The  coal  is  first  cut  to  the  top  of  the  slipper 
coal  from  below,  after  which  the  upper  portion  is  either 
broken  down  by  wedging  or  falls  of  itself.  The  working  of 
these  upper  portions  is  exceedingly  dangerous,  owing  to  the 
great  height  of  ths  excavations,  and  fatal  accidents  from 
falls  of  roof  are  in  consequence  more  common  in  South 
Staffordshire  than  in  any  other  coal-field  in  this  country. 
The  air  from  the  down-cast  shaft  enters  from  the  gate  road, 
and  passes  to  the  up-cast  through  the  air  heading  above. 
About  one-half  of  the  total  coal  (or  less)  is  obtained  in  the 
first  working ;  the  roof  is  then  allowed  to  fall,  and  when 
the  gob  is  sufficiently  consolidated,  fresh  roads  are  driven 
through  it  to  obtain  the  ribs  and  pillars  left  behind  by  a 
second  or  even,  in  some  cases,. a  third  working.  The  loss 
of  coal  by  this  method  is  very  considerable,  besides  great 
risk  to  life  and  danger  from  fire.  It  has,  therefore,  been 
to  some  extent  superseded  by  the  long-wall  method,  the 
upper  half  being  taken  at  the  first  working,  and  removed  as 
completely  as  possible,  working  backwards  from  the  bound 
aries  to  the  shaft.  The  lower  half  is  then  taken  in  the 
same  manner,  after  the  fallen  roof  has  become  sufficiently 
consolidated  to  allow  the  mine  to  be  re-opened. 

In  the  working  of  thick  seams  inclined  at  a  high  angle, 
such  as  those  in  the  south  of  France,  and  in  the  lignite 
mines  of  Styria  and  Bohemia,  the  method  of  working  in 
horizontal  slices,  about  12  or  15  feet  thick,  and  filling  up 
the  excavation  with  broken  rock  and  earth  from  the  sur 
face,  is  now  generally  adopted  in  preference  to  the  systems 
formerly  used.  At  Monceaux  les  Mines,  in  France,  a  seam 
40  fe<:t  thick,  and  dipping  at  an  angle  of  20  degrees,  is 
worked  in  the  following  manner.  A  level  is  driven  in  a 
sandstone  forming  the  floor,  along  the  course  of  the  coal, 
into  which  communications  are  made  by  cross  cuts  at 
intervals  of  16  yards,  which  are  driven  across  to  the  roof, 
dividing  up  the  area  to  be  worked  into  panels-  These  are 
worked  backwards,  the  coal  being  taken  to  a  height  of 
20  feet,  the  opening  being  packed  up  with  stone  sent  down 
from  the  surface.  As  each  stage  is  worked  out,  the  floor 
level  is  connected  with  that  next  below  it  by  means  of  an 
incline,  which  facilitates  the  introduction  of  the  packing 
material.  Stuff  containing  a  considerable  amount  of  clay 
is  found  to  be  the  best  suited  for  the  purpose  of  filling,  at 
it  consolidates  readily  under  pressure 


The  actual  cutting  of  the  coal  is  chiefly  performed  by  Method 
manual  labour,  the  tool  employed  being  a  sharp-pointed  of  cutti 
double-armed  pick,  which  is  nearly  straight,  except  when 
required  for  use  in  hard  rock,  when  the  arms  are  made 
with  an  inclination  or  "  anchored."  The  terms  pike,  pick, 
mandril,  and  slitter  are  applied  to  the  collier's  pick  in 
different  districts,  the  men  being  known  as  pikemen  or 
hewers.  In  driving  levels  it  is  necessary  to  cut  grooves 
vertically  parallel  to  the  walls,  a  process  known  as  shearing; 
but  the  most  important  operation  is  that  known  as  holing 
or  kirving,  which  consists  in  cutting  a  notch  or  groove  in 
the  floor  of  the  seam  to  a  depth  of  about  3  feet,  measured 
back  from  the  face,  so  as  to  leave  the  overhanging  part 
unsupported,  which  then  either  falls  of  its  own  accord 
within  a  few  hours,  or  is  brought  down  either  by  driving 
wedges  along  the  top,  or  by  blasting  with  gunpowder.  The 
process  of  holing  in  coal  is  one  of  the  severest  kinds  of 
human  labour.  It  has  to  be  performed  in  a  constrained  posi 
tion,  and  the  miner  lying  on  his  side  has  to  cut  to  a  much 
greater  height,  in  order  to  get  room  to  carry  the  groove  in 
to  a  sufficient  depth,  than  is  required  to  bring  the  coal 
down,  giving  rise  to  a  great  waste  in  slack  as  compared 
with  machine  work.  This  is  sometimes  obviated  by  holing 
in  the  beds  below  the  coal,  or  in  any  portion  of  a  seam  of 
inferior  quality  that  may  not  be  worth  working.  This  loss  is 
proportionately  greater  in  thin  than  in  thick  seams,  the  same 
quantity  being  cut  to  waste  in  either  case.  The  method  of 
cutting  coal  on  the  long- wall  system  is  seen  in  fig.  1 2,  repre- 


Fio.  12.  —Long- wall  working-face — Plan  and  Section. 

senting  the  working  at  the  Shipley  colliery.  The  coal  is  40 
inches  thick,  with  a  seam  of  fire-clay  and  a  roof  of  black 
shale  ,  about  6  inches  of  the  upper  part,  known  as  the  roof 
coal,  not  being  worth  working,  is  left  behind.  A  groove  of 
triangular  section  of  30  inches  base  and  9  inches  high  is  cut 
along  the  face,  inclined  timber  props  being  placed  at  inter 
vals  to  support  the  overhanging  portion  until  the  required 
length  is  cut.  These  are  then  removed,  and  the  coal  is 
allowed  to  fall,  wedges  or  blasting  being  employed  when 
necessary.  The  roof  of  the  excavation  is  supported  as  the 
coal  is  removed,  by  packing  up  the  waste  material,  and  by 
a  double  row  of  props,  two  feet  from  each  other,  placed  tem- 


CUTTING   MACHINES.] 


COAL 


67 


porarily  along  the  face.  These  are  placed  5  feet  apart,  the 
props  of  the  back  row  alternating  with  those  in  front.  The 
props  used  are  preferably  of  small  oak  or  English  larch, 
but  large  quantities  of  fir  props,  cut  to  the  right  length, 
aro  also  imported  from  the  north  of  Europe.  As  the  work 
proceeds  onwards,  the  props  are  withdrawn  and  replaced  in 
advance,  except  those  that  may  be  crushed  by  the  pressure 
or  buried  by  sudden  falls  of  the  roof. 

In  Yorkshire  hollow  square  pillars,  formed  by  piling  up 
short  blocks  of  wood  or  chocks,  are  often  used  instead  of 
props  formed  of  a  single  stem.  Iron  pit  props  have  been 
proposed  at  different  times,  but  their  use  has  not  become 
general.  When  the  coal  has  been  under-cut  for  a  sufficient 
length,  the  struts  are  withdrawn,  and  the  overhanging  mass 
is  allowed  to  fall  during  the  time  that  the  workmen  are  out 
of  the  pit,  or  it  may  be  brought  down  by  driving  wedges, 
or  if  it  be  of  a  compact  character  a  blast  of  gunpowder  in 
a  bore  hole  near  tho  roof  may  be  required.  Sometimes,  but 
rarely,  it  happens  that  it  is  necessary  to  cut  vertical  grooves 
in  the  face  to  determina  the  limit  of  the  fall,  such  limits 


being  usually  dependent  upon  the  cleet  or  divisional  planes 
in  the  coal,  especially  when  the  work  is  carried  perpen 
dicular  to  them  or  on  the  end. 

The  substitution  of  machinery  for  hand  labour  in  cut-  Coal- 
ting  coal  has  long  been  a  favourite  problem  with  iuven-  c 
tors,  the  earliest  plan  being  that  of  Menzies,  in  1761,  who 
proposed  to  work  a  heavy  pick  underground  by  power 
transmitted  from  an  engine  at  the  surface,  through  the 
agencies  of  spear-rods  and  chains  passing  over  pulleys; 
but  none  of  the  methods  suggested  proved  to  be  prac 
tically  successful  until  the  general  introduction  of  com 
pressed  air  into  mines  furnished  a  convenient  motive 
power,  susceptible  of  being  carried  to  considerable  distances 
without  any  great  loss  of  pressure.  This  agent  has  of  late 
years  been  applied  in  various  ways,  in  machines  which 
either  imitate  the  action  of  the  collier  by  cutting  with  a  pick 
or  make  a  groove  by  rotating  cutters  attached  to  an  endless 
chain  or  a  revolving  disc  or  wheel.  The  most  successful 
of  the  first  class,  or  pick  machines,  is  that  of  Mr  William 
Firth  of  Sheffield,  represented  in  fig.  13.  It  consists  esseu- 


FIG.  13. — Firth's  Coal-cutting  Machine. 


tially  of  a  horizontal  piston  and  cylinder  engine  fixed  upon 
a  platform  carried  upon  four  wheels,  which  are  coupled  to 
gether  by  side  rods,  so  that  on  motion  being  communi 
cated  by  means  of  a  mitre  wheel  in  the  hind  axle,  it  can 
be  moved  forward  by  hand.  On  the  forward  end  of  the 
frame  are  two  bosses  forming  the  centres  for  a  pair  of  bell 
cranks  or  bent  levers  placed  close  to  the  ground,  and  facing 
in  opposite  directions,  either  one  of  which  can  be  con 
nected  with  the  piston  rod.  The  outer  arm  of  each  lever 
carries  a  square  socket,  into  which  is  fixed  the  pick,  which 
has  two  cutting  heads,  one  placed  a  little  in  front  of  the 
other  so  as  to  cut  to  the  whole  depth  at  one  operation. 
In  the  older  forms  picks  of  different  length  were  used,  and 
it  was  necessary  to  go  over  the  work  a  second  or  third 
time,  in  order  to  hole  to  the  full  depth.  The  cutting- 
points  are  loose,  being  secured  by  cotters  to  the  pick  head, 
so  that  broken  or  blunted  ones  can  be  readily  replaced 
without  removing  the  pick  arm.  The  power  used  is  air, 
at  about  40  to  60  ft>  above  atmospheric  pressure.  It  is  con 
ducted  from  the  reservoir  connected  with  a  compressing 
engine  at  the  surface,  through  iron  pipes  fixed  in  the  pit, 
and  along  the  main  roads  to  the  working  face,  where  thick 
vulcanized  india-rubber  pipes  are  used,  sufficient  length  of 
pipe  lying  loose  on  the  ground  to  allow  the  engine  to 
move  freely,  the  connection  being  made  by  a  screwed  joint 
at  the  back  of  the  slide-valve  chest.  The  valve  is  worked 
by  tappets  on  the  piston-rod,  so  as  to  be  perfectly  self- 
acting  when  properly  adjusted ;  it  can  also  be  moved  by 
hand.  The  pick  holders  face  in  opposite  directions,  in  order 


that  the  machine  may  be  worked  from  either  side.  The 
size  of  the  machine  as  ordinarily  made  is  about  4  feet  in 
length,  2  feet  2  inches  high,  and  from  18  to  24  inches  gauge 
of  rails.  The  weight  is  about  15  cwt.  The  working  speed  is 
from  60  to  90  strokes  per  minute,  corresponding  to  a  length 
of  from  10  to  20  yards,  cut  to  a  depth  of  3  feet  per  hour. 
At  the  former  rate,  or  60  yards  per  shift  of  6  hours,  the 
work  done  corresponds  to  that  of  twelve  average  men.  The 
width  of  the  groove  is  from  2  to  3  inches  at  the  face, 
diminishing  to  1^  inches  at  the  back,  the  proportion  of  waste 
being  very  considerably  diminished  as  compared  with  the 
system  of  holing  by  hand.  The  use  of  this  machine  has 
allowed  a  thin  seam  of  cannel,  from  10  to  14  inches  in 
thickness,  to  be  worked  to  profit,  which  had  formerly  been 
abandoned  as  too  hard  to  be  worked  by  hand-labour. 

An  earlier  form  of  the  second  class  of  machine,  in  which 
the  cutters  have  a  continuous  motion  like  those  of  a 
slotting  machine,  is  that  invented  by  Mr  William  Peace 
in  the  Wigan  district,  which  is  reproduced  from  the  last 
edition  as  illustrating  the  principle  which  has  since  been 
carried  out  by  other  inventors  in  a  more  convenient  and 
simplified  form.  It  is  represented  in  Plate  V.,  figs,  1, 
2,  and  3.  AAA  is  the  frame,  upon  which  are  fixed  one  or 
more  cylinders  B,  arranged  so  as  to  turn  a  crank  shaft 
C,  fixed  to  the  frame,  as  is  also  another  shaft  D.  This 
latter  is  capable  of  being  turned  by  the  former,  by 
means  of  mitre  or  bevel  wheels  EEE ;  upon  the  lower 
end  of  the  latter  shaft  D  is  placed  a  wheel  termed  the 
driving  wheel,  having  upon  its  periphery  a  groove  with 


08 


C  0  A  L 


[MINING. 


suitable  projections  for  working  into  and  propelling  a  chain 
or  band.  Beneath  or  to  the  side  of  the  frame  (or  both) 
is  fixed  temporarily  or  otherwise  a  lever,  the  extremity 
of  which  is  constructed  to  carry  a  wheel  called  the  ter 
minal  wheel,  marked  II H  ;  a  chain  or  band  is  made  to  pass 
round  the  driving  and  terminal  wheels,  and  by  means  of 
the  driving  wheel  FF  it  is  made  to  revolve.  Into  the 
chain  are  fixed  cutters  of  different  forms  (see  the  parts 
marked,  figs.  4,  5,  6,  and  7),  which,  when  the  machine  is  in 
action,  revolve  with  it,  and  upon  being  pressed  or  drawn 
against  the  coal,  erode  and  excavate  the  same.  The  dis 
tance  of  the  excavation  from  the  face  of  the  coal  is 
governed  by  the  dimensions  of  the  machine,  and  by  the 
length  of  the  lever  and  the  distance  between  the  driving 
and  terminal  wheels.  The  arrangements  of  the  lever  allow 
it  to  revolve,  and  to  excavate  any  given  range ;  see  dotted 
lines  fig.  1. 

If  found  necessary,  two  or  even  three  levers  may  be  in 
operation  at  the  same  time,  and  arranged  to  cut  in  any 
direction.  Other  parts  of  the  machine  not  particularly  de 
scribed  are  capable  of  elevating  and  depressing  the  front 
part  of  the  machine,  marked  V,  T,  U,  W ;  and  those 
marked  X,  Y,  Z,  and  K  are  capable  of  propelling  the 
machine  whilst  at  work,  by  acting  against  the  prop. 

The  Gartsherrie  machine  of  Messrs  Baird  is  of  the  same 
character,  but  the  chain  of  cutters  works  round  a  fixed 
frame  or  jib  projecting  at  right  angles  from  the  engine  car 
riage,  instead  of  traversing  upon  a  centre,  an  arrangement 
which  makes  it  necessary  to  cut  from  the  end  of  the  block 
of  coal  to  the  full  depth,  instead  of  holing  into  it  from  the 
face.  The  forward  feed  is  given  by  a  chain  winding  upon 
a  drum,  which  hauls  upon  a  pulley  fixed  to  a  prop  about  30 
yards  in  advance.  This  is  one  of  the  most  compact  form 
of  machines,  the  smaller  size  being  only  20  inches  high. 
With  an  air  pressure  of  from  35  to  40  ft>  per  square  inch, 
a.  length  of  from  300  to  350  feet  of  coal  is  holed,  2  ft,  9  in. 
deep,  in  the  shift  of  from  8  to  10  hours. 

One  of  the  simplest  forms  of  coal-cutting  machines  is 
that  of  Messrs  Winstanly  &  Barker  (fig.  14),  which  is  driven 


Fro.  14.— Winstanly  &  Barker's  Coal-cutting  Machine— Plan. 
by  a  pair  of  oscillating  engines  placed  on  a  frame  run 
ning  on  rails  in  the  usual  way.  The  crank  shaft  carries  a 
pinion  which  gears  into  a  toothed  wheel  of  a  coarse  pitch, 
carrying  cutters  at  the  ends  of  the  teeth.  This  wheel  is 
mounted  on  a  carrier  which,  being  movable  about  its  centre 
by  a  screw  gearing  worked  by  hand,  gives  a  radial  sweep 
to  the  cutting  edges,  as  in  the  machine  figured  in  Plate  V. 
When  at  work  it  is  slowly  turned  until  the  carrier  is  at  right 
angles  to  the  frame,  when  the  cut  has  attained  the  full 
depth.  The  forward  motion  is  given  by  a  chain-winding 
upon  a  crab  placed  in  front,  which  is  worked  by  a  boy  who 
hauls  it  slowly  forward.  With  25  R)  pressure  it  will  hole 
3  feet  deep,  at  the  rate  of  30  yards  per  hour,  the  cut  being 


only  2|  in.  high,  but  it  will  only  work  on  one  side  of  the 
carriage. 

Another  kind  of  application  of  machinery  to  coal  mining 
is  that  of  Messrs  Bidder  &  Jones,  which  is  intended  to 
replace  the  use  of  blasting  with  gunpowder  for  bringing 
down  the  coal,  a  practice  which  in  fiery  collieries  is  often 
attended  with  considerable  danger  from  the  flash  of  the  ex 
plosion  firing  the  gas  given  off  the  coal.  It  consists  of 
a  small  hydraulic  press,  which  forces  a  set  of  expanding 
bits  or  wedges  into  a  bore-hole  previously  bored  by  a  long 
screw  augur  or  drill,  worked  by  hand,  the  action  of 
the  press  being  continued  until  a  sufficient  strain  is 
obtained  to  bring  down  the  coal.  The  arrangement  is, 
in  fact,  a  modification  of  the  plug  and  feather  system 
used  in  stone  quarrying  for  obtaining  large  blocks,  but 
with  the  substitution  of  the  powerful  rending  force  of 
the  hydraulic  press  for  hand  -power  in  driving  up  the 
wedges.  This  apparatus  has  been  used  at  Harecastle  in 
North  Staffordshire,  and  found  to  work  well,  but  with  the 
disadvantage  of  bringing  down  the  coal  in  unmanageably 
large  masses.  The  use  of  gunpowder  in  very  fiery  mines  is 
always  attended  with  danger,  and  a  method  of  wedging 
down  coal  sufficiently  perfected  to  be  of  general  application 
would  add  greatly  to  the  security  of  the  colliers  in  work 
ing  such  mines. 

The  removal  of  the  coal  when  broker  from  the  work- 
ing  faces  to  the  pit  bottom  or  to  the  main  levels  is  effected 
mainly  by  hand  labour  when  the  mine  is  small,  and  the 
distances  to  be  traversed  inconsiderable,  and  in  mines  of 
greater  extent  by  horse  or  steam  traction.  The  simplest 
method  is  that  of  loading  the  broken  coal  on  to  a  sledge, 
which  is  dragged  along  the  floor  to  the  level,  but  now 
the  practice  of  carrying  railways  to  the  face  is  almost 
universal.  The  old  form  of  flat  rail  or  tram  is  still  largely 
used,  the  waggons  having  sharp-  edged  disc  wheels,  but 
probably  edge  rails  and  flanged  wheels  are  now  more 
general.  The  class  of  rail  used  is  generally  a  flat-bottomed 
or  bridge  section,  weighing  from  15  to  25  ft>  per  yard, 
laid  upon  cross  sleepers,  which,  in  roads  that  are  intended 
to  be  kept  open  for  some  time,  are  fixed  down  firmly, 
but  are  laid  in  a  temporary  manner  along  the  working 
faces,  and  in  similar  positions  where  it  is  necessary  to  be 
continually  shifting  them,  as,  for  instance,  wheie  coal-cut 
ting  machines  are  used.  The  arrangement  of  the  drawing 
roads  at  the  face  of  a  long-wall  colliery  is  seen  in  the  plan 
fig.  12,  where  the  rails  are  brought  to  the  face  upon  a 
smooth  iron  plate,  upon  which  the  trams  can  be  easily 
handled  by  turning  on  the  flanges  of  the  wheels.  The 
names  applied  to  the  vehicles  in  which  the  coal  is  carried 
vary  considerably,  as  do  also  their  size  and  capacity.  The 
word  "  corf  "  or  "  corve,"  representing  the  old  basket  sledge, 
is  one  of  the  most  generally  used,  as  are  "  tram,"  signifying 
a  tram  waggon,  and  "  tub,"  of  the  same  signification  as  the 
last,  but  a  representative  of  the  old  method  of  drawing  in 
wooden  buckets.  In  South  Staffordshire  and  other  Midland 
districts,  a  contrivance  called  a  "skip"  is  the  representative 
method  of  conveyance  ;  this  consists  of  a  platform  with 
tram  wheels,  upon  which  the  coal  is  built  up  to  a  consider 
able  height,  the  large  pieces  round  the  sides  being  kept  to 
gether  by  loose  rings  of  sheet  iron,  and  the  intermediate 
spaces  packed  full  with  small  coal,  —  the  whole  arrange 
ment  representing  a  kind  of  cask.  This,  however,  like 
most  of  the  similar  primitive  methods,  is  giving  way  to  the 
more  improved  system  of  tubs  or  trams.  These  are  small 
railway  trucks,  generally  with  flanged  wheels  and  square- 
sided  bodies,  either  of  wood  or  wrought  iron,  varying  in 
capacity  from  4  cwt.  in  thin  seams  to  10  or  12  cwt.  in 
thicker  seams. 

In  the  removal  of  the  coal  from  the  workings  the  first 
portion  of  the  journey  .is  generally  performed  by  hand- 


Coal 
wedging 


Under- 
gr°undc 

veyance- 


CONVEYANCE.] 


COAL 


power,  boys  being  employed  to  push  the  trams  before 
them  to  the  main  roads.  In  the  thin  seams  jf  South  York 
shire  and  other  places,  considerable  journeys  are  often 
performed  in  this  way,  the  boys  known,  as  "  hurriers"  or 
"  putters"  being  obliged  to  crawl  at  full  length,  owing  to  the 
lowness  of  the  excavation.  As  a  general  rule  boys  are  not 
allowed  to  work  in  collieries  when  below  12  years  of  age, 
but  in  these  thin  mines  special  exemptions  are  granted, 
permitting  the  use  of  younger  boys  as  putters  when  re 
quired.  Where  the  levels  are  large,  horse  traction  is  in 
common  use;  the»  trams  are  formed  up  into  trains,  and  from 
6  to  15  vehicles  are  drawn  by  one  horse.  A  considerable 
number  of  ponies  are  imported  into  the  northern  ports  of 
this  country  from  Norway  and  Iceland  for  this  purpose 
every  year.  The  supply  of  horses  is,  however,  becoming 
scarcer,  and  the  price  higher,  so  that  the  use  of  under 
ground  engines  is  generally  adopted  where  the  output  is 
sufficiently  large  to  justify  the  expenditure.  This  is  done 
by  hauling  or,  as  it  is  called  in  the  North  of  England,  lead 
ing  the  trains  of  tubs  by  rope  traction.  In  a  large  colliery 
where  the  shafts  are  situated  near  the  centre  of  the  field, 
and  the  workings  extend  on  all  sides,  both  to  the  dip  and 
rise,  the  drawing  roads  for  the  coal  may  be  of  three  differ 
ent  kinds, — (1)  levels  driven  at  right  angles  to  the  dip, 
suitable  for  horse  roads,  (2)  rise  ways,  known  as  jinny  roads, 
jig-brows,  or  up-brows,  which,  when  of  sufficient  slope,  may 
be  used  as  self-acting  planes,  i.e.,  the  loaded  waggons  may 
be  made  to  pull  back  the  empty  ones  to  the  working  faces, 
and  (3)  dip  or  down-brows,  requiring  engine  power.  A 
road  may  be  used  as  a  self-acting  or  gravitating  incline  when 
the  gradient  is  1  in  30  or  steeper,  in  which  case  the  train 
is  lowered  by  a  rope  passing  over  a  pulley  or  brake  drum 
at  the  upper  end,  the  return  empty  train  being  attached  to 
the  opposite  end  of  the  rope  and  hauled  up  by  the  descend 
ing  load.  The  arrangements  for  this  purpose  vary,  of  course, 
with  the  amount  of  work  to  be  done  with  one  fixing  of  the 
machinery ;  where  it  is  likely  to  be  used  for  a  considerable 
time,  the  drum  and  brake  are  solidly  constructed,  and 
the  ropes  of  steel  or  iron  wire  carefully  guided  over  fric 
tion  rollers,  placed  at  intervals  between  the  rails  to  pre 
vent  them  from  chafing  and  wearing  out  on  the  ground. 
Where  the  load  has  to  be  hauled  up  a  rising  gradient, 
underground  engines,  driven  by  steam  or  compressed  air,  are 
now  generally  used.  In  some  cases  steam  generated  in 
boilers  at  the  surface  is  carried  in  pipes  to  the  engines 
below,  but  this  can  be  done  with  less  loss  of  power  by  send 
ing  down  compressed  air  in  the  same  way.  The  use  of 
underground  boilers  placed  near  the  upcast  pit,  as  in 
fig.  6,  so  that  the  smoke  and  gases  help  the  ventilat 
ing  furnace,  is  most  convenient  in  the  majority  of  cases. 
Water-pressure  engines,  driven  by  a  column  of  water  equal 
to  the  depth  of  the  pit,  have  also  been  employed  for 
hauling.  These  can,  however,  only  be  used  advantageously 
where  there  are  fixed  pumps,  the  fall  of  water  generating 
the  power  resulting  in  a  load  to  be  removed  by  the  expen 
diture  of  an  equivalent  amount  of  power  in  the  pumping 
engine  above  that  necessary  for  keeping  down  the  mine 
water. 

There  are  four  principal  methods  in  which  steam  power 
can  be  applied  to  underground  traction.  These,  which  have 
been  discussed  in  the  fullest  manner  in  the  Report  of  the 
North  of  England  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers  for  1867- 
68,  are  as  follows  : — 

1.  Tail  rope  system. 

2.  Endless  chain  system. 

3.  Endless  rope  system  on  the  ground. 

4.  Endless  rope  system  overhead. 

The  three  last  may  be  considered  as  modifications  of 
the  same  principle.  In  the  first,  which  is  that  generally 
used  in  Northumberland  and  Durham,  a  single  line  of  rails 


is  used,  the  loaded  tubs  being  drawn  "out  bye,"  i.e.,  towards 
the  shaft,  and  the  empty  ones  returned  "  in  bye,"  or  towards 
the  working  faces,  by  reversing  the  engine  ;  while  in  the 
other  systems,  double  lines,  with  the  rope  travelling  continu 
ously  in  the  same  direction,  are  the  rule.  On  the  tail  rope 
plan  the  engine  has  two  drums  worked  by  spur  gearing-, 
which  can  be  connected  with,  or  cast  loose  from,  the  driving 
shaft  at  pleasure.  The  main  rope,  which  draws  out  the 
loaded  tubs,  coils  upon  one  drum,  and  passes  near  the  floor 
over  guide  sheaves  placed  about  20  feet  apart.  The  tail 
rope,  which  is  of  lighter  section  than  the  main  one, 
is  coiled  on  the  second  drum,  passes  over  similar  guide 
sheaves  placed  near  the  roof  or  side  of  the  gallery  round  a 
pulley  at  the  bottom  of  the  plane,  and  is  fixed  to  the  end 
of  the  train  or  set  of  tubs.  When  the  load  is  being  drawn 
out,  the  engine  pulls  directly  on  the  main  rope,  coiling  it 
on  to  its  own  drum,  while  the  tail  drum  runs  loose  pay 
ing  out  its  rope,  a  slight  brake  pressure  being  used  to  pre 
vent  its  running  out  too  fast.  When  the  set  arrives  out  bye, 
the  main  rope  will  be  wound  up,  and  the  tail  rope  pass  out 
from  the  drum  to  the  end  and  back,  i.e.,  twice  the  length 
of  the  way;  the.  set  is  returned  in  bye,  by  reversing  the 
engine,  casting  loose  the  main,  and  coupling  up  the  tail 
drum,  so  that  the  tail  rope  is  wound  up,  and  the  main  rope 
paid  out.  This  method,  which  is  the  oldest,  having  been 
in  use  for  twenty-five  years  or  more  in  the  North  of  Eng 
land,  is  best  adapted  for  ways  that  are  nearly  level,  or 
when  many  branches  are  intended  to  be  worked  from  one 
engine,  and  can  be  carried  round  curves  of  small  radius 
without  deranging  the  trains;  but  as  it  is  intermittent  in 
action,  considerable  engine-power  is  required  in  order  to 
get  up  the  required  speed,  which  is  from  8  to  10  miles  per 
hour.  From  8  to  10  tubs  are  usually  drawn  in  a  set,  the 
ways  being  often  from  2000  to  3000  yards  long.  In  dip 
workings  the  tail  rope  is  often  made  to  work  a  pump  con 
nected  with  the  bottom  pulley,  which  forces  the  water  back 
to  the  cistern  of  the  main  pumping  engine  in  the  pit. 

For  the  endless  chain  system,  which  is  much  iised  in  the 
Wigan  district  a  double  line  of  way  is  necessary,  one  line  for 
full  and  the  other  for  empty  tubs.  The  chain  passes  over  a 
pulley  driven  by  the  engine,  placed  at  such  a  height  as  to 
allow  it  to  rest  upon  the  tops  of  the  tubs,  and  round  a 
similar  pulley  at  the  far  end  of  the  plane.  The  forward 
edge  of  the  tub  carries  a  projecting  pin  or  horn,  with  a 
notch  into  which  the  chain  falls  which  drags  the  tub  forward. 
The  road  at  the  outer  end  is  made  of  a  less  slope  than  the 
chain,  so  that  on  arrival  the  tub  is  lowered,  clears  the  pin, 
and  so  becomes  detached  from  the  chain.  The  tubs  are 
placed  on  at  intervals  of  about  20  yards,  the  chain  moving 
continuously  at  a  speed  of  from  2^  to  4  miles  per  hour. 
This  system  presents  the  greatest  advantages  in  point  of 
economy  of  driving  power,  especially  where  the  gradients 
are  variable,  but  is  expensive  in  first  cost,  and  is  not  well 
suited  for  curves,  and  branch  roads  cannot  be  worked  con 
tinuously,  as  a  fresh  set  of  pulleys  worked  by  bevel  gear 
ing  is  required  for  each  branch. 

The  endless  rope  system  may  be  used  with  either  a 
single  or  double  line  of  way,  but  the  latter  is  more  gene 
rally  advantageous.  The  rope,  which  is  guided  upon 
sheaves  between  the  rails,  is  taken  twice  round  the 
head  pulley;  or  a  Fowler's  clip  pulley  may  be  used.  It  is 
also  customary  to  use  a  stretching  pulley  to  keep  the  rope 
strained  when  the  pull  of  the  load  diminishes.  This  is 
done  by  passing  a  loop  at  the  upper  end  round  a  pulley 
mounted  in  a  travelling  frame,  to  which  is  attached  a 
weight  of  about  15  cwt.  hanging  by  a  chain.  This  weight 
pulls  directly  against  the  rope ;  so  if  the  latter  slacks,  the 
weight  pulls  out  the  pulley  frame  and  tightens  it  up  again. 
The  tubs  are  usually  formed  into  sets  of  from  2  to  12, 
the  front  one  being  coupled  up  by  a  short  length  of  chain 


70 


COAL 


[MINING. 


to  a  clamping  hook  formed  of  two  jaws  moulded  to  the 
curve  of  the  rope  which  are  attached  by  the  "  run  rider," 
as  the  driver  accompanying  the  train  is  called.  This 
system  in  many  respects  resembles  the  tail  rope,  but  has 
the  advantage 'of  working  with  one-third  less  length  of 
rope  for  the  same  length  of  way. 

The  endless  rope  system  overhead  is  substantially 
similar  to  the  endless  chain.  The  waggons  are  attached  at 
intervals  by  short  lengths  of  chain  lapped  twice  round  the 
rope  and  hooked  into  one  of  the  links,  or  in  some  cases 
the  chains  are  hooked  into  hempen  loops  on  the  main 
rope. 

One  of  the  most  important  branches  of  colliery  work  is 
the  management  of  the  ventilation,  involving  as  it  does 
the  supply  of  fresh  air  to  the  men  working  in  the  pit,  as 
well  as  the  removal  of  inflammable  gases  that  may  be 
given  off  by  the  coal.  This  is  effected  by  carrying  through 
the  workings  a  large  volume  of  air  Avhich  is  kept  continu 
ally  moving  in  the  same  direction,  descending  from  the 
surface  by  one  or  more  pits  known  as  intake  or  downcast 
pits,  and  leaving  the  mine  by  a  return  or  upcast  pit.  Such 
a  circulation  of  air  can  only  be  effected  by  mechanical 
means  when  the  workings  are  of  any  extent,  as  will  be 
apparent  from  the  following  considerations  : — 

If  the  shafts  A  and  B, 
fig.  15,  were  of  equal 
depth  from  the  horizon 
tal  plane,  and  connected 
by  the  mine  C,  the  air 
would  fill  the  openings 
and  remain  quiescent. 
If  the  one  were  to  the 
dip  of  the  other,  but 
communicating  with  the 
surface  at  a  higher  level, 
as  by  fig.  16,  it  would 
sometimes  happen,  in  summer,  that  D  would  be  the  down 
cast,  and  E  the  upcast,  and  in  winter,  E  the  downcast,  and 
D  the  upcast.  These  conditions  are  induced  by  the  tern- 


Fig.  16. 

perature  of  the  earth  at  a  certain  depth  being  nearly  con 
stant,  while  the  atmosphere  is  changeable, — the  column  of 
air  in  D  d  being  at  a  lower  temperature  in  summer  than 
the  column  of  air  E  e,  and  the  reverse  in  winter. 

The  methods  actually  adopted  are— (1 )  The  rarefaction  of 
the  air  in  the  upcast  pit  by  a  furnace  placed  at  the  bottom; 
and  (2)  Exhaustion  by  machinery  at  the  surface.  The 
former  plan,  although  hitherto  most  generally  used,  is  in 
many  places  becoming  replaced  by  some  form  of  machine. 
Furnace.  The  usual  form  of  ventilating  furnace  is  a  plain  fire 
grate  placed  under  an  arch,  and  communicating  with  the 
upcast  shaft  by  an  inclined  drift.  It  is  separated  from 
the  coal  by  a  narrow  passage  walled  and  arched  in  brick 
work  on  both  sides.  The  size  of  the  grate  varies  with 
the  requirements  of  the  ventilation,  but  from  G  to  10  feet 
broad  and  from  G  to  8  feet  long  are  usual  dimensions. 


At  Shircoaks  Colliery,  in  Nottinghamshire,  a  furnace  con 
suming  G  tons  of  slack  per  24  hours  upon  a  grate  surface 
of  72  square  feet  maintains  a  circulation  of  about  120,000 
cubic  feet  per  minute.  At  Iletton  Colliery,  Durham, 
the  grate  is  a  long,  narrow  rectangle,  25  feet  by  5  feet, 
with  numerous  furnace-doors  on  the  long  side,  so  arranged 
that  the  surface  fired  may  be  varied  according  to  the 
amount  of  draught  required.  There  are  two  bunker- 
'holes  for  coals,  and  a  stoking  passage,  7  feet  wide,  in 
front  of  the  furnace.  The  fire  should  be  kept  as  thin  and 
bright  as  possible,  to  reduce  the  amount  of  smoke  in  the 
upcast.  When  the  mine  is  free  from  gas,  the  furnace  may 
be  worked  by  the  return  air,  but  it  is  better  to  take  fresh 
air  directly  from  the  downcast  by  a  scale,  or  split,  from 
the  main  current.  The  return  air  from  fiery  workings  is 
never  allowed  to  approach  the  furnace,  but  is  carried  into 
the  upcast  by  a  special  channel,  called  a  dumb  drift,  some 
distance  above  the  furnace  drift,  so  as  not  to  come  in  con 
tact  with  the  products  of  combustion  until  they  have  been 
cooled  below  the  igniting  point  of  fire-damp.  Where  the 
upcast  pit  is  used  for  drawing  coal,  it  is  usual  to  discharge 
the  smoke  and  gases  through  a  short  lateral  drift  near  the 
surface  into  a  tall  chimney,  so  as  to  keep  the  pit-top  as 
clear  as  possible  for  working.  Otherwise  the  chimney  is 
built  directly  over  the  mouth  of  the  pit. 

Various  kinds  of  machines  for  ventilation,  both  by  direct  M« 
exhaustion  and  centrifugal  displacement,  have  been  tried  ven 
both  in  England  and  in  Belgium.  Of  the  former  class 
are  the  great  bell  machines,  resembling  gasometers,  12  feet 
to  22  feet  in  diameter,  and  9  feet  high,  moving  in  a  water 
tank  with  balanced  flap  valves  for  alternately  admitting 
and  exhausting  the  air.  These  were  used  at  Marihaye, 
near  Li6ge,  and  at  Cwm  Avon  in  South  Wales,  by  Mr 
Struve".  Perhaps  the  largest  of  the  class  of  piston  machines 
is  that  at  Nixon's  Navigation  Pit,  near  Aberdare,  which 
has  rectangular  pistons,  30  feet  by  22  feet,  moving  hori 
zontally  through  a  stroke  of  7  feet,  the  lower  edge  being 
supported  by  rollers  running  on  rails.  The  great  weight 
of  the  moving  parts  in  this  class  of  machine  makes  them 
incapable  of  acting  at  any  very  high  speed,  and  conse 
quently  expensive  for  the  amount  of  work  done.  This  is 
in  some  degree  obviated  in  the  rotary  piston  machines  of 
Fabry  and  Lemielle,  the  former  resembling  in  principle 
Hoot's  blower,  now  so  much  used  in  blowing  foundry  and 
smiths'  fires,  but  on  a  larger  scale.  Lemielle's  ventilator 
is  a  vertical  drum  revolving  eccentrically  within  a  cylin 
drical  casing.  The  drum  carries  three  jointed  blades, 
which  are  drawn  in  or  out  by  radius  bars  as  it  revolves,  so 
as  to  enclose  and  sweep  out  at  each  revolution  tbe  body  of 
air  included  between  the  two  cylinders.  This  is  one  of 
the  best  machines  of  its  class,  producing  a  comparatively 
high  effect  for  the  power  expended.  An  American  machine 
of  this  kind  is  described  and  figured  in  the  article  BELLOWS, 
vol.  iii.  p.  552,  fig.  5. 

Of  late  years,  various  kinds  of  centrifugal  machines,  or 
fans,  have  come  into  use  instead  of  ventilating  furnaces. 
One  of  the  most  successful  of  these  is  that  invented  by  Mr 
Guibal  of  Lie'ge,  represented  in  fig.  17.  The  fan  has  eight 
arms,  framed  together  of  wrought-iron  bars,  with  diagonal 
struts,  so  as  to  obtain  rigidity  with  comparative  lightness, 
carrying  flat  close-boarded  blades  at  their  extremities.  It 
revolves  with  the  smallest  possible  clearance  in  a  chamber 
of  masonry,  one  of  the  side  walls  being  perforated  by  a  large 
round  hole,  through  which  the  air  from  the  mine  is  admitted 
to  the  centre  of  the  fan.  The  lower  quadrant  of  the  casing 
is  enlarged  spirally,  BO  as  to  leave  a  narrow  rectangular 
opening  at  the  bottom,  through  which  the  air  is  discharged 
into  a  chimney  of  gradually  increasing  section  carried  to  a 
height  of  about  25  feet.  The  size  of  the  discharge  aperture 
can  be  varied  by  means  of  a  flexible  wooden  shutter  sliding 


VENTILATION.] 


COAL 


71 


in  a  groove  in   a  cast-iron   plate,  curved  to  the  slope  of 
the  casing.     By  the  use  of  the  spiral  guide  casing  and  the 


FIG.  17.  —  Guibal's  Fan. 

chimney,  the  velocity  of  the  effluent  air  is  gradually  reduced 
up  to  the  point  of  final  discharge  into  the  atmosphere, 
whereby  a  greater  useful  effect  is  realized  than  is  the  case 
when  the  air  streams  freely  from  the  circumference  with  a 
velocity  equal  to  that  of  the  rotating  fan.  The  power  is 
applied  by  steam  acting  directly  on  a  crank  at  one  end 
of  the  axle.  In  most  of  the  newer  examples,  which  are 
generally  of  large  size,  the  power  is  divided,  an  engine 
being  placed  on  each  side.  At  Washington  Colliery, 
Durham,  a  machine  of  36  feet  diameter,  12  feet  breadth 
of  face,  and  13  feet  diameter  of  intake  passage,  draws 
120,000  cubic  feet  of  air  per  minute,  when  making  38 
revolutions  Another  at  Usworth,  48  feet  diameter  and 
12  feet  breadth  of  face,  driven  by  two  high-pressure 
engines,  with  cylinders  3  feet  in  diameter  and  3  feet 
stroke,  equal  to  about  280  horse-power,  exhausts  200,000 
cubic  feet  per  minute.  The  useful  effect  realized  under 
the  most  favourable  conditions  is  as  much  as  50  per  cent, 
of  that  of  the  steam  power  employed. 

Waddle's  fan,  represented  in  fig.  18,  is  an  example  of 


FIG.  18. -Waddle's  Fan. 

another  class  of  centrifugal  ventilator,  in  which  a  close  cas 
ing  is  not  used,  the  air  exhausted  being  discharged  from 
the  circumference  directly  into  the  atmosphere.  It  con 
sists  of  a  hollow  sheet-iron  drum  formed  by  two  conoidal 
tubes,  united  together  by  numerous  guide  blades,  dividing 
it  up  into  a  series  of  rectangular  tubes  of  diminishing  sec 
tion,  attached  to  a  horizontal  axle  by  cast-iron  bosses  and 
wrought-iron  arms.  The  tubes  at  their  smallest  part  are 
connected  to  a  cast-iron  ring,  10  feet  in  diameter,  but 
at  their  outer  circumference  they  are  only  2  feet  apart. 
The  extreme  diameter  is  25  feet.  A  fan  of  these  dimen 
sions  atBrownhills  in  Staffordshire,  in  making  50  revolutions 
per  minute,  circulates  47,000  cubic  feet  of  air  through  the 
workings.  It  has  also  been  in  use  for  some  years  in  South 
Wales,  and  is  found  to  work  well;  it  is  less  expensive 
in  first  cost  than  Guibal's,  although  proportionally  less 


economical  from  the  smaller  effect  realized  for  the  power 
expended. 

Another  method  of  colliery  ventilation  is  that  by  jets  of 
steam  blowing  off  at  a  high  velocity  into  the  upcast  shaft, 
and  producing  a  draught  similar  to  that  of  the  exhaust 
blast  in  the  chimney  of  a  locomotive.  This  plan  found 
several  advocates  some  years  since,  and  was  the  subject 
of  numerous  comparative  trials  against  the  ventilating  fur 
nace  in  the  North  of  England,  but  the  results  were  unfa 
vourable,  the  amount  of  air  circulation  produced  being 
exceedingly  small  for  the  fuel  expended.  It  seems  probable^ 
however,  that  this  want  of  success  was  in  great  part  due 
to  the  defective  character  of  the  apparatus  applied,  and 
that,  with  properly-constructed  aspirators  and  discharge 
passages,  the  steam  jet  may  prove  to  be  a  very  efficient 
means  of  ventilation. 

The  comparative  merits  of  furnace  and  machine  ventila 
tion  have  long  been  discussed  without  any  definite  result. 
The  former  was  at  one  time  regarded  in  England  as  practi 
cally  superior  in  every  respect,  but  this  opinion  has  been 
modified  since  the  introduction  of  the  improved  forms  of 
fans  which  have  been  worked  to  a  considerable  extent.  In 
France  and  Belgium,  on  the  contrary,  machine  ventilation 
has  been  more  generally  in  favour.  For  a  deep  and  ex 
tensive  mine  where  the  coal  is  not  fiery,  the  furnace  is 
undoubtedly  the  simplest  and  most  efficacious  method 
of  producing  a  large  circulation  of  air ;  but  for  moderate 
depths,  especially  with  fiery  return  air,  a  ventilating  machine 
at  the  surface  is  in  many  cases  to  be  preferred.  There  ia 
also  an  important  advantage  procured  by  the  latter, 
namely,  that  of  reserve  power,  so  that  a  larger  circulation 
may  be  obtained  immediately  in  case  of  need,  e.g.,  when 
the  barometer  falls  suddenly,  by  merely  increasing  the 
speed  of  rotation,  which  cannot  so  readily  be  done  with 
the  furnace,  which  has  a  tendency  to  slacken  at  the  time 
when  the  increased  work  is  wanted. 

The  quantity  of  air  required  for  a  large  colliery  depends  Distribu- 
upon  the  number  of  men  employed,  as  for  actual  respira- tion  of  air 
tion  from  100  to  200  cubic  feet  per  minute  should  be 
allowed.  In  fiery  mines,  however,  a  very  much  larger 
amount  must  be  provided  in  order  to  dilute  the  gas  to  the 
point  of  safety.  Even  with  the  best  arrangements  a  dan 
gerous  increase  in  the  amount  of  gas  is  not  un  frequent 
from  the  sudden  release  of  stored  up  masses  in  the  coal, 
which,  overpowering  the  ventilation,  produce  magazines  of 
explosive  material  ready  for  ignition  when  brought  in  con 
tact  with  the  flame  of  a  lamp  or  the  blast  of  a  shot.  The 
management  of  such  places,  therefore,  requires  the  most 
constant  vigilance  on  the  part  of  the  workmen,  especially 
in  the  examination  of  the  working  places  that  have  been 
standing  empty  during  the  night,  in  which  gas  may  have 
accumulated,  to  see  that  they  are  properly  cleared  before 
the  new  shift  commences. 

The  actual  conveyance  or  coursing  of  the  air  from  the 
intake  to  the  working  faces  is  effected  by  splitting  or 
dividing  the  current  at  different  points  in  its  course,  so  as  to 
carry  it  as  directly  as  possible  to  the  places  where  it  is 
required.  In  laying  out  the  mine,  it  is  customary  to  drive 
the  levels  or  roads  in  pairs,  communication  being  made 
between  them  at  intervals  by  cutting  through  the  inter 
mediate  pillar,  the  air  then  passes  along  one,  and  returns 
by  the  other.  As  the  roads  advance  other  pillars  are 
driven  through  in  the  same  manner,  the  passages  first  made 
being  closed  by  stoppings  of  broken  rock,  or  built  up 
with  brick  and  mortar  walls,  or  both.  When  it  is  desired 
to  preserve  a  way  from  one  road  or  similar  class  of  work 
ing  to  another,  double  doors  placed  at  sufficient  intervals 
apart  to  take  in  one  or  more  trams  between  them  whon 
closed  are  used,  forming  a  kind  of  lock  or  sluice.  These 
are  made  to  shut  air-tight  against  their  frames,  so  as  to 


72 


C  0  A  L 


[MINING. 


prevent  the  air  from  taking  a  short  cut  back  to  the  up 
cast,  while  preserving  free  access  between  the  different 
districts  without  following  the  whole  round  of  the  air 
ways.  The  ventilation  of  ends  is  effected  by  means  of 
brattices  or  temporary  partitions  of  thin  boards  placed 
midway  in  the  drift,  and  extending  to  within  a  few  feet  of 
the  face.  The  air  passes  along  one  side  of  the  brattice, 
courses  round  the  free  end,  and  returns  on  the  other  side. 
In  many  cases  a  light  but  air-proof  cloth,  specially  made 
for  the  purpose,  is  used  instead  of  wood  for  brattices,  as 
being  more  handy  and  more  easily  removed.  In  large  mines 
where  the  air- ways  are  numerous  and  complicated,  it  often 
happens  that  currents  travelling  in  opposite  directions  are 
brought  together  at  one  point.  In  these  cases  it  is  neces- 

Crossings.  sary  to  cross  them  in  the  manner  shown  in  fig.  2,  Plate  III. 
The  return  air  is  usually  made  to  pass  over  the  intake  by 
a  curved  drift  carried  some  distance  above  in  the  solid 
measures,  both  ways  being  arched  in  brickwork,  or  even 
in  some  cases  lined  with  sheet-iron  so  as  to  ensure  a 
separation  not  likely  to  be  destroyed  in  case  of  an  ex 
plosion.  The  relation  of  the  ventilation  to  the  workings 
under  the  different  systems  is  indicated  on  the  several 
plates  by  arrows  and  other  signs,  from  which  the  general 
character  of  the  arrangements  adopted  can  be  made  out 
without  further  description. 

Lighting.  The  lighting  of  underground  workings  in  collieries  is 
closely  connected  with  the  subject  of  ventilation.  In 
many  of  the  smaller  pits  in  the  Midland  districts,  and 
generally  in  South  Staffordshire,  the  coals  are  sufficiently 
free  from  gas,  or  rather  the  gases  are  not  liable  to  become 
explosive  when  mixed  with  air,  to  allow  the  use  of  naked 
lights,  candles  being  generally  used.  Oil  lamps  are  em 
ployed  in  many  of  the  Scotch  collieries,  and  are  almost 
universally  used  in  Belgium  and  other  Continental  coun 
tries.  The  buildings  near  the  pit  bottom,  such  as  the 
stables  and  lamp  cabin,  and  even  the  main  roads  for  some 
distance,  are  often  in  large  collieries  lighted  with  gas 
brought  from  the  surface,  or  in  some  cases  the  gas  given 
off  by  the  coal  is  used  for  the  same  purpose.  Where  the 
gases  are  fiery,  the  use  of  protected  lights  or  safety  lamps 
becomes  a  necessity. 

Composi-         The  nature  of  the  gases  evolved   by  coal  when  freshly 

tion  of  gas  exposed  to  the  atmosphere  has  been  investigated  by  several 
y  chemists,  more  particularly  by  Playfair  and  Meyer.  The 
latter  observer  found  the  gases  given  off  by  coal  from  the 
district  of  Newcastle  and  Durham  to  contain  carbonic  acid 
(anhydride),  marsh  gas  or  light  carburet  ted  hydrogen  (the 
fire-damp  of  the  miner),  oxygen,  and  nitrogen.  A  newer 
investigation,  by  Mr  J.  W.  Thomas,  of  the  gases  dissolved 
or  occluded  in  coals  from  South  Wales  basin  shows  them 
to  vary  considerably  with  the  class  of  coal.  The  results 
given  below,  which  are  selected  from  a  much  larger  series 
published  in  the  Journal  of  the  Chemical  Society,  were 
obtained  by  heating  samples  of  the  different  coals  in  vacuo 
for  several  hours  at  the  temperature  of  boiling  water. 



Composition  in  Volumes  per  cent. 
\  olunie  L 

Quality. 

Colliery. 

per  ton 
in  cubic 
feet. 

Car 
bonic 
Acid 

Oxvgen. 

Marsh 
Gas. 

Nitro 
gen. 

Bituminous. 

Cwm  Clydach. 

1972 

5-41 

1-05 

6"-  76 

2970 

„ 

Lnntwlt. 

14-34 

9-4:i 

2-25 

31-95 

5G  34 

Steam. 

Navigation. 

89-62 

13-21 

0-49 

81-64 

4-C6 

Anthracite.  -J    ««•        I 

19894 

2-C2 

... 

93-13 

4-25 

In  one  instance,  about  1  per  cent,  of  bydride  of  ethyl  was 
found  in  the  gas  from  a  blower  in  a  pit  in  the  Rhondda  dis 
trict,  which  was  collected  in  a  tube  and  brought  to  the  surface 
to  be  used  in  lighting  the  engine-room  and  pit-bank.  The 
gases  from  the  bituminous  house  coals  of  South  Wales  are 


comparatively  free  from  marsh  gas,  as  compared  with  thosa 
from  the  steam  coal  and  anthracite  pits.  The  latter  class 
of  coal  contains  the  largest  proportion  of  this  danger 
ous  gas,  but  holds  it  more  tenaciously  than  do  the  steam 
coals,  thus  rendering  the  workings  comparatively  safer. 
It  was  found  that,  of  the  entire  volume  of  occluded  gas  iu 
an  anthracite,  only  one-third  could  be  expelled  at  the  tem 
perature  of  boiling  water,  and  that  the  whole  quantity, 
amounting  to  650  cubic  feet  per  ton,  was  only  to  be 
driven  out  by  a  heat  of  300°  C.  Steam  coals  being 
softer  and  more  porous  give  off  enormous  volumes  of  gas 
from  the  working  face  in  most  of  the  deep  pits,  many  of 
which  have  been  the  scene  of  disastrous  explosions. 

The  gases  evolved  from  the  sudden  outbursts  or  blowers 
in  coal,  which  are  often  given  off  at  a  considerable  tension, 
are  the  most  dangerous  enemy  that  the  collier  has  to  con 
tend  with.  They  consist  almost  entirely  of  marsh  gas, 
with  only  a  small  quantity  of  carbonic  acid,  usually  under 
1  per  cent.,  and  from  1  to  4  per  cent,  of  nitrogen. 

Fire-damp  when  mixed  with  from  four  to  twelve  times 
its  volume  of  atmospheric  air  is  explosive ;  but  when  the 
proportion  is  above  or  below  these  limits,  it  is  inflam 
mable,  burning  quietly  with  a  pale  blue  flame.  When  a 
lighted  candle  is  exposed  in  a  non-explosive  mixture  of  this 
gas,  the  flame  gradually  elongates,  forming  a  conical  cap, 
floating  above  the  wick,  which  may  be  extinguished  by 
cautious  withdrawal  without  communicating  the  fire  to  the 
surrounding  atmosphere.  This  method  of  testing  for  gas 
in  the  working  places  and  wastes,  which  is  obviously  only 
to  be  trusted  in  skilled  hands,  used  to  be  commonly 
practised,  but  since  the  introduction  of  safety  lamps  it  has 
fallen  into  disuse. 

The  principle  involved  in  the  construction  of  safety-  Safe 
lamps  consists  in  surrounding  the  flame  of  a  lamp  by  lami 
a  protecting  metal  case,  perforated  with  numerous  small 
holes,  through  which  the  air  for  feeding  the  flame  may  freely 
enter,  and  the  products  of  combustion  pass  out,  while  the 
passage  of  flame,  or  gases  sufficiently  heated  to  cause  the 
ignition  of  the  external  air  when  laden  with  explosive 
gases,  is  prevented.  In  1816  Sir  Humphrey  Davy  made 
the  great  discovery  that  these  conditions  are  fulfilled  by 
the  use  of  tubes  reduced  to  a  mere  section,  such  as  the 
apertures  in  wire  gauze,  when  the  substance  of  the  wire  is 
rightly  proportioned  to  the  size  of  the  aperture.  The 
standard  adopted  as  the  limit  for  safety  at  that  time  was 
a  gauze  of  28  iron  wires  to  the  linear  inch,  having  784 
apertures  per  square  inch,  which  has  been  used  ever  since. 
The  common  safety  or  Davy  lamp  consists  of  a  small 
cylindrical  oil  lamp,  covered  with  a  cylinder  of  wire  gauze 
about  6  inches  long  and  1J  inches  in  diameter,  with  a  flat 
gauze  top.  The  upper  part  of  the  gauze  is  doubled  to 
prevent  its  being  worn  into  holes  by  the  products  ot 
combustion,  and  the  air  for  feeding  the  flame  enters  round 
the  wick.  The  gauze  is  mounted  in  a  cage,  consisting  of 
three  upright  wires,  screwed  into  a  flat  brass  ring  at  each 
end.  A  handle  is  attached  to  the  upper  ring,  while  the  lower 
one  screws  on  to  a  collar  on  the  oil-vessel  of  the  lamp. 
When  the  two  parts  are  screwed  together  the  lamp  is  locked 
by  a  bolt  passing  through  both  parts,  which  is  screwed 
down  flush  with  or  below  the  surface  of  the  outer  ring,  so 
that  the  gauze  cannot  be  removed  without  the  use  of  a  key. 

In  Stephenson's  safety-lamp,  generally  known  as  the 
"  Geordie,"  from  the  inventor  George  Stephenson,  the  light 
is  covered  by  a  glass  chimney,  surrounded  by  an  outer 
casing  and  top  of  wire  gauze.  The  feed  air  is  admitted 
through  numerous  small  holes  in  a  copper  ring  a  little 
below  the  level  of  the  wick.  This  is  one  of  the  safest 
forms  of  lamp,  but  requires  considerable  care  in  use,  espe 
cially  in  keeping  the  small  feed  holes  clear  from  dust  and 
oil ;  the  glass  protects  the  gauze  from  becoming  overheated, 


SAFETY    LAMPS.] 


COAL 


and  when  the  air  is  dangerously  charged  with  gas  the  light 
is  extinguished. 

Various  forms  of  safety-lamps  have  been  introduced  at 
different  times,  for  the  purpose  of  increasing  the  amount  of 
light  by  substituting  a  glass  cylinder  for  the  lower  portion 
of  the  wire  gauze.  The  oldest  of  these  is  that  of  Dr 
Clanny,  contemporary  with  those  of  Davy  and  Stepheuson. 
The  air  for  supplying  the  flame,  entering  at  the  bottom  of 
the  gauze,  and  passing  down  the  iiner  side  of  the  glass, 
protects  the  latter  to  some  extent  from  becoming  over 
heated,  but  a  large  amount  of  light  is  lost;  by  absorption 
in  the  glass,  so  that  there  is  no  great  advantage  over  the 
ordinary  Davy  lamp  to  compensate  for  the  extra  weight 
and  cost,  especially  as  the  safety  property  of  the  lamp 
depends  upon  the  glass  cylinder,  which  may  be  readily 
broken  when  subjected  to  the  ordinary  accidents  of  work 
ing.  A  more  perfect  form  of  lamp  of  the  same  character 
is  that  of  Museler,  which  is  extensively  used  in  Belgium. 
It  differs  from  Clanny's  lamp  by  the  addition  of  a  conical 
chimney  above  the  flame,  which  produces  a  rapid  draught, 
and  consequently  a  more  perfect  cooling  of  the  glass 
cylinder  by  the  down-draught  of  feed  air  for  the  flame. 

Boty's  lamp,  which  was  recommended  by  a  commission 
of  the  Belgian  Government  as  being  safe  in  use,  is  essen 
tially  that  of  Dr  Clanny  with  Stephenson's  perforated  ring 
for  admitting  air  at  the  level  of  the  wick.  Another 
Belgian  variety  is  that  of  Eloin,  in  which  the  glass  is 
shaped  to  the  surface  produced  by  the  revolution  of  a 
parabolic  arc,  so  as  to  disperse  the  light  in  parallel  lines. 
The  air  is  admitted  by  a  Stephenson  ring,  combined  with 
an  Argand  cap,  the  glass  being  surrounded  by  a  brass 
chimney  with  a  gauze  top.  In  another  form  of  the  same 
lamp  Museler's  chimney  is  added. 

The  locking  of  safety-lamps,  so  as  to  render  them  in 
capable  of  being  opened  by  the  miners  when  at  work,  is  a 
point  that  has  given  play  to  a  large  amount  of  ingenuity. 
One  of  the  most  favourite  devices  is  a  combination  of  the 
wick-holder  with  the  locking  bolt,  so  that  the  latter  cannot 
be  withdrawn  without  lowering  the  wick  and  extinguishing 
the  flame.  Another  method  consists  in  the  use  of  a  lead 
rivet,  uniting  the  two  parts  of  the  lamp,  impressed  with  a 
seal,  which  cannot  be  removed  without  defacing  the  device. 
All  this  class  of  contrivances  have  the  defect  of  only  being 
efficacious  when  the  miners  are  not  provided  with  matches, 
or  other  means  of  obtaining  a  light.  A  more  physically 
perfect  method  is  that  adopted  by  Bidder,  where  the 
locking  bolt  is  magnetized  and  held  in  place  by  a  force 
which  can  only  be  overcome  by  the  application  of  a  battery 
of  heavy  and  powerful  steel  magnets.  These  are  kept  in 
the  lamp  cabin  at  the  pit  bottom,  where  the  lamps  are 
cleaned  and  served  out  lighted  to  the  miners  at  the  com 
mencement  of  the  shift,  and  are  collected  before  they  return 
to  the  surface. 

When  a  Davy  lamp  is  exposed  to  an  atmosphere  con 
taining  less  than  8  per  cent,  of  marsh  gas,  the  flame  lengthens 
and  becomes  smoky ;  when  that  amount  is  reached  the 
flame  returns  to  its  usual  size,  but  a  column  of  blue  flame 
rises  to  the  top  of  the  gauze.  With  10  per  cent,  the  flame 
of  the  wick  is  extinguished,  the  whole  of  the  space  within 
the  gauze  being  filled  with  a  blue  flame  of  burning  gas. 
If  the  lamp  is  allowed  to  remain  too  long  in  a  fiery  atmo 
sphere  it  becomes  dangerous,  as  the  gauze  being  heated  to 
redness  may  fire  the  gas.  The  safety  of  the  lamp  is  also 
endangered  by  an  exposure  to  a  current  of  gas  moving  at 
the  rate  of  more  than  6  or  8  feet  per  second,  as  the  flame 
can  then  be  readily  driven  through  the  gauze.  It  is  there 
fore  usual  to  protect  the  flame  by  a  sliding  shield  of  tin 
plate,  horn,  or  mica  from  the  direct  action  of  any  sudden 
outburst  of  gas  in  the  workings.  Lamps  with  glass  cylin 
ders  are  generally  very  safe,  except  from  the  risk  of  acci 


dental  breakage,  which,  however,  is  less  frequent  than 
might  be  imagined,  and  those  taking  air  through  a  feed 
ring,  such  as  Stephenson's,  are  readily  extinguished  in  a 
foul  atmosphere. 

The  danger  arising  from  gas  in  the  workings  may  be 
considerably  increased  by  the  presence  of  coal  dust  in  the 
air.  This  point  has  been  the  subject  of  investigation  by 
Galloway,  who  found  that  an  explosion  may  be  produced 
by  ignited  particles  of  coal  dust  through  the  agency  of  a 
safety-lamp  which  under  ordinary  circumstances  would  be 
perfectly  trustworthy.  At  Blanzy,  in  France,  several  fatal 
explosions  have  been  traced  to  the  firing  of  coal  dust  from 
the  flame  of  a  shot,  even  in  cases  where  no  fire-damp  was 
present  in  the  workings. 

An  electric  lamp,  where  the  light  is  obtained  from  the  Electric 
discharge  in  a  Geissler  vacuum  tube,  has  been  proposed  'amps, 
by  Benoit-Dumas,  instead  of  the  ordinary  safety  lamps,  or 
for  use  in  exploring  after  explosions  or  in  bad  air  ways. 
This  consists  of  a  box  containing  a  galvanic  battery,  con 
sisting  of  two  Bunsen  cells,  and  a  small  induction  coil, 
with   connecting  wires    which  convey  the  current  to  the 
lamp.     The  Bunsen  cells  may  be  conveniently  replaced  by 
a  single  bottle-ishaped  bichromate  battery.     The  cost  and 
complication  of  this  apparatus  must  necessarily  limit  its  use. 

Apparatus,  originating  in  France,  known  as  aerophores,  Aero- 
which  enable  the  miner  to  carry  sufficient  fresh  air  for  i'llores- 
his  own  respiration,  and  to  keep  a  lamp  alight  for  a 
short  time  in  a  totally  irrespirable  atmosphere,  have  of  late 
years  come  into  use  for  the  purposes  of  saving  life  after 
explosions,  and  repairing  shafts  and  pit-work  under 
water.  There  are  two  principal  patterns,  those  of  Galibert 
and  Denayrouze.  The  former,  which  is  the  simplest,  con 
sists  of  an  air- tight  bag  of  about  12  cubic  feet  capacity,  con 
taining  air  at  a  little  above  atmospheric  pressure,  which  is 
carried  on  the  miner's  back  like  a  knapsack.  The  air,  after 
being  used,  is  returned  with  the  products  of  respiration  into 
the  bag,  and  can  be  used  over  again  until  it  becomes  too 
impure  for  further  use.  It  is  obvious,  therefore,  that  such 
an  apparatus  must  be  of  very  limited  application,  but  its 
simplicity  and  cheapness  are  points  in  its  favour  for  use  in 
sudden  emergencies.  The  Denayrouze  apparatus  consists 
of  a  series  of  sheet  metal  cylinders,  containing  air  compressed 
to  300  or  350  S>  to  the  square  inch,  which  can  be  carried  on 
the  back,  and  served  out  at  a  pressure  very  slightly  above 
that  of  the  atmosphere  by  means  of  a  reducing  valve,  whose 
construction  is  essentially  the  same  in  principle  as  that  of 
the  ordinary  pressure  regulator  used  in  gas-works,  i.e.,  a 
conical  plug  closed  against  its  seat  by  the  pressure  of  the 
air  in  the  reservoir,  which  is  constantly  opposed  by  an 
external  force  tending  to  open  it.  This  force  is  supplied 
by  a  disc  of  vulcanized  india-rubber,  which  opens  the  valve 
at  each  inspiration,  and  allows  a  fresh  supply  of  air  to 
escape  into  the  chamber  of  the  regulator  through  the  small 
aperture  of  the  valve.  Of  course,  all  communication  with 
the  external  air  must  be  cut  off,  so  that  respiration  can 
only  take  place  through  the  mouth,  the  air-tube  being 
attached  by  an  india-rubber  mask  called  a  mouth-closer, 
and  the  nostrils  closed  by  a  spring  clip.  A  similar  regu 
lator  valve,  so  constructed  as  to  keep  tlic  india-rubber  spring 
under  a  slight  excess  pressure  in  order  to  maintain  a  flow 
of  air,  is  in  connection  with  the  lamp.  This  is  of  the 
ordinary  Museler  construction,  with  the  addition  of  a 
chamber  outside  the  gauze  to  receive  the  products  of  com 
bustion,  which  are  discharged  through  a  conical  valve  at 
the  top,  a  reflux  of  the  exterior  gases  being  prevented  by 
the  pressure  of  a  counter  spring.  The  air  is  carried  to 
the  lamp  by  an  india-rubber  tube,  which  is  sufficiently 
flexible  to  allow  a  certain  freedom  of  motion.  The  dis 
tance  that  an  explorer  can  penetrate  with  this  apparatus 
is  obviously  limited  by  the  capacity  of  the  air-cylinders. 

VT.  —   10 


COAL 


[MINING. 


These  have  been  made  large  enough  to  supply  air  to  a  man 
with  a  lamp  for  an  hour,  but  this  is  an  inconvenient  size, 
being  too  large  to  be  carried  on  the  back. 

Fires  in  Underground  fires  are  not  uncommon  accidents  in  coal 

mines,  mines.  In  the  thick  coal  workings  in  South  Staffordshire 
the  slack  left  behind  in  the  sides  of  work  is  especially 
liable  to  fire  from  so-called  spontaneous  combustion,  due 
to  the  rapid  oxidization  that  is  set  up,  when  finely-divided 
coal  is  brought  in  contact  with  air.  The  best  remedy  in 
such  cases  is  to  prevent  the  air  from  gaining  access  to  the 
coal  by  building  a  wall  round  the  burning  portion,  which  can 
in  this  way  be  isolated  from  the  remainder  of  the  working, 
and  the  fire  prevented  from  spreading,  even  if  it  cannot 
be  extinguished.  When  the  coal  is  fired  by  the  blast  of 
an  explosion  it  is  often  necessary  to  completely  isolate  the 
mine  by  stopping  up  the  mouths  of  the  pits  with  earth,  or 
in  extreme  cases  it  must  be  flooded  with  water  or  carbonic 
acid  before  the  fire  can  be  brought  under.  There  have 
been  several  instances  of  this  being  done  in  the  fiery  pits 
in  the  Barnsley  district,  notably  at  the  great  explosion  at 
the  Oaks  colliery  in  18G6,  when  360  lives  were  lost. 
Methods  of  The  drawing  or  winding  of  the  coal  from  the  pit  bottom 
winding,  to  the  surface  is  one  of  the  most  important  operations  in 
coal  mining,  and  probably  the  department  in  which  me 
chanical  appliances  have  been  brought  to  the  highest  state 
of  development.  In  the  simplest  case,  where  the  mine  is 
worked  by  levels,  the  trains  of  coal  may  be  drawn  from  the 
working  faces  directly  to  the  level  mouth  by  horse  power, 
or  in  some  exceptional  cases  locomotives  worked  by  com 
pressed  air  are  used.  In  South  Wales  the  power  for  lifting 
the  load  in  the  shaft  is  still  in  some  small  workings  fur 
nished  by  a  water  balance,  that  is,  a  box  which  is  filled 
with  water  at  a  high  level,  and  in  descending  raises 
the  loaded  trucks  by  a  rope  passing  over  a  pulley  at  the 
surface.  This  method  is  only  available  when  there  is  a 
free  drainage  level  for  the  water  to  run  off  wrhen  the  box 
reaches  the  lowest  point.  Other  hydraulic  motors,  such 
as  wheels,  pressure  engines,  &c.,  are  used  in  different  locali 
ties  as  well  as  animal  power,  where  the  amount  of  coal  to 
be  drawn  is  small,  but  as  a  general  rule  it  is  necessary  to 
have  recourse  to  steam  power  to  maintain  an  adequate 
output.  The  old  custom  of  drawing  the  coals  in  tubs  or 
hutches  (cu/at  of  the  French  miner),  swinging  freely  from 
the  end  of  the  drawing  rope,  is  now  almost  entirely  super 
seded  by  the  adoption  of  cages  sliding  between  fixed  guides, 
which  allow  the  load  to  move  freely  up  and  down  while 
checking  lateral  oscillation.  This  improvement,  which  is 
due  to  Mr  John  Curr  of  Sheffield,  was  originally  intro 
duced  in  1798,  but  made  surprisingly  little  progress  for 
nearly  half  a  century.  It  was  first  brought  into  general 
use  in  the  North  of  England,  but  in  many  of  the  smaller 
pits  of  the  Midland  counties  the  older  custom  prevailed 
until  recently. 

The  different  elements  making  up  the  drawing  arrange 
ments  of  a  colliery  are — (1)  the  cage,  (2)  the  shaft  or  pit 
fittings,  (3)  the  drawing-rope,  (4)  the  engine,  and  (5)  the 
Cage.  surface  arrangements.  The  cage,  as  its  name  implies, 
consists  of  one  or  more  platforms  connected  by  an  open 
framework  of  vertical  bars  of  wrought  iron  or  steel,  with 
a  top  bar  to  which  the  drawing-rope  is  attached.  It  is 
customary  to  have  a  curved  sheet-iron  roof  or  bonnet  when 
the  cage  is  used  for  raising  or  lowering  the  miners,  to  pre 
vent  them  from  injury  by  falling  materials.  The  number 
of  platforms  or  decks  varies  considerably  ;  in  small  mines 
only  a  single  one  may  be  used,  but  in  the  larger  modern 
pits  two,  three,  or  even  four-decked  cages  are  used.  The 
use  of  several  decks  is  necessary  in  old  pits  of  small  sec 
tion,  where  only  a  single  tram  can  be  carried  on  each.  In 
the  large  shafts  of  the  Northern  and  Wigan  districts  the 
cages  are  made  about  8  feet  lon^  and  3£  feet  broad,  being 


sufficient  to  carry  two  large  trams  on  one  deck.  These 
are  received  upon  a  railway  made  of  two  strips  of  angle 
iron  of  the  proper  gauge  for  the  wheels,  and  are  locked 
fast  by  a  latch  falling  over  their  ends. 

The  guides  or  conductors  in  the  pit  may  be  constructed  Gui 
of  wood,  in  which  case  rectangular  fir  beams,  about  3  by  4 
inches,  are  used,  attached  at  intervals  of  a  few  feet  to 
buntons  or  cross-beams,  built  into  the  lining  of  the  pit. 
Two  guides  are  required  for  each  cage ;  they  may  be 
placed  opposite  to  each  other,  either  on  the  long  or  short 
sides — the  latter  being  preferable.  The  cage  is  guided  by 
shoes  of  wrought  iron,  a  few  inches  long  and  bell-mouthed 
at  the  ends,  attached  to  the  horizontal  bars  of  the  framing, 
which  pass  loosely  over  the  guides  on  three  sides.  In 
some  of  the  large  collieries  in  Northumberland  wrought 
iron  guides  have  been  adopted  with  advantage.  They  are 
applied  on  one  side  of  the  cage  only,  forming  a  complete 
vertical  railway, — light  flange  rails  such  as  are  used  for  the 
roadways  underground  being  used  instead  of  wooden  rods 
and  iron  cross  sleepers,  with  proper  seats  for  the  rails 
instead  of  wooden  buntons  ;  the  cage  is  guided  by  curved 
shoes  of  a  proper  section  to  cover  the  heads  of  the  rails. 
Rigid  guides  connected  with  the  walling  of  the  pit  are 
probably  the  best  and  safest,  but  they  have  the  disadvan 
tage  of  being  liable  to  distortion,  in  case  of  the  pit  altering 
its  form,  owing  to  irregular  movements  of  the  ground,  or 
other  causes,  Wooden  guides  being  of  considerable  size, 
block  up  a  certain  portion  of  the  area  of  the  pit,  and  thus 
offer  an  impediment  to  the  ventilation,  especially  in  up 
cast  shafts,  where  the  high  temperature,  when  furnace 
ventilation  is  used,  is  also  against  their  use.  In  the 
Wigan  district,  wire-rope  guides  have  been  introduced  to 
a  very  considerable  extent,  with  a  view  of  meeting  the 
above  objections.  These  are  simply  wire-ropes,  from  f  to  1£ 
inches  in  diameter,  hanging  from  a  cross-bar  connected 
with  the  pit-head  framing  at  the  surface,  and  attached  to 
a  similar  bar  at  the  bottom,  which  are  kept  straight  by 
a  stretching  weight  of  from  30  cwt.  to  4  tons  attached  to 
the  lower  bar.  In  some  cases  four  guides  are  used — two  to 
each  of  the  long  sides  of  the  cage ;  but  a  more  general 
arrangement  is  to  have  three — two  on  one  side,  and  the 
third  in  an  intermediate  position  on  the  opposite  side. 
Many  colliery  managers,  however,  prefer  to  have  only  two 
opposite  guides,  as  being  safer.  The  cage  is  connected 
by  tubular  clips,  made  in  two  pieces  and  bolted  together, 
which  slide  over  the  ropes.  In  addition  to  this,  it  is  ne 
cessary  to  have  an  extra  system  of  fixed  guides  at  the 
surface  and  at  the  bottom,  where  it  is  necessary  to  keep 
the  cage  steady  during  the  operations  of  loading  and 
landing,  there  being  a  much  greater  amount  of  oscillation 
during  the  passage  of  the  cage  than  with  fixed  guides. 
For  the  same  reason  it  is  necessary  to  give  a  considerable 
clearance  between  the  two  lines  of  guides,  which  are  kept 
from  15  to  18  inches  apart,  to  prevent  the  possibility  of 
the  two  cages  striking  each  other  in  passing.  With 
proper  precautions,  however,  wire  guides  are  perfectly 
safe  for  use  at  the  highest  travelling  speed. 

The  cage  is  connected  with  the  drawing-rope  by  short  Ro] 
lengths  of  chain  from  the  corners  known  as  tackling clia 
chains,  gathered  into  a  central  ring,  to  which  the  rope  is 
attached.  Round  steel  wire-ropes,  about  2  inches  in 
diameter,  are  now  commonly  used  ;  but  in  very  deep  pits 
they  are  sometimes  tapered  in  section  to  reduce  the  dead 
weight  lifted.  Flat  ropes  of  steel  or  iron  wire  were  and  are 
still  used  to  a  great  extent,  but  round  ones  are  now  gene 
rally  preferred.  In  Belgium  flat  ropes  of  aloe  fibre  are 
in  high  repute,  being  considered  preferable  by  many 
colliery  managers  to  wire,  in  spite  of  their  great  weight. 
In  South  Staffordshire,  flat  link  chains  made  with  three 
or  more  parallel  links,  with  a  stud  of  wood  filling  up  the 


WINDING.] 


COAL 


hollow,  are  or  were  in  general  use  in  the  numerous  shallow 
pits  working  the  thick  coal  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Dudley,  &c. 

The  best  modern  engines  for  drawing  in  collieries  are 
usually  direct-acting,  with  either  horizontal  or  vertical 
cylinders.  In  the  north  of  England  a  single  engine  with 
a  heavy  fly-wheel  is  often  used,  but  the  more  general 
arrangement  is  to  have  two  engines  coupled  to  the  opposite 
ends  of  the  winding  drum-shaft.  In  almost  all  cases  steam 
is  used  at  high  pressure  without  condensation. 

The  drum,  when  round  ropes  are  used,  is  a  plain  broad 
cylinder,  with  flanged  rims,  and  cased  with  soft  wood 
packing,  upon  which  the  rope  is  coiled ;  the  breadth  is 
made  sufficient  to  take  the  whole  length  of  the  rope  at  two 
laps.  One  drum  is  usually  fixed  to  the  shaft,  while  the 
other  is  loose,  with  a  screw  link  or  other  means  of  coup 
ling,  in  order  to  be  able  to  adjust  the  two  ropes  to  exactly 
the  same  length,  so  that  one  cage  may  be  at  the  surface 
when  the  other  is  at  the  bottom,  without  having  to  pay 
out  or  take  up  any  slack  rope  by  the  engine. 

For  flat  ropes,  the  drum  or  bobbin  consists  of  a  solid 
disc,  of  the  width  of  the  rope  fixed  upon  the  shaft,  with 
numerous  parallel  pairs  of  arms  or  horns,  arranged  radially 
on  both  sides,  the  space  between  being  just  sufficient  to 
allow  the  rope  to  enter  and  coil  regularly  upon  the  preced 
ing  lap.  This  method  has  the  advantage  of  equalizing 
the  wark  of  the  engine  throughout  the  journey,  for  when 
the  load  is  greatest,  with  the  full  cage  at  the  bottom  and 
the  whole  length  of  rope  out,  the  duty  required  in  the  first 
revolution  of  the  engine  is  measured  by  the  length  of  the 
smallest  circumference  ;  while  the  assistance  derived  from 
gravitating  action  of  the  descending  cage  in  the  same 
period  is  equal  to  the  weight  of  the  falling  mass  through  a 
height  corresponding  to  the  length  of  the  largest  lap,  and 
so  on,  the  speed  being  increased  as  the  weight  diminishes, 
and  vice  versa. 

The  same  thing  can  be  effected  in  a  more  perfect  manner 
by  the  use  of  spiral  or  scroll  drums,  in  which  the  rope  is 
made  to  coil  in  a  spiral  groove  upon  the  surface  of  the 
drum,  which  is  formed  by  the  frusta  of  two  obtuse  cones 
{•laced  with  their  smaller  diameters  outwards.  This  plan, 
though  mechanically  a  very  good  one,  has  certain  defects, 
especially  in  the  possibility  of  danger  resulting  from  the 
rope  slipping  sideways,  if  the  grooves  in  the  bed  are  not 
perfectly  true.  The  great  size  and  weight  of  such  drums 
are  also  disadvantages,  as  giving  rather  unmanageable 
dimensions  in  a  very  deep  pit. 

The  use  of  a  counterbalance  chain  for  the  winding 
engines  is  common  in  the  collieries  of  the  Midland  dis 
tricts  of  England.  In  this  method  a  third  drum  is  used 
to  receive  a  heavy  flat  link  chain,  shorter  than  the  main 
drawing-ropes,  the  end  of  which  hangs  down  a  special  or 
balance  pit.  At  starting,  when  the  full  load  is  to  be 
lifted,  the  balance  chain  uncoils,  and  continues  to  do  so 
until  the  desired  equilibrium  between  the  working  loads  is 
attained,  when  it  is  coiled  up  again  in  the  reverse  direc 
tion,  to  be  again  given  out  on  the  return  trip. 

The  surface  arrangements  of  a  modern  colliery  are  often 
of  considerable  extent  and  complexity,  the  most  important 
feature  being  the  pit-frame  carrying  the  guide-pulleys  or 
rope-rolls  which  lead  the  drawing-ropes  from  the  verti 
cal  line  of  the  pit  to  the  engine-drum.  This  consists 
essentially  of  an  upright  framework,  carefully  braced 
together,  and  strutted  by  diagonal  beams  against  the  wall 
of  the  engine-house,  or  other  solid  abutment.  It  is  gene 
rally  necessary  to  have  a  clear  head-room,  10  or  20  feet  or 
more,  for  the  working  arrangements  at  the  surface  above 
the  level  of  the  ground,  especially  in  flat  countries  ;  the  pit- 
frames  are  made  of  considerable  height,  from  50  to  70 
feet  being  not  uncommon ;  and  when,  as  is  generally  the 


case,  they  are  made  of  wood,  they  afford  opportunities  for 
the  exercise  of  skilful  carpentry.  Of  late  years,  however, 
wrought  iron  pit-frames  have  been  adopted  to  some  extent, 
which  allows  of  a  comparatively  simpler  construction 
being  used,  the  main  elements  of  the  frame  consisting  of 
hollow  latticed  pillars  and  beams,  similar  to  the  construc 
tion  now  generally  adopted  for  the  pillars  of  railway 
signals,  but  of  course  of  a  more  solid  construction.  They 
have  one  great  advantage  over  wooden  frames,  in  not 
being  liable  to  destruction  by  fire,  an  accident  which  has 
occasionally  happened  with  the  latter.  The  guide-pulleys 
for  iron  or  steel  wire-ropes  are  made  of  very  large  dimen 
sions,  to  avoid  strain  upon  the  wires  by  sudden  change  of 


direction  when  moving  at  a  high 
speed.  The  usual  construction  is 
a  deep  channeled  rim  or  tire  of 
cast-iron,  from  7  to  20  feet  in 
diameter,  supported  by  numerous 
thin  wrought  iron  arms,  inclining 
inwards  from  a  central  cast  iron 
boss, — a  form  combining  rigidity 
with  comparative  lightness.  They 
are  in  fact  very  similar  to  the 
driving  wheels  of  the  large  modern 
bicycles,  supposing  a  channeled 
rim  to  be  substituted  for  the  india- 
rubber  tire. 

To  prevent  accidents  from  the  Safety 
breakage  of  the  rope  on  the  shaft,  catches. 
or   from    overwinding   when    the 
engine  is  not  stopped  at  the  right 
moment,  whereby  the  cage  may  be 


C 

Fig.  21. 
FIGS.  19-21.— White  and  Grant's  Safety  Catch. 

dragged  up  to  the  head  pulleys  (both  which  kinds  of  acci 
dent  are  unhappily  not  uncommon),  various  forms  of  safety 
catch  and  disengaging  hooks  have  been  proposed.  These 
consist  of  variously-constructed  toothed  levers,  cams,  or 
eccentrics,  mounted  upon  transverse  axes,  attached  to  the 
top  of  the  cage,  whose  function  is  to  take  hold  of  the 
guides,  and  support  the  cage  in  the  event  of  its  becoming 
detached  from  the  rope.  They  are  generally  applied  by 
means  of  springs  acting  against  the  pull  of  the  rope.  Figs. 
19-21  represent  a  form  of  safety  catch,  introduced  some 
years  since  by  Messrs  White  and  Grant  of  Glasgow.  The 
catches  BB  consist  of  partially  toothed  eccentrics,  which 
when  released  are  forced  inwards  against  the  wooden  guide 
a  by  the  coiled  springs  d  d,  as  shown  in  fig.  21. 

When  the  rope  is  drawing,  the  catches  are  lifted  by  the 


7(5 


COAL 


[MIXING. 


pull  of  the  chains  attached  to  the  pulleys  c  c,  which  turn 
the  broad  toothed  portions  outwards,  and  away  from  the 
guides.  The  connection  with  the  rope  is  made  by  the 
slide  bar  C  and  spring  catch  h  having  a  projecting 
trigger,  which,  if  the  cage  is  lifted  too  high,  strikes  against 
the  cross-bar  of  the  framing  k,  and  detaches  the  cage, 
which  is  then  left  hanging  by  the  catches  to  the  guides  in 
the  pit.  The  use  of  safety  catches  is  more  common  in  the 
collieries  of  France,  Belgium,  and  Germany  than  in  Eng 
land,  where  they  are  not  generally  popular,  owing  to 
their  uncertainty  in  action,  as  they  are  often  fouud  to  fail 
when  most  wanted.  The  constant  drag  of  the  catches  on 
the  guides  when  the  rope  slacks  is  also  objectionable,  but 
this  has  been  overcome  to  a  great  extent  in  a  very  in 
genious  contrivance  invented  by  Mr  Calow,  where  the 
catches  are  not  brought  into  action  unless  the  cage  is 
actually  falling  clear  of  the  rope,  with  a  certain  acquired 
momentum  of  its  own.  The  only  real  safeguards  against 
accidents  in  winding  are  to  be  found  in  constant  vigilance, 
in  maintaining  the  ropes  in  working  efficiency,  and  in  the 
use  of  proper  signals  and  brake  power  in  the  engine  house. 
The  speed  attained  by  the  load  in  the  shaft  in  the  best- 
appointed  English  collieries  is  very  considerable,  and  may 
be  paralleled  with  that  of  a  fast  railway  train.  At  Shire- 
oaks  Colliery,  Nottinghamshire,  the  cage  with  a  load  of 
34  cwts.  of  coal  in  five  tubs,  and  weighing  in  all  60  cwts., 
or  with  the  rope  at  the  bottom  92^  cwts.,  is  raised  from  a 
depth  of  51 G  yards  in  45  seconds,  corresponding  to  an 
average  of  35  feet  per  second,  or  24  miles  per  hour,  the 
maximum  speed  when  the  load  is  mid- way  being  50  feet 
per  second,  or  nearly  35  miles  an  hour.  The  ropes  used 
are  round,  of  steel  wire,  weighing  13  Ibs.  to  the  yard, 
winding  on  to  a  spiral  drum,  increasing  from  17  to  20 
ftet  in  diameter.  Thera  are  two  engines  with  vertical 
cylinders,  32  inches  diameter  and  6  feet  stroke,  developing 
a  useful  effect  of  about  320  horse-power.  The  guide  pul 
leys  are  12  feet  in  diameter. 

The  above  may  be  taken  as  a  good  example  of  the  mo 
dern  class  of  winding  engines,  such  as  are  required  to 
draw  from  600  to  1200  tons  in  the  shift  of  10  hours. 
When  the  pits  are  of  small  depth  it  is  better  to  increase 
the  weight  of  the  load  than  to  draw  at  a  very  high  speed, 
as  the  loss  of  time  in  filling  and  unloading  or  striking  the 
cages  is  the  same  for  a  short  as  for  a  long  journey,  so  that 
it  becomes  advantageous  to  diminish  the  number  of  journeys 
for  a  given  quantity  of  coal  drawn. 

The  great  amount  of  dead  weight  required  to  be  raised 
in  the  ordinary  system  of  winding  (e.g.,  in  the  instance 
given  above,  the  total  weight  moved  is  nearly  four  times 
that  of  the  nett  load  drawn,  that  of  the  ropes  being  nearly 
1 1  times  as  much  as  the  latter),  has  led  to  the  proposal  of 
various  plans  to  obtain  a  more  mechanically  economical 
method,  but  none  of  these  have  at  present  been  brought 
into  successful  use.  One  of  the  latest  is  that  of  M. 
Blanchet,  who  proposes  to  draw  a  number  of  tubs  linked 
together  into  a  long  vertical  train  in  a  closed  tube  about 
5 1  feet  in  diameter,  by  exhausting  the  air  above  them  in 
the  manner  adopted  in  the  pneumatic  tubes  used  for  the 
transmission  of  parcels.  An  experimental  apparatus  of 
this  class  has  been  recently  constructed  at  Creusot,  in 
France,  designed  to  lift  a  cage  with  9  tubs,  attached  to  a 
piston,  weighing  in  all  about  12|  tons. 

Striking        When  the  cage  arrives  at  the  surface,  or  rather  the  plat- 

'ail(j  "  '    form  forming  tho  working  top  above  the  mouth  of  the  pit, 

scrcening.it  is  received  upon  the  keeps,  a  pair  of  hinged  gratings 

which  are  kept  in  an  inclined  position  over  the  pit-top  by 

counterbalance  weights,  so  that  they  are  pushed  aside  to 

allow  the  cage  to  pass  upwards,  but  fall  back  and  receive 

it  when  the  engine  is  reversed.     The  tubs  are  then  removed 

or  struck  by  the  landers,  who  pull  them  forward  on  to  the 


platform,  which  is  covered  with  cast-iron  plates;  at  the 
same  time  empty  ones  are  pushed  in  from  the  opposite 
side.  The  cage  is  then  lifted  by  the  engine  clear  of  the 
keeps,  which  are  opened  by  a  lever  worked  by  hand,  and 
the  empty  tubs  start  on  the  return  trip.  When  the  cage 
has  several  decks,  it  is  necessary  to  repeat  this  operation 
for  each,  unless  there  is  a  special  provision  made  for  load- 
ipg  and  discharging  the  tubs  at  different  levels.  An 
arrangement  of  this  kind  for  shifting  the  load  from  a  large 
cage  at  one  operation  has  recently  been  introduced  by  Mr 
Fowler  at  Hucknall,  in  Leicestershire,  where  the  trains  are 
received  into  a  framework  with  a  number  of  platforms  cor 
responding  to  those  of  the  cage,  carried  on  the  head  of  a 
plunger  movable  by  hydraulic  pressure  in  a  vertical 
cylinder.  The  empty  tubs  are  carried  by  a  corresponding 
arrangement  on  the  opposite  side.  By  this  means  the 
time  of  stoppage  is  reduced  to  a  minimum,  8  seconds  for 
a  three-decked  cage  as  against  28  seconds,  as  the  operations 
of  lowering  the  tubs  to  the  level  of  the  pit-top,  discharging, 
and  replacing  them  are  performed  during  the  time  that 
the  following  load  is  being  drawn  up  the  pit. 

The  tub  when  brought  to  the  surface,  after  passing  over 
a  weigh-bridge,  where  it  is  weighed  and  tallied  by  a  weigher 
specially  appointed  for  the  purpose  by  the  men  and  the  owner 
jointly,  is  run  into  a  tipping  cage,  and  the  contents  are  dis 
charged  into  an  inclined  screen  with  bars  about  1  inch  to 
1  -|  inches  apart.  The  large  coal  remaining  passes  through 
a  spout  into  a  railway  waggon  placed  below,  the  discharge 
being  regulated  by  a  valve  at  the  lower  end.  The  small 
coal  passing  through  is  either  sold  as  such,  or  may  be  lifted 
by  an  elevator  to  a  second  series  of  screens,  either  fixed  or 
rotating,  with  half-inch  apertures.  These  make  a  further 
separation  of  larger  pieces,  which  are  sold  as  "nuts,"  while 
the  small,  or  slack,  passing  through  is  sent  to  the  coke 
ovens,  if  the  quality  of  the  coal  is  suitable.  Asa  rule,  non- 
caking  coals  are  not  very  closely  screened,  as  the  small  is 
of  comparatively  little  valu?,  and  therefore  must  have  a 
proportion  of  larger  sizes  mixed  with  it  to  form  saleable 
slack. 

Figs.  22-24,  representing  the  surface  arrangements  Illustr 
adopted  at  a  pair  of  pits  in  the  Wigan  district,  may  be  tions  f 
taken  as  fairly  representative  of  the  fittings  of  a  large  ^ra^( 
modern  colliery,  where  a  considerable  output  of  coal  has  to  ment8. 
be  screened  and  loaded  in  an  ordinary  working  day  of  less 
than  twelve  hours.  The  details,  of  course,  will  vary,  ac 
cording  to  the  nature  of  the  outlet  or  vend,  which  may  be 
by  retailing  into  carts  sent  by  purchasers,  or  by  canals  or 
railways,  or  by  a  combination  of  all  three.  In  the  example 
selected,  the  coal  is  loaded  directly  from  the  screens  into 
full-sized  trucks,  each  carrying  from  6  to  8  tons,  on  a  main 
line  of  railway.  Of  the  two  pits,  one  is  an  upcast,  and 
is  surmounted  by  a  chimney  at  the  surface, — the  drawing 
being  confined  to  the  downcast,  which  is  310  yards  deep 
and  10|  feet  in  diameter.  GOO  tons  of  coal  are  drawn 
from  this  depth  in  10  hours  by  a  pair  of  direct-acting 
engines,  with  vertical  cylinders  working  a  spiral  drum,  in 
creasing  from  13i  feet  to  1 7|  feet  in  diameter.  The  pit-head 
frame  is  of  wood,  with  guide  pulleys  7  feet  in  diameter, — 
a  much,  smaller  size  than  is  now  usually  adopted  ;  the  iron 
wire  drawing-ropes  are  round,  weighing  5  ft)  to  the  yard. 
Double-decked  cages  of  a  light  construction  in  wrought 
iron  are  used,  carrying  four  tubs  at  a  time.  The  landing 
platform  is  raised  upon  pillars  20  feet  above  the  surface  of 
the  ground,  and  covered  with  iron  plates.  As  soon  as  the 
cage  arrives  at  the  surface,  the  tubs  are  run  into  tumbling 
cages,  which  discharge  their  contents  on  to  fixed  screens, 
witL  bars  of  1  to  1^  inch  aperture.  The  large  coal  passes 
by  a  shoot  directly  into  the  railway  waggon,  while  the  first 
screenings  fall  into  a  channel  below,  which  is  traversed  by 
a  series  of  scrapers  attached  to  an  endless  chain,  and  are 


SURFACE    ARRANGEMENTS.] 


COAL 


t 


carried  to  an  elevator  or  Jacob's  ladder,  and  discharged 
into  rotatory  drum  sieves  of  about  ^-inch  aperture,  pro 
ducing  a  second  size  of  saleable  coal,  known  as  nuts,  and 


FIG.  22.— Elevation. 


FIG.  23.— Plan. 


FIG.  24. — Transverse  Elevation. 
Fias.  22-24. — Surface  arrangements  of  Colliery. 

slack,  which  is  sent  away  to  the  coke  ovens  attached  to 
the  colliery.  The  whole  of  the  labour  required  in  the 
screening  the  output  of  600  tons  in  the  day  of  ten  hours  is 
performed  by  one  engineman,  who  has  charge  of  all  the 
mechanical  arrangements,  and  nine  boys,  who  pick  out  any 
large  lumps  of  stone  from  the  coal  as  it  passes  the  first 
screens.  The  engine  driving  the  screens  and  elevators  is 
in  charge  of  a  special  engineman. 

Fig,  25  represents  one  of  a  pair  of  pits  at  Pemberton 
Colliery,  near  Wigan,  having  the  pit  frames  constructed  in 
wrought  iron  lattice  truss-work  instead  of  wood.  The 
screens  for  large  coal  (S)  are  arranged  symmetrically  on  the 
landing  platform,  three  on  each  side  of  the  pit  top,  and 
discharge  directly  into  waggons  on  the  railway  below.  The 
small  coal  from  these  screens  is  passed  by  a  screw  creeper 
C,  like  those  used  in  flour  mills,  to  a  bucket  elevator  E, 
which  delivers  it  at  the  top  of  the  second  set  of  screens  R, 
where  the  nuts  and  slack  are  separated.  The  platform,  as 
in  most  of  the  new  collieries  in  this  district,  is  roofed  over 
to  protect  the  workmen  from  the  weather.  The  second 
pit,  which  occupies  a  corresponding  position  on  the  oppo 
site  side  of  the  engine-house,  is  in  every  respect  similar. 


The  large  collieries  in  the  steain-coal  district  of  North 
umberland  are  among  the  most  productive ;  thus,  at  Bed- 
lington,  near  Morpsth,  1200  tons  are  raised  daily,  and  at 
North  Seaton  from.  1500  to  1800  tons. 

When  the  coal  is  very  much  mixed  with  shale,  the  slack  Coal- 
often  contains  so  much  mineral  matter  as  to  be  quite  worth-  washing 
less,  until  at  least  a  partial  separation  has  beeu  effected.  maclunes»- 
This  is  now  done  by  means  of  coal-washing   machines, 
which  were  first  adopted  in  France,  but  have  now  become 
general  in  other   countries.       There   are   many  different 
forms,  but  the  most  usual  is  a  fixed  sieve  plate,  upon  which 
the  slack  is  received   and  subjected  to   the  action  of  a 
current  of  water  forced  through  the  holes  by  the  action  of 
a  fast-moving  short-stroke  plunger  pump,  which  puts  the 


Elevation 


tfvr    /m 

1 

1  r 

3 

3 

[     R 

3 

c 

Fro.  25. — Surface  arrangements,  Pemberton  Pit,  Wigan. 

whole  of  the  materials  into  suspension,  and  allows  them  to 
fall  through  the  water  at  each  stroke.  By  this  means  the 
coal,  being  the  lighter  material,  travels  to  the  surface,  and 
the  heavier  shale  and  stone  going  to  the  bottom  are  dis 
charged  through  a  valve  there.  The  apparatus  is  in  fact  a 
form  of  the  hydraulic  jigging  hutch  used  for  the  dressing 
of  lead  and  other  ores,  except  that  in  this  case  the  lighter 
and  not  the  heavier  part  is  the  valuable  mineral.  In 
another  form  of  coal-dressing  machine  introduced  by  Mr 
Evrard,  the  jigging  action  is  produced  by  a  jet  of  steam 
acting  directly  upon  the  water  instead  of  a  plunger  piston. 
Washed  slack  when  suitable  is  used  for  conversion  into 
coke,  but  in  France  and  Belgium  it  is  now  generally 
employed  in  the  production  of  agglomerated  fuel,  or  bri 
quettes,  or  what  is  usually  known  in  England  as  patent 
fuel.  These  consist  of  coal  dust  mixed  with  a  sufficient 
amount  of  gas-pitch  to  be  moulded  into  coherent  bricks 
or  cylinders,  which  are  afterwards  dried  at  a  high  tem 
perature,  but  below  the  point  of  carbonization.  The  con 
solidation  of  the  slack  may  also  be  effected  by  the  use  of 
starch  or  dextrine,  or  even  by  cement  or  clay.  This  class 
of  fuel  is  much  used  upon  the  French  railways,  being  con 
venient  for  stowage  and  economical  in  use;  but  as  a  rule 
it  is  disagreeable  to  the  passengers  from  the  large  amount 
of  coal-dust  carried  off  by  the  exhaust  steam,  and  the 
unpleasant  vapours  produced  by  the  burning  pitch.  The 


78 


0  O  A 


I  PRODUCTION. 


principal  production  of  patent  fuel  in  Britain  is  in  South 

Wales. 

The  anthracite  coal  of  Pennsylvania  is  subjected  to  the 
exceptional  treatment  of  breaking  between  toothed  rollers, 
and  an  elaborate  system  of  screening  before  it  is  fit  for 
sale.  The  largest  or  lump  coal  is  that  which  remains  upon 
a  riddle  having  the  bars  four  inches  apart ;  the  second, 
or  steamboat  coal,  is  above  3  inches ;  broken  coal  includes 
sizes  above  2£  or  2f  inches ;  egg  coal,  pieces  above  2  j 
inches  square;  large  stove  coal,  If  inches;  small  stove, 
1  to  1£  or  1£  inches;  chestnut  coal,  f  to  £  inch;  pea 
coal,  $  inch ;  and  buckwheat  coal,  £  inch.  The  most  valu 
able  of  these  are  the  egg  and  stove  sizes,  which  are 
broken  to  the  proper  dimensions  for  household  use,  the 
larger  lumps  being  unfit  for  burning  in  open  fire-places. 
Proportion  The  proportion  of  coal  utilized  in  the  working,  as  com- 
of  coal  ob-  pared  with  the  total  contents  of  the  seam,  varies  very 
tained  in  considerably  in  different  districts,  being  greatest  in  seams 
of  moderate  thickness,  from  3  to  5  feet,  which  on  the 
long-wall  system  can  be  entirely  removed.  In  thick  coals, 
such  as  the  ten-yard  seam  of  South  Staffordshire,  the  waste 
is  very  considerable.  In  Cheshire  and  Lancashire  about 
1330  tons  of  saleable  coal  are  obtained  from  an  acre  for 
each  foot  of  thickness  in  the  seam,  only  8  per  cent,  of  the 
total  being  left  behind  in  the  workings. 

At  Dowlais,  on  the  north  of  the  South  Wales  coal-field, 
the  yield  is  1190  tons  to  the  foot  by  long-wall,  but  only 
866  tons  when  the  same  seam  was  worked  by  the  pillar  and 
stall  system  ;  but  on  the  south  side  of  the  basin,  where  the 
seams  lie  at  a  steep  slope,  the  loss  is  often  much  greater, 
being  from  20  to  50  per  cent,  on  pillar  and  stall  workings. 
In  the  Barnsley  district,  the  yield  is  from  1150  to  1280 
tons  in  thick  seams,  and  a  maximum  of  1417  tons  has  been 
obtained  in  a  thin  seam,  the  solid  contents  of  the  whole 
coal  being  estimated  at  1556  tons  per  foot  per  acre.  In 
Northumberland  about  1200  tons  are  got  out  of  a  total 
of  1300.  In  the  thick  coal  of  South  Staffordshire,  from 
12,000  to  16,000  tons  per  acre  are  got  at  the  first  working 
on  an  average  thickness  of  25|  feet,  or  about  640  tons  to 
the  foot,  or  from  50  to  60  per  cent,  of  the  whole,  which 
is  increased  by  the  second  and  third  working  to  70  or  75 
per  cent,  making  a  loss  of  from  25  to  30  per  cent.  This 
amount  is  reduced,  however,  by  the  long-wall  method  of 
working. 

Probably  from  10  to  15  per  cent,  may  be  taken  as  the 
unavoidable  loss  in  working  under  the  most  favourable 
conditions,  but  in  many  cases  the  proportion  is  consider 
ably  higher. 

Ownership  In  the  United  Kingdom  the  ownership  of  coal,  like  that 
of  other  minerals,  is  in  the  proprietor  of  the  soil,  and 
passes  with  it,  except  when  specially  reserved  in  the  sale. 
The  greater  number  of  collieries  are  worked  upon  leases, 
the  rents  or  royalties  being  variously  charged  in  different 
localities.  A  minimum  reserved  rent  to  cover  a  certain 
output,  with  a  rate  per  ton  on  any  quantity  in  excess,  is 
the  most  general  practice ;  but  in  Lancashire  and  York 
shire  the  royalties  are  charged  at  a  fixed  rate  per  acre  per 
annum  upon  each  seam  worked,  and  in  South  Staffordshire 
at  a  proportion  (from  £  to  -fa)  of  tho  coal  at  the  pit's 
mouth. 

Coal  lying  under  the  sea  below  low-water  mark  belongs 
to  the  Crown,  and  can  only  be  worked  upon  payment  of 
royalties,  even  when  it  is  approached  from  shafts  sunk 
upon  land  in  private  ownership. 

In  the  Forest  of  Dean,  which  is  the  property  of  the 
Crown  as  a  royal  forest,  there  are  certain  curious  rights 
held  by  a  portion  of  the  inhabitants  known  as  the  Free 
Miners  of  the  Forest,  who  are  entitled  to  mine  for  coal  and 
iron  ore,  under  leases,  known  as  gales,  granted  by  the 
principal  agent  or  gaveller  representing  the  Crown,  in 


tracts  not  otherwise  occupied.  This  is  the  only  instance 
in  Great  Britain  of  the  custom  of  free  mining  under  a 
Government  grant  or  concession,  which  is  the  rule  in  almost 
every  country  on  the  Continent. 

The  working  of  collieries  in   the   United  Kingdom  is  Coal 
subject  to  the  provisions  of  the  Coal  Mines  Regulation  rtegi 
Act  of  1872,  35  and  36  Viet.  cap.  76,  which  is  ad  ministered  Act> 
by  inspectors  appointed  by  the  Home  Office,  and  forms  a 
complete  disciplinary  code  in  all  matters  connected  with 
coal-mining.     Among  the  chief  provisions  of  the  Act  are 
the  following : — 

1.  Females  and  boys  under  10  are  not  allowed  to  work  under 
ground. 

2.  Boys  between  10  and  12  are  not  allowed  to  work  except  in 
tliin  mines. 

3.  No  boy  under  12  to  drive  a  gin  horse,  or  under  18  a  steam- 
engine. 

I.  Wages  not  to  be  paid  at  public-houses. 

5.  Working  of  mines  by  a  single  shaft  prohibited. 

6.  Managers   to   be   certificated   as   competent   by    a   board   of 
examiners. 

7.  Annual  return  of  coal  wrought  to  be  made  to  Inspectors. 

8.  Notice  of  accidents  to  be  sent  to  Inspector. 

9.  Openings  of  abandoned  workings  to  be  fenced. 

10.  Plans  to  be  kept  up  to  within  six  months  of  date. 

II.  Plans   of  abandoned   mines   to    be    deposited   with   Home 
Office. 

12.  General  rules  for  the  safety  of  miners  in  fiery  mines,  man 
agement  of  ventilation,  safety  lamps,  and  gunpowder,  protection 
against  accidents  in  shafts  and  levels,  &c. 

13.  Power  to   frame  special  rules  subject  to  approval  of  the 
Secretary  of  State. 

Breaches  of  the  provisions  of  the  Act  are  punishable  by 
fine  and  imprisonment  by  a  court  of  summary  jurisdiction, 
subject  to  appeal  to  the  Quarter  Sessions,  or  to  the  Circuit 
Court  in  Scotland. 

The  relation  between  the   number   of  hands  employed  1'ro 
and  the  output  of  collieries  varies  considerably  in  different  of  * 
districts,  being  highest  in  those  where  the  coal  is  moder-  out- 
ately  thick,  soft,  easily  cut,  regularly  shaped,  and  with  a 
good  roof,  and  least  in  faulted  and  disturbed  seams,  and 
those  with  a  bad  roof,  where   the  accessory  operations  of 
timbering  and  driving  stone  drifts   require     the  employ 
ment  of  a  large  proportion  of  the  working  staff  on  non 
productive  work,  i.e.,  other  than  cutting  coal.     The  follow 
ing  figures   give  the  relative   force  employed  above  and 
below  ground  in  two  large  steam-coal  collieries  in  South 
Wales,  each  producing  about  500  tons  per  day  : — 

Colliers  cutting  coal 225  200 

Other  underground  hands    229  174 

Surface  hands  43  36 


497  410 

showing  in  the  one  case  an  average  of  about  1  ton,  in  the 
other  about  1^  ton  per  hand  per  day,  but  if  the  hands 
cutting  coal  be  alone  considered,  the  amount  is  about  the 
same  in  both  cases,  or  a  little  over  two  tons  per  day. 

The  annual  output  per  man  on  the  total  force  employed 
in  several  of  the  principal  European  coal-fields  has  been 
computed  as  follows  : — • 

Newcastle 315  tons  per  man  per  annum. 

Westphalia 215 

Saarbriicken     170 

France — Loire     200 

,,         Nord    149 

Belgium— Charleroi...    147 
Mons 121 

These  figures  refer  to  some  years  back,  and  are  probably 
not  quite  accurate  at  the  present  date,  as  the  amount  of 
work  done  by  the  individual  collier  has  sensibly  decreased 
in  most  countries.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  output  is 
smallest  in  the  thin  disturbed  measures  of  the  Franco- 
Belgian  coal-field. 

In  Prussia  in  1874,  with  an  output  of  33,000,000  tons 
of  coal  and  8,000,000  tons  of  lignite,  the  average  per 


ACCIDENTS-,  i 


C  0  A  L 


underground  hand  was  about  243  tons  for  the  former  and 
about  600  tons  for  the  latter.  The  larger  comparative 
yield  in  lignite  mines  is  due  to  the  fact  that  a  very  large 
proportion  are  worked  as  quarries. 

The  annual  production  of  coal  throughout  the  world 
may  be  roughly  estimated  at  about  260  millions  of  tons 
for  1874,  which  quantity  includes  about  17  million  tons  of 
lignite  and  coal  from  formations  newer  than  the  coal 
measures  in  Europe.  Nearly  one-half  of  the  total  is  raised 
in  the  United  Kingdom,  the  approximate  quantities  of  the 
different  countries  being  as  follows  : — 

Tons. 

United  Kingdom  125,000,000 

United  States  of  America     48,000,000 

Germany 35,000,000  Lignite,  9,000,000 

Belgium  17,000,000 

France 17,500,000         „  320,000 

Austria 4,700,000         ,,       5,700,000 

New  South  Wales 1,300,000 

Russia 1,000,000         „ 


Spain 

India 

Smaller  European  States. 
British  North  America . . . 

Chili 

Other  Australian  Colonies 


30,000 
50,000 


750,000         „ 
700,000 

125,000         „  105,000 

750,000 
200,000 
50,000 

There  is  no  trustworthy  information  as  to  the  produce  of 
China  and  Japan,  but  these  probably  do  not  exceed 
100,000  tons.  In  the  larger  coal-producing  European 
countries  the  output  was  very  high  in  1873,  the  following 
year  having  shown  a  slight  falling  off,  but  in  America  the 
annual  increase  was  maintained. 

According  to  the  official  mineral  statistics,  the  produce 
of  coal  in  the  United  Kingdom  for  the  years  1873,  1874, 
1875,  classified  according  to  districts,  was  as  shown  in 
the  following  table,  from  which  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
check  in  187^  was  followed  by  great  increase  of  production 
in  1875  :— 


1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

N   Durham          

Tons. 

Tons. 
(    6,180,000 

Tons, 

Northumberland  
Cumberland      

1  12,204,340 
1,747,064 

|    6,463,550 
1,102.267 

',  12,640,789 
1,226,737 

Westmoreland  

1,972 

1,200 

S.  Durham     

17,436,045 

17,900,250 

19,456,534 

Yorkshire  

15,311,778 

14,812,515 

15,425,278 

Derbyshire     

(    7,150,570 

7,091,325 

Nottinghamshire  
Leicestershire  

•11,568,000 

)    3,127,750 
)    1,100,465 

3,250,000 
1,154,619 

Warwickshire  

'       851,500 

799,750 

S.  Staffordshire  
Worcestershire  

|    9,463,539 

8,389,343 

9,251,791 

Shropshire  

1,570,000 

1,187,950 

1,229,785 

N.  Staffordshire  
Cheshire  

3,892,019 
1,150,500 

4,313,096 
615,105 

4,496,213 
658,945 

N.  and  E.  Lancashire 
W\  Lancashire  

9,560,000 
7,500,000 

8,095,570 
7,442,950 

8,825,798 
8,250,246 

N.  Wales  

2,450,000 

2,425,300 

2,337,308 

Gloucestershire  

(    1,147,272 

1,273,080 

Somersetshire  . 

(    1,858,540 

(        609,684 

654,878 

Monmouthshire  . 

4,500,000 

5,038,820 

3,525,975 

S.Wales     

9,841,523 

10,184,885 

10,632,597 

Scotland  E. 

10,142,039 

10,182,326 

11,419,619 

Do.    W  

6,715,733 

6,  606,  y  35 

7,177,888 

Ireland  

103,435 

139,213 

127,750 

Total  

127,016,747 

125,067,916 

131,908,105 

Amount    exported, 
including  coke  and 
patent  fuel  

12,748,390 

14,045,325 

14,544,916 

Leaving    for  home  ) 
consumption    ..  ..  ) 

115,268,357 

111,022,591 

117,363,189 

Value  at  pit  s  mouth.  . 

£47,629,787 

£45,848,194 

£43,969,370 

The  quantities  of  coal  consumed  by  the  different  branches 
of  manufacturing  industry  as  well  as  for  lighting,  heating, 


and  other  purposes,  was  investigated  by  the  Royal  Com 
mission  on  Coal,  from  vol.  iii.  of  whose  Report,  published 
in  1 870,  the  following  summary  is  taken.  The  figures  refer 
to  the  year  1869. 

Tons. 

Total  quantity  of  coal  raised 107,427,537 

Do.  exported 9,775,470 


Leaving  for  home  consumption 97,652,087 

1.  Coal  used  for  iron  manufacture  ....  , 32,446,606 

2.  Do.  producing  power  and  general 

manufacturing  purposes. . .  26, 327, 21 3 

3.  Do.  domestic  purposes  18,481,527 

4.  Do.  gas  and  water  supply 7,811,980 

5.  Do.  mines  and  collieries  7,225,423 

6.  Do.  steam  navigation  3,277,562 

7.  Do.  railways  2,027,500 

8.  Do.  smelting  metals  other  than 

iron  859,231 

9.  Do.          miscellaneous  purposes 195,045 

97,e;52zOS7 

The  above  quantities  may  be  proportionally  classified  as 
follows  : — 

Mineral  and  metallurgical  industries  (1,  5,  8)  44  percent. 

Domestic  consumption,  including  gas  and  water  (3,  4)  26       ,, 

General  manufacturing  purposes  (2) 25       ,, 

Locomotion  by  sea  and  land  (6,  7)    5       ,, 


100 

Coal-mining  is  unfortunately  a  dangerous  occupation,  Accidents, 
more  than  a  thousand  deaths  from  accident  being  reported 
annually  by  the  inspectors  of  mines  as  occurring  in  the 
collieries  of  the  United  Kingdom.  The  following  table 
shows  the  number  of  lives  lost  during  the  last  five  years, 
classified  according  to  the  inspectors'  returns  : — 


Year. 

Explo 
sions  of 
fire-damp. 

Falls  of 
ground. 

Other  under 
ground  acci 
dents. 

Accidents 
in  shafts. 

Accidents 
at  sur 
face. 

Total. 

1871 

269 

435 

176 

123 

72 

1075 

1872 

154 

456 

217 

155 

78 

1060 

1873 

100 

491 

221 

171 

86 

1069 

1874 

166 

413 

214 

154 

109 

1056 

1875 

288 

458 

227 

172 

99 

1244 

The  principal  sources  of  danger  to  the  collier,  as  dis 
tinguished  from  other  miners,  are  explosion  of  fire-damp 
and  falls  of  roof  in  getting  coal, — these  together  make  up 
about  70  per  cent,  of  the  whole  number  of  deaths.  It  will 
be  seen  that  the  former  class  of  accidents,  though  attended 
with  great  loss  of  life  at  one  time,  are  le.ss  fatal  than  the 
latter.  The  great  increase  in  the  deaths  from  explosion 
in  1875,  over  the  preceding  year,  is  to  be  attributed  to  the 
Swaithe  Main  explosion  at  Barnsley  on  December  6th, 
when  143  lives  were  lost. 

The  following  return  expresses  the  relation  between  the 
fatal  accidents  and  the  total  number  of  miners  employed, 
and  the  amount  of  coal  raised  for  each  death.  The  latter 
quantities  are  in  some  degree  conjectural,  being  dependent 
upon  estimated  returns  of  produce,  and  are  probably  some 
what  too  large. 


Tear. 

1  death  for 

1871  
1872  
1873  
1874  
1875  

345  miners  employed 
394      „ 
479      ,, 
510      „ 
430      „ 

109,246  tons  coal  raised 
116,409      „ 
133,667      ,,             ,, 
133,251      ,,             ,, 
118,730      ,,             ,, 

In  Prussia,  in  the  year  1874,  there  were  484  deaths 
from  accidents,  which  corresponds  to  about  three  deaths 
per  thousand  hands  employed,  or,  according  to  the  above 


80 


COAL 


[ANALYSIS. 


classification,  1  in  334,  with  a  produce  of  about  G5,000 
tons  of  coal  for  each  death.     It  would  appear,  therefore, 
that  the  proportional  loss  of  life,  in  the  collieries  of  the 
United  Kingdom,  is  less  than  that  in  foreign  countries. 
Analysis  of      Assay  and  Analysis.  — The  chemical  examination  of  a 
coal.  Coal  may  be  cither  complete  or  partial.    When  it  is  desired 

to  obtain  information  as  to  the  exact  composition,  the 
analysis  is  conducted  in  the  same  manner  as  the  analysis 
of  organic  compounds  by  combustion  with  oxide  of  copper 
or  chromate  of  lead  in  a  hard  glass  tube,  the  carbonic 
acid  and  water  formed  being  absorbed  by  solution  of 
hydrate  of  potassium  and  dry  chloride  of  calcium  respec 
tively,  and  the  proportion  of  carbon  and  hydrogen  being 
calculated  from  the  increase  of  weight  in  the  tubes  con 
taining  the  absorbing  media.  It  is  usual  to  operate 
upon  a  small  sample  (about  5  grains),  which  is  very 
finely  powdered  and  placed  in  a  small  trough  or  boat 
of  platinum  in  the  tube,  the  combustion  being  aided  by 
a  stream  of  oxygen  from  a  gasholder.  By  this  means  the 
incombustible  residue  or  ash  is  left  in  a  condition  for 
weighing,  being  free  from  admixture  of  foreign  substances. 
Sulphur  is  determined  by  the  fusion  of  a  weighed 
quantity  with  a  mixture  of  salt  and  nitrate  of  potassium 
in  a  platinum  vessel,  producing  sulphate  of  potassium, 
which,  on  the  addition  of  a  salt  of  barium,  is  precipitated 
as  sulphate  of  barium.  Care  must  be  taken  to  perform  the 
operation  over  a  flame  free  from  the  vapour  cf  sulphur  com 
pounds,  which  may  vitiate  the  result  by  apparently  increas 
ing  the  amount  of  sulphur  present.  For  this  reason,  the 
flame  of  a  spirit  lamp  is  to  be  preferred  in  making  the  fusion 
to  that  of  coal  gas,  which  is  rarely  free  from  sulphur  coin- 
pounds.  Sulphur  existing  in  the  form  of  gypsum  or  sul 
phate  of  calcium  may  be  removed  by  washing  a  sample 
with  boiling  water,  and  determining  the  sulphuric  acid  in 
the  solution.  The  washed  sample  is  then  fused  with  nitre 
in  the  usual  way  to  determine  the  proportion  of  sulphur 
existing  as  iron  pyrites.  This  distinction  is  of  importance 
in  the  examination  of  coals  intended  for  iron  smelting,  as 
the  sulphates  of  the  earthy  metals  are  reduced  by  the 
gases  of  the  furnace  to  sulphides,  which  pass  into  the  slag 
without  affecting  the  quality  of  the  iron  produced,  while 
the  sulphur  of  the  metallic  sulphides  in  the  ash  acts  pre 
judicially  upon  the  metal. 

The  difference  between  the  original  weight  of  the  sample 
and  that  of  the  carbon,  hydrogen,  sulphur,  and  ash,  after 
making  allowance  for  hygroscopic  water,  is  attributed 
to  oxygen  and  nitrogen,  which  are  not  directly  deter 
mined. 

The  character  of  the  ash  affords  some  guide  to  the 
quality  of  the  coal  from  which  it  is  derived.  Thus,  a  red 
tint  is  generally  indicative  of  the  presence  cf  iron  pyrite's, 
and  a  light  or  white  colour  of  its  absence.  Phosphorus  if 
present  will  be  found  in  the  ash,  and  may  be  determined  by 
the  ordinary  processes  of  analysis.  A  useful  approximate 
method  of  determining  the  character  of  a  coal  is  by  ex 
posing  a  coarsely  powdered  sample  of  known  weight,  in 
a  covered  crucible,  to  a  strong  red  heat  as  long  as 
inflammable  vapours  are  given  off,  when  it  is  cooled  and 
weighed.  The  loss  of  weight  represents  the  volatile  con 
stituents — hydrogen,  oxygen,  and  hydrocarbon  gases,  pro 
duced  by  destructive  distillation,  while  the  residual  coke 
includes  the  ash,  and  is  called  fixed  carbon.  The  character 
of  the  button  of  coke  obtained  is  a  good  indication  as  to 
the  caking  or  non-caking  quality  of  the  coal  from  which  it 
is  derived,  and  the  amount  of  ash  may  be  determined  by 
burning  it  in  a  muffle  or  over  the  flame  of  a  Bunsen 
burner,  The  fitness  of  a  coal  for  gas -making  is  usually 
determined  by  operating  upon  a  sample  of  a  few  pounds' 
weight  in  a  special  apparatus  which  reproduces  the  pro- 
Besses  of  manufacture  upon  a  small  scale. 


One  of  the  most  important  factors  in  the  economic 
valuation  of  a  coal,  is  the  so-called  calorific  power  or 
value,  by  which  is  usually  understood  the  number  of 
pounds  of  water  at  boiling  point  that  can  be  evaporated 
by  the  complete  combustion  of  one  pound  of  coal.  This 
may  be  obtained  theoretically,  when  the  composition  of 
the  coal  is  known,  by  computing  the  heating  effect  of  the 
carbon  and  the  disposable  hydrogen ;  but  in  the  absence 
of  an  analysis,  it  may  also  be  determined  directly  by 
several  approximate  methods.  One  of  the  most  con 
venient  instruments  for  this  purpose  is  Thompson's 
calorimeter.  This  consists  of  a  copper  cylinder  in 
which  a  weighed  quantity  of  coal  intimately  mixed  with 
chlorate  or  nitrate  of  potassium  is  deflagrated  under  a 
copper  case  like  a  diving-bell,  placed  at  the  bottom  of  a 
deep  glass  jar  filled  with  a  known  weight  of  water.  The 
gases  produced  by  the  combustion  rising  through  the  water 
are  cooled,  with  a  corresponding  increase  of  temperature  in 
the  latter,  so  that  the  difference  between  the  temperature 
observed  before  and  after  the  experiment  furnishes  a  mea 
sure  of  the  evaporative  power  desired.  The  instrument  is 
so  constructed  that  30  grains  of  coal  are  burnt  in  29,010 
grains  of  water,  or  in  the  proportion  of  1  to  937,  these 
numbers  being  selected  that  the  observed  rise  of  tempera 
ture  iu  Fahrenheit  degrees  corresponds  to  the  required 
evaporative  value  in  pounds,  subject  only  to  a  correction 
for  the  amount  of  heat  absorbed  by  ths  mass  of  the  instru 
ments,  for  which  a  special  co-efficient  is  required,  and  must 
be  experimentally  determined.  Another  approximate 
method,  due  to  Berthier,  is  based  upon  the  reduction  of 
oxide  of  lead  by  the  carbon  and  hydrogen  of  the  coal,  the 
amount  of  lead  reduced  affording  a  measure  of  the  oxygen 
expended,  whence  the  heating  power  may  be  calculated, 
1  part  of  pure  carbon  being  capable  of  producing  34i 
times  its  weight  of  lead.  The  operation  is  performed  by 
mixing  the  weighed  sample  with  a  large  excess 'of  litharge 
in  a  crucible,  and  exposing  it  to  a  bright  red  heat  for  a 
short  time.  After  cooling,  the  crucible  is  broken  and  the 
reduced  button  of  lead  is  cleaned  and  weighed.  The  re 
sults  obtained  by  this  method  are  less  accurate  with  coals 
containing  much  disposable  hydrogen  and  iron  pyrites 
than  with  those  approximating  to  anthracite,  as  the  heat 
equivalent  of  the  hydrogen  in  excess  of  that  required  to 
form  water  with  the  oxygen  of  the  coal  is  calculated 
as  carbon,  while  it  is  really  about  four  times  as  great. 
Sulphur  in  iron  pyrites  also  acts  as  a  reducing  agent  upon 
litharge,  and  increases  the  apparent  effect  in  a  similar 
manner. 

The  theoretical  evaporative  power  of  a  coal  found  by 
either  of  the  above  methods  is  always  considerably  above 
that  obtained  by  actual  combustion  under  a  steam  boiler,  as 
in  the  latter  case  numerous  sources  of  loss,  such  as  imperfect 
combustion  of  gases,  loss  of  unburnt  coal  in  cinders,  &c., 
come  into  play,  which  cannot  be  allowed  for  in  theoretical 
experiments.  It  is  usual,  therefore,  to  determine  the  value 
of  a  coal  by  the  combustion  of  a  weighed  quantity  in  the 
furnace  of  a  standard  boiler,  and  measuring  the  amount  of 
water  evaporated  by  the  heat  developed.  Various  investi 
gations  of  this  kind  have  been  made  at  different  times, 
both  in  Europe  and  America,  the  most  extensive  being  the 
following  : — 

Johnson,  Report  on  American  Coals,  Washington,  1844  ;  De  la 
Beche  and  Playfair,  Three  Reports  on  Coal  suited  to  the  Steam  Navy, 
London,  1848-49-51 ;  P.  W.  Brix,  On  the  Heating  Power  of  Fuel 
used  in  Prussia,  Berlin,  1853  ;  Hartig,  Heating  Power  of  Saxon 
Coal,  Dresden,  1860. 

Tne  following  table  of  the  average  results  obtained  from 
these  investigations  shows  the  number  of  pounds  of  water 
evaporated  for  every  pound  of  the  different  kinds  of  coal 
burnt. 


C  O  A  -  C  0  b 


81 


17 

8-37 

28 

7.94 

8 

7-70 

8 

7-58 

7 

3-66  to  4-19 

5 

3'43  to  3'66 

6 

2-41  to  3-92 

51 

6-42  to  8-16 

<D  ..  f  S.  Wales— Average  of  37  kinds,  9 '05  tt> 
f|N.  of  England, 
K  *•  <  Lancasliire, 
~&  I  Scotland, 
ft  ^     Derbyshire, 
Wood, 
Peat, 
Lignite, 

Coal  (Prussian), 

The  literature  relating  to  coal  and  coal  mining,  is  very  extensive, 
but  the  following  list  includes  the  titles  of  the  more  important 
works  upon  these  subjects. 

ENGLAND  AND  AMERICA. — The  Report  of  the  Royal  Coal  Com 
mission  (3  vols.,  fol.,  with  Atlas,  London,  1870).  This  is  the 
most  comprehensive  work  upon  the  subject.  Hull,  Coal  Fields 
of  Great  Britain  (3d  ed.  London,  1873).  Reports  and  Maps  of  the 
Geological  Surveys  of  the  United  Kingdom.  Descriptive  memoirs 
of  each  coal  field  published  as  completed.  Percy,  Metallurgy, 
vol.  i.,  on  Fuel  (2d  ed.  London,  1875),  containing  full  details  of 
the  chemistry  of  coal.  Greenwell,  Practical  Treatise  on  Mine 
Engineering  (2d  ed.  London,  1869).  Andre,  Practical  Treatise 


on  Coal  Mining  (London,  1876).  Smyth,  Coal  and  Coal  Mining 
(2d  ed.  London  1872).  Jevons,  The  Coal  Question  (2d  ed.  Lon 
don,  18C6).  Rogers,  Geology  of  Pennsylvania  (2  vols.,  Edinburgh, 
1850).  Proceedings  of  the  South  Wales  Institute  of  Engineering  (8 
vols.,  Merthyr,  1858-73).  Transactions  of  the  North  of  England 
Institute  of  Alining  Engineers  (1%  vols.,  Newcastle,  1852-74).  Various 
Geological  Reports  of  the  State  an.d  General  Governments  of  the 
United  States ;  including  Newberry's  OhioReports,  Cox's  Indiana  lie- 
ports,  and  Hayden's  Reports  of  Geological  Survey  of  the  Territories. 

FRANCE  AND  BELGIUM. — Burat,  Geologic  de,  la  France  (8vo. 
Paris,  1864).  Cours  d' Exploitation  de  Mines  (1871).  Matiricl 
des  Houilliercs  en  France,  <L-c.  (1861-68).  Bulletin  de  la  Societi  de 
Vlndustrie  Mineralc,  S.  Etienne  (20  vols.  since  1855).  Ponson, 
Traiti  de  T Exploitation  dcs  Mines  de  Houillc  (2d  ed.  Liege,  1868-71). 
Supplement  to  the  above  (1867-72).  De  Kuyper,  Revue  Universelk 
des  Mines,  <L~c.  (Liege,  since  1854). 

GERMANY. — Geinitz,  Die  SteinJcohlcn  Leutschlands,  <L-c.  (3  vols. 
4to,  Munich,  1865).  This  is  the  most  complete  book  on  the  sub 
ject.  Zinckcn,  Die  Bramikoldc  (2  vols.,  Hanover,  1865-71). 
Zeitschrift  fur  Berg  Hiittcn  und  Salinemvesen,  <£c.  (4to.  Berlin, 
22  vols.  since  1854).  (H.  B.) 


COANZA,  or  QUAKZA,  an  important  river  of  Western 
Africa,  in  the  country  of  Angola.  It  takes  its  rise  in  the 
Mossamba  Mountains,  not  far  from  the  source  of  the  Cunene, 
probably  in  14°  S.  lat.,  and  its  total  length  is  about  600 
miles  It  receives  a  large  number  of  tributaries,  the  most 
important  of  which  are  the  Loando  and  the  Cutato  in  the 
upper  part  of  its  course,  the  Gango  and  the  Quige  in  the 
middle  portion,  and  the  Lucalla  in  the  lower.  Its  progress 
is  broken  by  several  falls,  and  in  the  last  200  miles  of  its 
journey  it  descends  no  less  than  4800  feet  This  diminishes 
its  value  as  a  means  of  transit ;  but  it  is  navigable  for 
large  boats  about  140  miles  from  its  mouth,  which  is 
situated  50  miles  south  of  Loando,  in  9°  15'  S.  lat.  It 
there  forms  a  number  of  islands,  and  pours  into  the  sea  a 
turbid  current,  which  is  visible  for  some  distance  outwards 
by  its  contrast  of  colour. 

COATBRIDGE,  a  town  of  Scotland,  in  the  county  of 
Lanark,  and  parish  of  Old  Monkland,  ten  miles  east  of 
Glasgow  by  rail,  and  about  two  miles  west  of  Airdrie.  It 
owes  it  rise  to  the  importance  of  the  surrounding  district 
as  a  mining  field.  The  town  itself  is  of  a  straggling  descrip 
tion,  and  is  intersected  by  a  branch  of  the  North  Cahler 
Water,  the  Monkland  Canal,  and  the  Caledonian  Railway. 
It  contains  eight  places  of  worship,  a  literary  association, 
and  five  branch  banks.  In  the  immediate  neighbourhood 
are  the  Gartsherrie  iron  works,  and  there  are  engineering 
establishments  in  the  town  itself.  The  population  of  town 
in  1871,  including  Gartsherrie,  High  Sunnyside,  and  Lang- 
loan,  numbered  15;802;  of  whom  8599  were  males  and 
7203  females, 

COBALT,  a  metal  of  the  iron  group.  The  name  is 
derived  from  the  German  Kolold,  a  miner's  term  for  gnome, 
or  evil  spirit,  akin  to  the  English  gollin,  which  was  applied 
to  a  mineral  found  associated  with  silver  ores,  and  often 
replacing  them  in  the  mines  of  Schneeberg  in  Saxony.  The 
use  of  the  oxide  of  cobalt  in  colouring  glass  was  only  dis 
covered  in  1540  by  Scheurer,  and  till  then  the  metal  had 
been  supposed  to  be  worthless.  It  was  first  produced,  but 
in  an  imperfectly  purified  condition,  in  1733,  by  Brandt. 

Cobalt  is  found  alloyed  in  small  quantity  together  with 
nickel  in  many  meteoric  irons.  The  principal  mode  of 
occurrence,  however,  is  in  various  complex  minerals  con 
taining  arsenic  and  sulphur  and  the  allied  metal  nickel. 
The  following  are  the  most  important : — 

1.  Smaltine  or  speiss  cobalt,  an  arsenide  of  the 
isomorphous  bases,  cobalt,  nickel,  and  iron,  of  the  formula 
(CoNiFe)As2,  is  a  mineral  of  the  cubical  system,  forming 
steel  or  lead-grey  crystals  of  a  metallic  lustre,  tarnishing  in 
damp  air  to  a  pink  or  green  tint  according  to  the  pre 
ponderance  of  cobalt  or  nickel  that  is  present  In  the 


purest  condition  it  may  contain  28'2  per  cent,  of  cobalt  to 
71 '8  per  cent,  of  arsenic,  but  nickel  and  iron  are  almost 
invariably  present  to  some  extent.  The  principal  locality 
is  at  Schneeberg  in  Saxony,  where  it  is  associated  with 
silver,  bismuth,  and  nickel  ores. 

2.  Cobalt   glance,    or    cobaltine,    is    a    compound    of 
sulphide  and  arsenide  of  cobalt,  CoS2  +  CoAs2,  the  typical 
composition  being  cobalt  35  '5,  arsenic  45 '2,  and  sulphur 
19 -3  per  cent.     It  occurs  in  very  brilliant  complex  crystals 
belonging   to   the    cubical  system,   the   principal  locality 
baing   at   Tunaberg  in   Sweden.     A  part  of  the  metal  is 
sometimes  replaced  by  iron,  but  as  a  rule  it  is  free  from 
nickel, 

3,  Linnaeite,  or  cobalt  pyrites,  is  analogous  in  composi 
tion  to  copper  pyrites,  being  represented  by  the  formula 
Co<,S  +  Co2S3,  with  58  per  cent,  of  cobalt  and  42  of  sulphur. 
As  a  general  rule  a  portion  of  the  base  is  replaced  by  copper, 
nickel,  or  iron.     It  is  a  rare  mineral,  being  found  only  in 
the    Siegen   district  in  Prussia  and    in    Sweden.     Cobalt 
bloom  is  a  hydrated  arseniate  produced  by  the  action  of 
air  and  water  upon  the  above  minerals  ;  the  composition  ia 
Co2As2O8  4- 8H2O,  i.e.,  37|  per  cent,  of  oxide   of  cobalt. 
Earthy  cobalt  ore  is  a  variety  of  bog  manganese,  or  wad,  a 
mineral  of  indefinite  composition,  but  containing  at  times 
as  much  as  8  or  10  per  cent,  of  oxide  of  cobalt  with  oxides 
of   manganese,  iron,  and  copper.     Cobaltic  bismuth  ore  ia 
a  mixture  of   finely  crystalline  speiss  cobalt  with  native 
bismuth,  found  occasionally  in  the  Schneeberg  mines. 

The  materials  from  which  cobalt  is  produced  by  the 
smelter  consist  generally  of  iron  or  arsenical  pyrites,  con 
taining  a  minute  quantity  of  the  two  metals  cobalt  and 
nickel,  or  various  products  derived  from  the  smelting  of  the 
ores  of  silver  and  copper  in  which  these  metals  are  concen 
trated  as  sulphur  or  arsenic  compounds. 

When  in  a  compact  form  cobalt  is  a  steel  grey  metal 
with  a  slightly  reddish  tint,  taking  a  very  high  lustre  when 
polished,  and  breaking  with  a  finely  granular  fracture.  The 
specific  gravity  is  variously  stated  at  from  8 '52  to  8 '70. 
It  is  slightly  malleable,  and.  when  quite  pure  of  a  higher 
degree  of  tenacity  than  iron,  according  to  Deville.  The 
brittle  character  attributed  to  it  by  former  observers  is  clue 
to  impurities,  such  as  arsenic  and  manganese.  It  melts  at 
about  the  same  temperature  as  iron,  or  a  little  lower, 
requiring  the  strongest  heat  of  a  wind  furnace.  The 
specific  heat  is  0-10696  (Regnault).  It  is  susceptible  of 
being  magnetized  by  touch,  and  retains  its  magnetism  at 
temperatures  below  a  strong  red  heat  when  free  from 
arsenic.  Chemically  it  belongs  to  the  same  group  as  iron, 
zinc,  nickel,  manganese,  and  chromium,  which  cannot  be 
separated  as  sulphides  by  H.,S  from  an  acid  solution.  It  is 

VI.  —  Ji 


82 

diatomic;  its  atomic  weight  is  58 '6,  and  its  symbol  Co. 
Like  iron  it  may  be  reduced  from  its  oxides  by  heating  with 
charcoal  or  in  hydrogen  gas  ;  in  the  former  case  a  small 
quantity  of  carbon  is  retained,  forming  a  substance  ana 
logous  to  cast-iron.  When  reduced  by  hydrogen  at  a  low 
temperature  it  forms  a  black  powder  which  is  pyrophoric, 
or  ignites  spontaneously  in  the  air,  especially  if  mixed  with 
finely-divided  alumina.  At  a  red  heat  it  decomposes  water 
vapour,  producing  hydrogen  and  oxide  of  cobalt. 

There  are  two  principal  oxides.  The  protoxide,  CoO, 
is  obtained  as  a  black  powder  by  calcining  the  hydrate 
CoH202.  The  latter  is  a  red  substance  obtained  by  pre 
cipitation  with  alkalies  from  the  solution  of  a  cobalt  salt. 
The  higher,  or  sesquioxide,  Co2O3,  is  produced  in  a  hy- 
drated  form  from  the  hydrated  protoxide  by  the  action 
of  chlorine,  bromine,  chloride  of  lime,  or  similar  oxidizing 
agents.  It  may  be  rendered  anhydrous  by  careful  heating, 
but  at  a  red  heat  it  decomposes,  giving  off  part  of  its 
oxygen,  and  produces  a  compound  analogous  in  composi 
tion  to  magnetic  oxide  of  iron,  Fe3O4. 

The  protoxide  forms  numerous  salts,  which  are  usually 
of  a  fine  rose-red  colour.  A  weak  solution  of  the  nitrate 
or  chloride  forms  the  so-called  sympathetic  ink,  which  gives 
a  colourless  writing  when  cold,  but  appears  of  a  bluish- 
green  colour  when  heated,  and  fades  again  on  cooling. 
This  effect  may  be  reproduced  a  great  number  of  tim'es  if 
the  writing  is  not  too  strongly  heated,  in  which  case  the 
colour  becomes  permanent  from  the  formation  of  a  basic 
salt.  With  ammonia  the  oxides  of  cobalt  form  a  series  of 
compound  bases,  which  give  rise  to  salts  of  great  interest 
and  complexity;  these  may  be  regarded  as  ammonium 
salts,  in  which  part  of  the  hydrogen  is  replaced  by 
ammonium  and  another  part  by  cobalt  in  various  conditions 
of  atomicity  corresponding  to  the  oxides. 

The  alloys  of  cobalt  are  not  of  much  importance.  It 
combines  most  readily  with  arsenic  or  antimony,  forming 
the  highly  crystalline  compounds  known  by  the  general 
name  of  speiss,  which  can  scarcely  be  considered  as  alloys. 
With  gold  and  silver  it  forms  brittle  compounds,  with 
mercury  a  silver-white  magnetic  amalgam.  With  copper 
and  zinc  the  alloy  is  white,  resembling  the  corresponding 
compounds  of  the  same  metals  with  nickel  and  manganese. 
With  tin  it  forms  a  somewhat  ductile  alloy  of  a  violet 
colour.  The  presence  of  cobalt  in  the  alloy  of  copper,  zinc, 
and  nickel,  known  as  German  silver,  is  objectionable,  as 
it  renders  it  hard  and  difficult  to  roll. 

The  chief  use  of  cobalt  in  the  arts  is  for  the  preparation 
of  colours.  The  protoxide  has  an  intense  colouring  power 
when  vitrified,  and  forms  the  basis  of  all  the  blue  colours 
used  in  glass  and  porcelain  manufacture.  The  purity  of 
the  tint  is  much  affected  by  traces  even  of  other  metallic 
oxides,  especially  those  of  iron,  nickel,  or  copper.  Another 
preparation,  known  as  smalts,  is  a  glass  formed  by  melting 
cobalt  oxide  with  pure  quartz  sand  and  carbonate  of  potas 
sium.  _  Sometimes  the  first  two  substances  are  subjected  to 
a  preliminary  heating  to  produce  fritted  silicate  of  a  reddish 
or  purple  colour,  known  as  za/re,  which  when  fused  with 
the  alkaline  carbonate  in  an  ordinary  glass  furnace  produces 
a  deep  blue  glass.  This  is  rendered  friable  by  running  it 
into  water,  and  is  then  ground  between  granite  millstones, 
and  finally  levigated  in  water.  The  various  products  of 
the  levigation  are  classified  into  different  qualities  according 
to  the  fineness  of  the  grain  and  the  strength  of  the  colour,— 
the  best  being  those  occupying  a  medium  position,  the  colour 
diminishing  as  the  fineness  of  the  grain  increases.  The 
coarsest  variety,  known  as  strewing  blue,  consisting  of  rough 
angular  fragments  up  to  about  £  inch  diameter,  is  used  for 
the  ground-work  of  the  old-fashioned  blue  and  gold  sign 
boards^  a  very  effective  and  durable  kind  of  surface  orna 
mentation.  The  highest  coloured  varieties  contain  from 


6  to  7  per  cent,  of  oxide  of  cobalt.  Glass  containing  only 
^J-jj-th  part  of  the  oxide  is  of  a  distinct  blue  j  with  more  thai* 
18  per  cent,  it  is  black. 

The  principal  use  of  smalts  is  for  bluing  paper ;  it  was 
formerly  employed  almost  exclusively  for  this  purpose, 
but  has  now  been  to  a  very  considerable  extent  superseded 
by  the  use  of  artificial  ultramarine,  which  is  cheaper  and 
,more  easily  applied,  but  is  less  permanent,  as  the  colour  is 
easily  discharged  by  acids,  which  is  not  the  case  when 
smalts  is  used.  The  pigment  known  as  cobalt  blue,  used 
both  in  oil  and  water-colour  painting,  is  obtained  by  mixing 
the  solutions  of  a  cobalt  salt  and  alum,  precipitating  with  ac 
alkaline  carbonate,  and  strongly  heating  the  gelatinous 
precipitate  of  the  hydrated  oxides  of  the  two  metals. 
Thenard's  blue,  a  phosphate  of  cobalt  and  alumina,  is  pro 
duced  in  a  similar  manner,  by  precipitation  with  an  alkaline 
phosphate.  Cobalt  green,  or  Rinman's  green,  is  a  mixture 
of  the  oxides  of  zinc  and  cobalt  produced  from  the  solu 
tions  of  their  sulphates  by  precipitation  with  carbonate  of 
sodium  and  ignition. 

In  analysis  cobalt  is  always  determined  as  protoxide,  but 
the  separation  from  the  metals  with  which  it  is  usually 
associated,  especially  nickel,  is  a  difficult  and  tedious 
operation.  Many  different  processes  have  been  devised, 
but  the  most  accurate  are  those  of  H.  Rose  and  Liebig. 
The  former  depends  upon  the  power  possessed  by  chlorine 
(or  bromine)  of  converting  protoxide  of  cobalt  when  in 
solution  into  sesquioxide,  while  the  corresponding  oxide 
of  nickel  is  not  changed.  The  solution  when  completely 
saturated  with  chlorine  is  precipitated  by  carbonate  of 
barium,  which  carries  down  the  whole  of  the  cobalt 
as  sesquioxide ;  the  precipitate  is  redissolved  in  hydrochloric 
acid,  the  whole  of  the  barium  salt  separated  by  sulphuric 
acid,  and  the  cobalt  finally  precipitated  by  means  of  hydrate 
of  potassium.  In  Liebig's  method  the  oxides  of  the  two 
metals  are  heated  with  cyanide  of  potassium  and  boiled, 
which  produces  cobalticyanide  of  potassium,  K2Co2Cy6, 
and  cyanide  of  nickel  and  potassium,  KNiCy2.  By  the 
addition  of  finely-divided  red  oxide  of  mercury  the  whole 
of  the  nickel  is  precipitated,  partly  as  cyanide  and  partly 
as  hydrate,  while  the  cobalt  compound  remains  in  solution, 
and  is  afterwards  separated  by  means  of  sulphate  of  copper 
as  cobalticyanide  of  copper,  which  is  redissolved ;  the  copper 
is  separated  by  sulphuretted  hydrogen,  and  the  cobalt  then 
obtained  as  oxide  by  boiling  with  caustic  potash.  The 
complexity  of  the  composition  of  the  ores,  and  the  high 
value  of  the  two  metals,  has  led  to  the  application  of  more 
refined  methods  of  chemical  analysis  in  their  investigation 
than  are  required  in  the  assay  of  the  ores  of  the  commoner 
metals.  Plattner's  method  of  dry  assay  of  cobalt  and  nickel 
ores  is  much  more  rapidly  performed  than  an  analysis,  and 
in  practised  hands  is  susceptible  of  considerable  accuracy. 
It  depends  upon  the  fact  that  when  a  speiss  or  arsenical 
compound,  containing  the  four  metals — iron,  cobalt,  nickel, 
and  copper — is  melted  with  a  vitreous  flux  such  as  borax 
in  an  oxidizing  atmosphere,  the  metals  will  be  oxidized  and 
pass  into  a  slag  with  the  borax  in  the  order  indicated  above, 
no  cobalt  being  taken  up  until  the  iron  has  been  entirely 
removed,  and  similarly  the  nickel  remaining  until  the  cobalt 
has  been  completely  oxidized.  The  steps  in  the  process 
may  be  easily  recognized  owing  to  the  difference  in  the 
characteristic  colour  of  the  oxides,  the  dark  green  or  black 
of  the  iron  slag  being  rendered  distinctly  blue  by  the 
faintest  trace  of  cobalt,  and  the  blue  of  the  latter  being 
similarly  affected  by  nickel,  which  has  a  strong  brown 
colouring  power.  The  arsenides  of  cobalt  and  nickel, 
being  of  a  constant  composition,  are  weighed  at  each 
step  of  the  process  in  the  proportion  of  the  metal  re 
moved  calculated  from  the  difference.  Cobalt  may  be 
readily  detected  by  the  blow-pipe  even  when  in  very  small 


0  0  B  — G  0  B 


83 


quantity,  or  by  the  characteristic  blue  imparted  to  a  bead 
of  borax  or  salt  of  phosphorus. 

On  the  large  scale  cobalt  is  produced  chiefly  as  an 
accessory  in  the  treatment  of  nickel  ores.  These  consist 
chiefly  of  mixtures  of  small  quantities  of  the  purer  minerals 
with  pyrites,  sulphuretted  copper  ores,  or  lead  and  silver  ores, 
which  require  to  be  subjected  to  concentrating  processes  in 
order  to  get  rid  of  the  bulk  of  the  iron,  sulphur,  and  arsenic, 
aud  produce  a  small  amount  of  enriched  regulus  or  metal, 
in  which  the  more  valuable  metals  are  in  combination  with 
sulphur  and  arsenic.  This  is  done  by  calcination,  which 
drives  off  the  sulphur  and  arsenic  combined  with  the  iron, 
the  latter  being  oxidized  and  subsequently  converted  into 
slag  by  fusion  with  fluxes  containing  silica.  Small  quanti 
ties  of  cobalt,  nickel,  and  copper  ores,  when  associated 
with  lead  and  silver  ores,  are  in  like  manner  gradually 
accumulated  in  a  regulus  by  passing  the  regulus  of  the 
first  fusion  several  times  through  the  smelting  furnace, 
whereby  the  lead  and  silver  are  in  great  part  removed. 
The  treatment  of  these  purified  and  enriched  products  is 
conducted  ou  the  large  scale  in  a  somewhat  similar  manner 
to  a  chemical  analysis,  in  order  to  obtain  both  cobalt  and 
nickel.  The  speiss,  or  regulus,  is  calcined  and  treated 
with  strong  hydrochloric  acid  to  dissolve  the  oxides  formed. 
By  the  addition  of  caustic  lime,  iron  and  arsenic  are  pre 
cipitated,  and  the  clear  liquid  is  treated  with  sulphuretted 
hydrogen  so  long  as  metallic  sulphides  are  produced,  the 
precipitate  being  allowed  to  settle.  The  solution  then  con 
taining  only  cobalt  and  nickel  compounds,  the  former  is 
separated  by  the  addition  of  bleaching  powder  and  caustic 
lime  as  sesquioxide,  Co2O3,  and  the  latter  as  hydrated 
oxide  by  a  subsequent  precipitation  with  lime. 

In  making  smalts  the  purer  arsenical  ores  are  used. 
They  are  first  calcined  in  a  reverberatory  or  muffle  furnace 
provided  with  chambers  for  condensing  the  arsenical  fumes 
as  completely  as  possible.  The  roasted  ore,  if  it  does  not 
contain  quartz,  is  mixed  with  a  proportion  of  fine  glass 
house  sand  and  carbonate  of  potassium,  but  when  it  is 
sufficiently  siliceous,  as  in  the  mixtures  of  cobalt  ore  and 
silica  known  as  zaffre,  only  the  alkaline  carbonate  is 
required.  The  fusion  takes  place  in  pots  like  those  used 
in  plate-glass  making,  aud  requires  about  eight  hours.  The 
blue  glass  is  led  out  into  water  till  the  pot  is  nearly  empty, 
when  a  speiss  containing  the  whole  of  the  nickel  of  the  ore 
is  found  at  the  bottom.  The  blue  glass  is  then  ground  and 
levigated  as  already  described. 

The  chief  localities  producing  cobalt  ores  are  Modum  in 
Norway,  Tunaberg  in  Sweden,  Schneeberg  in  Saxony,  Musen 
in  Rhenish  Prussia,  and  Mine  Lamotte  in  Missouri ;  a  con 
siderable  amount  has  also  been  obtained  from  Bolivia.  In 
the  Transvaal  in  South  Africa  a  very  pure  variety  of  speiss 
cobalt  free  from  nickel  has  been  recently  discovered. 
Smaller  quantities  of  speiss  or  regulus  are  obtained  from 
the  smelting  of  silver  and  lead  ores,  at  Freiberg,  in  the 
Harz,  in  Bohemia,  and  elsewhere.  (H.  B.) 

COBAN,  or  SANTO  DOMINGO  COBAN,  a  city  of  Central 
America,  in  the  republic  of  Guatemala,  and  the  department 
of  Vera  Paz,  situated  about  90  miles  north  of  the  city  of 
Guatemala,  on  the  direct  route  to  Flores,  not  far  from  the 
source  of  the  Rio  de  Cajabon,  which  flows  into  the  Golfo 
Dolce.  It  occupies  the  slopes  of  a  rounded  hill,  on  the  top 
of  which  is  the  central  square  or  plaza,  with  the  cathedral 
aud  the  ruins  of  the  once  magnificent  Dominican  monastery 
on  the  one  side,  and  on  the  others  the  shops  and  houses  of 
the  merchants  and  artizans.  The  houses  of  Coban  are  low 
and  covered  with  tiles  ;  and,  as  each  with  its  garden  and 
croft  attached  is  curtained  by  a  dense  and  lofty  hedge,  the 
streets  have  rather  the  appearance  of  woodland  avenues. 
The  cathedral  is  a  large  and  imposing  edifice,  decorated  in 
the  interior  with  a  barbaric  profusion  of  ornament  ;  but 


like  the  rest  of  the  public  buildings  of  the  town  it  shows 
signs  of  decay.  Since  the  removal  of  the  seat  of  the  Pro 
vincial  Government  to  Salama,  the  prosperity  of  Coban  has 
greatly  declined,  but  it  still  contains  about  12,000 
inhabitautSjWho  carry  on  the  weaving  of  cotton  cloth,  the 
cultivation  of  coffee,  sugar,  and  pimento,  and  a  considerable 
trade  with  the  neighbouring  provinces.  The  Spanish  and 
Ladino  part  of  the  population  does  not  exceed  2000  ;  and 
the  rest  are  Indians  originally  from  the  mountains  of 
Chichen  and  Jucamel,  who  still  speak  the  Kacchi  or 
Quecchi  language.  Coban  owes  its  origin  to  the  missionary 
labours  of  the  Dominicans  of  the  16th  century,  and  more 
especially  to  Fray  Pedro  de  Augulo,  whose  portrait  is  pre 
served  in  the  cathedral.  It  was  made  the  political  capital 
of  the  province  of  Vera  Paz,  and  obtained  the  arms  of  a  city 
of  the  first  rank. 

COBBETT,  WILLIAM  (1766-1835),  one  of  the  most 
vigorous  of  English  political  writers,  was  born  near  Farn- 
ham  in  Surrey,  according  to  his  own  statement,  on  the  9th 
March  1766.  He  was  the  grandson  of  a  farm-labourer, 
and  the  son  of  a  small  farmer ;  and  during  his  early  life 
he  worked  on  his  father's  farm.  At  the  age  of  sixteen, 
inspired  with  patriotic  feeling  by  the  sight  of  the  men-of- 
war  in  Portsmouth  harbour,  he  offered  himself  as  a  sailor ; 
and  at  seventeen  (May  1783)  having,  while  on  his  way  to 
Guildford  fair,  met  the  London  coach,  he  suddenly  resolved 
to  accompany  it  to  its  destination.  He  arrived  at  Ludgate 
Hill  with  exactly  half-a-crown  in  his  pocket,  but  an  old 
gentleman  who  had  travelled  with  him  invited  him  to  his 
house,  and  obtained  for  him  the  situation  of  copying  clerk 
in  an  attorney's  office.  He  greatly  disliked  his  new  occupa 
tion;  and  rejecting  all  his  father's  entreaties  that  he  would 
return  home,  he  went  down  to  Chatham  early  in  1784 
with  the  intention  of  joining  the  marines.  By  some  mis 
take,  however,  he  was  enlisted  in  a  regiment  of  the  line, 
which  rather  more  than  a  year  after  proceeded  to  Sfc 
John's,  New  Brunswick.  All  his  leisure  time  during  the 
months  he  remained  at  Chatham  was  devoted  to  reading  the 
contents  of  the  circulating  library  of  the  town,  and  getting 
up  by  heart  Lowth's  English  Grammar.  His  uniform  good 
conduct,  and  the  power  of  writing  correctly  which  he  had 
acquired,  quickly  raised  him  to  the  rank  of  corporal,  from 
which,  without  passing  through  the  intermediate  grade  of 
sergeant,  he  was  promoted  to  that  of  sergeant-major.  In 
November  1791  he  was  discharged  at  his  own  request, 
and  received  the  official  thanks  of  the  major  and  the 
general  who  signed  his  discharge.  But  Cobbett's  connection 
with  the  regiment  did  not  end  in  this  agreeable  manner. 
He  brought  a  serious  charge  against  some  of  its  officers, 
and  instead  of  appearing  at  the  trial  fled  to  France  (March 
1792).  The  inquiry  which  was  held  in  his  absence  resulted 
in  a  complete  acquittal  of  the  accused. 

In  the  previous  February  Cobbett  had  married  the 
daughter  of  a  sergeant-major  of  artillery  ;  he  had  met  hex- 
some  years  before  in  New  Brunswick,  and  had  proved  her 
to  be  endowed  with  energy  and  self-control  equal  to  his 
own.  In  September  of  the  same  year  (1792)  he  crossed 
to  the  United  States,  and  for  a  time  supported  himself 
at  Wilmington  by  teaching  English  to  French  emigrants. 
Among  these  was  Talleyrand,  who  employed  him,  according 
to  Cobbett's  story,  not  because  he  was  ignorant  of  English, 
but  because  he  wished  to  purchase  his  pen,  Cobbett  made 
his  first  literary  sensation  by  his  Observations  on  the  Emi 
gration  of  a  Martyr  to  the  Cause  of  Liberty,  a  clever 
retort  on  Dr  Priestley,  who  had  just  landed  in  America 
complaining  of  the  treatment  he  had  received  in  England. 
This  pamphlet  was  followed  by  a  number  of  papers,  signed 
"  Peter  Porcupine,"  and  entitled  Prospect  from  the,  Congress 
Gallery,  the  Political  Censor,  and  the  Porcupine's  Gazette. 
In  the  spring  of  1796,  having  quarrelled  with  his  publisher, 


GOBBET  T 


he  set  up  in  Philadelphia  as  bookseller  and  publisher  of  his 
own  works.  On  the  day  of  opening,  his  windows  were 
filled  with  prints  of  the  most  extravagant  of  the  French 
Revolutionists  and  of  the  founders  of  the  American  Republic 
placed  side  by  side,  along  with  portraits  of  George  III., 
the  British  ministers, and  any  one  else  he  could  find  likely  to 
be  obnoxious  to  the  people ;  and  he  continued  to  pour  forth 
praises  of  Great  Britain  and  scorn  of  the  institutions  of  the 
United  States,  with  special  abuse  of  the  French  party. 
Abuse  and  threats  were  of  course  in  turn  showered  upon 
him,  and  in  August,  for  one  of  his  attacks  on  Spain,  he 
was  prosecuted,  though  unsuccessfully,  by  the  Spanish 
ambassador.  Immediately  on  this  he  was  taken  up  for 
libels  upon  American  statesmen,  and  bound  in  recognizances 
to  the  amount  of  $4000,  and  shortly  after  he  was  pro 
secuted  a  third  time  for  saying  that  a  certain  Dr  Rush, 
who  was  much  addicted  to  bleeding,  killed  nearly  all  the 
patients  he  attended.  The  trial  was  repeatedly  deferred, 
and  was  not  settled  till  the  end  of  1799,  when  he  was  fined 
$5000.  After  this  last  misfortune,  for  a  few  months 
Cobbett  carried  on  a  newspaper  called  the  Rushlight ;  but 
in  June  1800  he  set  sail  for  England. 

At  home  he  found  himself  regarded  as  the  champion  of 
order  and  monarchy.  Windham  invited  him  to  dinner, 
introduced  him  to  Pitt,  and  begged  him  to  accept  a  share 
in  the  True  Briton.  He  refused  the  offer  and  joined  an 
old  friend,  John  Morgan,  in  opening  a  book  shop  in  Pall 
Mall.  For  some  time  he  published  the  Porcupine's  Gazette, 
which  was  followed  in  January  1802  by  the  Weekly 
Political  Register.  In  1801  appeared  his  Letters  to  Lord 
Havvkesbury  (afterwards  earl  of  Liverpool)  and  Mr 
Addington,  in  opposition  to  the  peace  of  Amiens,  the 
terms  of  which  had  been  agreed  to  by  the  former  on  behalf 
of  Great  Britain  in  the  October  of  that  year,  but  which 
was  not  finally  concluded  till  1802.  On  the  conclusion  of 
the  peace  Cobbett  made  a  still  bolder  protest ;  he  deter 
mined  to  take  no  part  in  the  general  illumination,  and — 
assisted  by  the  sympathy  of  his  wife,  who,  being  in  delicate 
health,  removed  to  the  house  of  a  friend — he  carried  out 
his  resolve,  allowing  his  windows  to  be  smashed  and  his 
door  broken  open  by  the  angry  mob.  The  Letters  to  the. 
Rt.  Hon.  Henry  Addington  are  among  the  most  polished 
and  dignified  of  Cobbett's  writings;  but  by  1803  he  was 
once  more  revelling  in  personalities.  The  government  of 
Ireland  was  singled  out  for  wholesale  attack  ;  and  a  letter 
published  in  the  Register  remarked  of  Hardwicke,  the  lord- 
lieutenant,  that  the  appointment  was  like  setting  the  sur 
geon's  apprentice  to  bleed  the  pauper  patients.  For  this, 
though  not  a  word  had  been  uttered  against  Hardwicke's 
character,  Cobbett  was  fined  £500  ;  and  two  days  after  the 
conclusion  of  this  trial  a  second  commenced,  at  the  suit  "of 
Plunkett,  the  solicitor-general  for  Ireland,  which  resulted 
in  a  similar  fine.  About  this  time  he  began  to  write  in 
support  of  Radical  views;  and  to  cultivate  the  friendship  of 
Sir  Francis  Burdett,  from  whom  he  received  considerable 
sums  of  money,  and  other  favours,  for  which  he  gave  no 
very  grateful  return.  In  1809  he  was  once  more  in  the 
most_  serious  trouble.  He  had  bitterly  commented  on  the 
flogging  of  some  militia,  because  their  mutiny  had  been 
repressed  and  their  sentence  carried  out  by  the  aid  of  a 
body  of  German  troops,  and  in  consequence  he  was  fined 
£1000  and  imprisoned  for  two  years.  His  indomitable 
vigour  was  never  better  displayed.  He  still  continued  to 
publish  the  Register,  and  to  superintend  the  affairs  of  his 
farm  ;  a  hamper  containing  specimens  of  its  produce  and 
other  provisions  came  to  him  every  week ;  and  he  amused 
himself  with  the  company  of  some  of  his  children  and  with 
weekly  letters  from  the  rest.  On  his  release  a  public  dinner, 
presided  over  by  Sir  F.  Burdett,  was  held  in  honour  of  the 
event.  He  returned  to  his  farm  at  Botley  in  Hampshire, 


and  continued  in  his  old  course,  extending  his  influence  by 
the  publication  of  the  Tivopenny  Trash,  which,  not  being 
periodical,  escaped  the  newspaper  stamp  tax.  Meanwhile, 
however,  he  had  contracted  debts  to  the  amount  of  £34,000 
(for  it  is  said  that,  notwithstanding  the  aversion  he  publicly 
expressed  to  paper  currency,  he  had  carried  on  his  business 
by  the  aid  of  accommodation  bills  to  a  very  large  amount)  ; 
and  in  March  1817  he  fled  to  the  United  States.  But 
his  pen  was  as  active  as  ever ;  from  Long  Island  the 
Register  was  regularly  despatched  to  England;  and  it 
was  here  that  he  wrote  his  clear  and  interesting  English 
Grammar,  of  which  10,000  copies  were  sold  in  a  month. 

His  return  to  England  was  accompanied  by  his  weakest 
exhibition — the  exhuming  and  bringing  over  of  the  bones 
of  Tom  Paine,  wrhom  he  had  once  heartily  abused,  but  on 
whom  he  now  wrote  a  panegyrical  ode.  Nobody  paid  any 
attention  to  the  affair ;  the  relics  he  offered  were  not 
purchased  ;  and  the  bones  were  reinterred. 

Cobbett's  great  aim  was  now  to  obtain  a  seat  in  the 
House  of  Commons.  He  calmly  suggested  that  his  friends 
should  assist  him  by  raising  the  sum  of  £5000  ;  it  would 
be  much  better,  he  said,  than  a  meeting  of  50,000  persons. 
He  first  offered  himself  for  Coventry,  but  failed;  in  1826 
he  was  by  a  large  number  of  votes  last  of  the  candidates 
for  Preston ;  and  in  1828  he  could  find  no  one  to  propose 
him  for  the  office  of  common  councillor.  In  1830,  that 
year  of  revolutions,  he  was  prosecuted  for  inciting  to 
rebellion,  but  the  jury  disagreed,  and  soon  after,  through 
the  influence  of  one  of  his  admirers,  Mr  Fielden,  who  was 
himself  a  candidate  for  Oldham,  he  was  returned  for  that 
town.  lu  the  House  his  speeches  were  listened  to  with 
amused  attention.  His  position  is  sufficiently  marked  by 
the  sneer  of  Peel  that  he  would  attend  to  Mr  Cobbett's 
observations  exactly  as  if  they  had  been  those  of  a 
"  respectable  member  ;  "  and  the  only  striking  part  of  his 
career  was  his  absurd  motion  that  the  king  should  be 
prayed  to  remove  Sir  Robert  Peel's  name  from  the  list  of 
the  privy  council,  because  of  the  change  he  had  proposed 
in  the  currency  in  1819.  In  183i  Cobbett  was  again 
member  for  Oldham,  but  his  health  now  began  to  give  way, 
and  in  June  1835  he  left  London  for  his  farm,  where  he 
died  on  the  16th  of  that  month. 

Cobbett's  account  of  his  home-life  makes  him  appear 
singularly  happy  ;  his  love  and  admiration  of  his  wife  never 
failed ;  and  his  education  of  his  children  seems  to  have 
been  distinguished  by  great  kindliness,  and  by  a  good  deal 
of  healthy  wisdom,  mingled  with  the  prejudices  due  to  the 
peculiarities  of  his  temper  and  circumstances.  Cobbett's 
ruling  characteristic  was  a  sturdy  egotism,  which  had  in  it 
something  of  the  nobler  element  of  self-respect.  A  firm  will, 
a  strong  brain,  feelings  not  over-sensitive,  an  intense  love  of 
fighting,  a  resolve  to  get  on,  in  the  sense  of  making  himself 
a  power  in  the  world — these  are  the  principal  qualities 
which  account  for  the  success  of  his  career.  His  opinions 
were  the  fruits  of  his  emotions.  It  was  enough  for  him  to 
get  a  thorough  grasp  of  one  side  of  a  question,  about  the 
other  side  he  did  not  trouble  himself  ;  but  he  always  firmly 
seizes  the  facts  which  make  for  his  view,  and  expresses 
them  with  unfailing  clearness.  His  argument,  which  is 
never  subtle,  has  always  the  appearance  of  weight,  however 
flimsy  it  may  be  in  fact.  His  sarcasm  is  seldom  polished 
or  delicate,  but  usually  rough,  and  often  abusive,  while 
coarse  nicknames  were  his  special  delight.  His  style  is 
always  extremely  forcible,  and  marked  by  unusual  gramma 
tical  correctness. 

Cobbett's  contributions  to  periodical  literature  occupy  IOC 
volu'  ies,  twelve  of  which  consist  of  the  papers  published  at 
Philadelphia  between  1794  and  1800,  and  the  rest  of  the  Weekly 
Political  Register,  which  ended  only  with  Cobbett's  life  (June  1835). 
An  abridgment  of  these  works,  with  notes,  has  been  published  by 
his  sons,  John  M.  Cobbett  and  James  P.  Cobbett.  Besides  this  ha 


C  Q  B  —  C  0  B 


published — An  Account  of  the  Horrors  of  the  French  Revolution, 
and  a  \vork  tracing  all  these  horrors  to  "  the  licentious  politics  and 
infidel  philosophy  of  the  presentage"  (both  1798);  A  Year's  Residence 
in  the  United  States;  Parliamentary  History  of  England  from  the  Nor 
man  Conquest  to  1800  (1806) ;  Cottage  Economy ;  Roman  History; 
French  Grammar,  and  English  Grammar,  both  in  the  form  of  letters ; 
Geographical  Dictionary  of  England  and  Wales ;  History  of  the 
Regency  and  Reign  of  George  IV".,  containing  a  defence  of  Queen 
Caroline,  whose  cause  he  warmly  advocated  (1830-4) ;  Life  of 
Andrew  Jackson,  President  of  the  United  States  (1834);  Legacy  to 
Labourers;  Legacy  to  Peel;  Legacy  to  Parsons,  an  attack  on  the 
secular  claims  of  the  Established  Church;  Doom  of  Tithes ;  Rural 
Rides;  Advice  toYoungMen  and  Women;  CobbctPs  Corn;  wAHistory 
of  the  Protestant  Reformation  in  England  and  Ireland,  in  which  he 
defends  the  monasteries,  Queen  Mary,  and  Bonner,  and  attacks  the 
Reformation,  Henry  VIII.,  Elizabeth,  and  all  who  helped  to  brin<* 
it  about,  with  such  vehemence  that  the  work  was  translated 
into  French  and  Italian,  and  extensively  circulated  among  Roman 
Catholics. 

In  1798  Cobbett  published  in  America  an  account  of  his  early  life, 
under  the  title  of  The  Life  and  Adventures  of  Peter  Porcupine;  and 
he  left  papers  relating  to  his  subsequent  career.  These  materials 
were  embodied  in  an  anonymous  Life  of  Cobbett  which  appeared 
soon  after  his  death.  See  also  Sir  Henry  Bulwer's  Historical 
Characters;  Biographies  of  John  Wilkes  and  William  Cobbett  by  Rev. 
John  Watson;  and  the  abridged  and  annotated  edition  of  the 
Register. 

COBDEN",  RICHARD  (1804-1865),  was  born  at  a  farm 
house  called  Dunford,  near  Midhurst,  in  Sussex,  on  the  3d 
of  June  1804.  The  family  had  been  resident  in  that 
neighbourhood  for  many  generations,  occupied  partly  in 
trade  and  partly  in  agriculture.  Formerly  there  had  been 
in  the  town  of  Midhurst  a  small  manufacture  of  hosiery 
with  which  the  Cobdens  were  connected,  though  all  trace 
of  it  had  disappeared  before  the  birth  of  Richard.  His 
grandfather  was  a  maltster  in  that  town,  an  energetic  and 
prosperous  man,  almost  always  the  bailiff  or  chief 
magistrate,  and  taking  rather  a  notable  part  in  county 
matters.  But  his  father,  forsaking  that  trade,  took  to 
farming  at  an  unpropitious  time.  He  was  amiable  and 
kind-hearted,  and  greatly  Hked  by  his  neighbours,  but  not 
a  man  of  business  habits,  and  he  did  not  succeed  in  his 
farming  enterprise.  He  died  when  his  son  Richard  was 
a  child,  and  the  care  of  the  family  devolved  upon  the 
mother,  who  was  a  woman  of  strong  sense  and  of  great 
energy  of  character,  and  who,  after  her  husband's  death, 
left  Dunford  and  returned  to  Midhurst. 

The  educational  advantages  of  Richard  Cobden  were 
not  very  ample.  There  was  a  grammar  school  at  Midhurst, 
which  at  one  time  had  enjoyed  considerable  reputation, 
but  which  had  fallen  into  decay.  It  was  there  that  he 
had  to  pick  up  such  rudiments  of  knowledge  as  formed 
his  first  equipment  in  life,  but  from  his  earliest  years  he 
was  indefatigable  in  the  work  of  self-cultivation.  When 
fifteen  or  sixteen  years  of  age  he  went  to  London  to  the 
warehouse  of  Messrs  Partridge  and  Price,  in  East  Cheap, 
one  of  the  partners  being  his  uncle.  His  relative  noting 
the  lad's  passionate  addiction  to  study,  solemnly  warned 
him  against  indulging  such  a  taste,  as  likely  to  prove  a 
fatal  obstacle  to  his  success  in  commercial  life,  Happily 
the  admonition  was  unheeded,  for  while  unweariedly 
diligent  in  business,  as  his  rapid  after  success  abundantly 
proved,  he  was  in  his  intervals  of  leisure  a  most  assiduous 
student.  During  his  residence  in  London  he  found  access 
to  the  London  Institution,  and  made  ample  use  of  its 
large  and  well-selected  library. 

When  he  was  about  twenty  years  of  age  he  became  a 
commercial  traveller,  and  throwing  into  that,  as  he  ever 
did  into  whatever  his  hand  found  to  do,  all  the  thorough 
ness  and  vigour  of  his  nature,  he  soon  became  eminently 
successful  in  his  calling.  But  never  content  to  sink  into 
the  mere  trader,  he  sought  to  introduce  among  those  he 
met  on  the  "  road "  a  higher  tone  of  conversation  than 
usually  marks  the  commercial  room,  and  there  were  many 
of  his  associates  who,  when  he  had  attained  eminence, 


recalled  the  discussions  on  political  economy  and  kindred 
topics  with  which  he  was  wont  to  enliven  and  elevate  the 
travellers'  table.  In  1830  Cobden  learnt  that  Messrs 
Fort,  calico  printers  at  Sabden,  near  Clitheroe,  were  about 
to  retire  from  business,  and  he,  with  two  other  young 
men,  Messrs  Sheriff  and  Gillet,  who  were  engaged  in  the 
same  commercial  house  as  himself,  determined  to  make  an 
effort  to  acquire  the  succession.  They  had,  however,  very 
little  capital  among  them.  But  it  may  be  taken  as  an 
illustration  of  the  instinctive  confidence  which  Cobden 
through  life  inspired  in  those  with  whom  he  came  into 
contact,  that  Messrs  Fort  consented  to  leave  to  these 
untried  young  men  a  large  portion  of  their  capital  in  the 
business.  Nor  was  their  confidence  misplaced.  The  new 
firm  had  soon  three  establishments, — one  at  Sabden,  where 
the  printing  works  were,  one  in  London,  and  one  in 
Manchester  for  the  sale  of  their  goods.  This  last  was 
under  the  direct  management  of  Cobden,  who,  in  1830 
or  1831,  settled  in  the  city  with  which  his  name  became 
afterwards  so  closely  associated.  The  success  of  this  enter- 
prize  was  decisive  and  rapid,  and  the  "  Cobden  prints"  soon 
became  known  through  the  country  as  of  rare  value  both 
for  excellence  of  material  and  beauty  of  design.  There 
can  be  no  doubt  that  if  Cobden  had  been  satisfied  to 
devote  all  his  energies  to  commercial  life  he  might  soon 
have  attained  to  great  opulence,  for  it  is  understood  that 
his  share  in  the  profits  of  the  business  he  had  established 
amounted  to  from  £8000  to  £10,000  a  year.  But  he  had 
other  tastes,  which  impelled  him  irresistibly  to  pursue  those 
studies  which,  as  Lord  Bacon  says,  "  serve  for  delight,  for 
ornament,  and  for  ability."  Mr  Prentice,  the  historian  of 
the  Anti-Corn-Law  League,  who  was  then  editor  of  the  Man 
chester  Times,  describes  how,  in  the  year  1835,  he  received 
for  publication  in  his  paper  a  series  of  admirably  written 
letters,  under  the  signature  of  "  Libra,"  discussing  com 
mercial  and  economical  questions  with  rare  ability.  After 
some  time  he  discovered  that  the  author  of  these  letters 
was  Cobden,  whose  name  was  until  then  quite  unknown 
to  him. 

In  1 835  he  published  his  first  pamphlet,  entitled  Eng 
land,  Ireland,  and  America,  by  a  Manchester  Manufacturer. 
It  attracted  great  attention,  and  ran  rapidly  through  several 
editions.  It  was  marked  by  a  breadth  and  boldness  of 
views  on  political  and  social  questions  which  betokened 
an  original  mind.  In  this  production  Cobden  advo 
cated  the  same  principles  of  peace,  non-intervention,  re 
trenchment,  and  free  trade  to  which  he  continued  faithful 
to  the  last  day  of  his  life.  Immediately  after  the  publica 
tion  of  this  pamphlet,  he  paid  a  visit  to  the  United  States, 
landing  in  New  York  on  the  7th  June  1835.  He  devoted 
about  three  months  to  this  tour,  passing  rapidly  through 
the  seaboard  States  and  the  adjacent  portion  of  Canada, 
and  collecting  as  he  went  large  stores  of  information 
respecting  the  condition,  resources,  and  prospects  of  the 
great  Western  Republic.  Soon  after  his  return  to  England 
he  began  to  prepare  another  work  for  the  press,  which 
appeared  towards  the  end  of  1836,  under  the  title  of 
Russia.  It  was  mainly  designed  to  combat  a  wild  out 
break  of  Russophobia  which,  under  the  inspiration  of  Mr 
David  Urquhart,  was  at  that  time  taking  possession  of  the 
public  mind.  But  it  contained  also  a  bold  indictment  of 
the  whole  system  of  foreign  policy  then  in  vogue,  founded 
on  ideas  as  to  the  balance  of  power  and  the  necessity  of 
large  armaments  for  the  protection  of  commerce.  While 
this  pamphlet  was  in  the  press,  delicate  health  obliged  him 
to  leave  England,  and  for  several  months,  at  the  end  of 
1836  and  the  beginning  of  1837,  he  travelled  in  Spain, 
Turkey,  and  Egypt.  During  his  visit  to  Egypt  he  had  an 
interview  with  the  redoubtable  ruler  of  that  country, 
Mehemet  Ali,  of  whose  character  as  a  reforming  monarch 


C  0  B  D  E  N 


he  did  not  bring  away  a  very  favourable  impression.  He 
returned  to  England  in  April  1837.  From  that  time 
Cobdeu  became  a  conspicuous  figure  in  Manchester,  taking 
a  leading  part  in  the  local  politics  of  the  town  and  district. 
Largely  owing  to  his  exertions,  the  Manchester  Athenaeum 
was  established,  at  the  opening  of  which  he  was  chosen  to 
deliver  the  inaugural  address.  He  became  a  member  of 
the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  and  soon  infused  new  life  into 
that  body.  He  threw  himself  with  great  energy  into  the 
agitation  which  led  to  the  incorporation  of  the  city,  and 
was  elected  one  of  its  first  aldermen.  He  began  also  to 
take  a  warm  interest  in  the  cause  of  popular  education. 
Some  of  his  first  attempts  in  public  speaking  were  at  meet 
ings  which  he  convened  at  Manchester,  Salford,  Bolton, 
Rochdale,  and  other  adjacent  towns,  to  advocate  the  estab 
lishment  of  British  schools.  It  was  while  on  a  mission  for 
this  purpose  to  Rochdale  that  he  first  formed  the  acquaint 
ance  of  Mr  John  Bright,  who  afterwards  became  his 
distinguished  coadjutor  in  the  free  trade  agitation.  Nor 
was  it  long  before  his  fitness  for  parliamentary  life  was 
recognized  by  his  friends.  In  1837,  the  death  of  William 
IV.  and  the  accession  of  Queen  Victoria  led  to  a  general 
election.  Cobden  was  candidate  for  Stockport,  but  was 
defeated,  though  not  by  a  large  majority. 

In  1838  an  Anti-Corn-Law  Association  was  formed  at 
Manchester,  which,  on  his  suggestion,  was  afterwards 
changed  into  a  national  association,  under  the  title  of  the 
Anti-Corn-Law  League.  This  is  not  the  place  to  recount 
the  history  of  that  famous  association,  of  which  from  first 
to  last  Cobden  was  the  presiding  genius  and  the  animating 
soul.  During  the  seven  years  between  the  formation  of 
the  league  and  its  final  triumph,  he  devoted  himself  wholly 
to  the  work  of  teaching  his  countrymen  sound  economical 
doctrines,  for  the  agitation  which  he  and  his  associates 
conducted  with  such  signal  ability  and  success  was  pre 
eminently  an  educational  agitation.  His  labours  were  as 
various  as  they  were  incessant, — now  guiding  the  councils 
of  the  League,  now  addressing  crowded  and  enthusiastic 
meetings  of  his  supporters  in  London  or  the  large  towns 
of  England  and  Scotland,  now  invading  the  agricultural 
districts,  and  challenging  the  landlords  to  meet  him  in  the 
presence  of  their  own  farmers,  to  discuss  the  question  in 
dispute,  and  now  encountering  the  Chartists  led  on  by 
Feargus  O'Connor,  who  had  deluded  a  portion  of  the 
working  classes  into  fanatical  opposition  to  free  frade.  But 
whatever  was  the  character  of  his  audience  he  never  failed, 
by  the  clearness  of  his  statements,  the  force  of  his  reasoning, 
and  the  felicity  of  his  illustrations,  to  carry  conviction  to 
the  minds  of  his  hearers. 

In  1841,  Sir  Robert  Peel  having  defeated  the  Melbourne 
ministry  in  Parliament,  there  was  a  general  election,  when 
Cobden  was  returned  for  Stockport.  His  opponents  had 
confidently  predicted  that  he  would  fail  utterly  in  the 
House  of  Commons.  He  did  not  wait  long,  after  his 
admission  into  that  assembly,  in  bringing  their  predic 
tions  to  the  test.  Parliament  met  on  the  19th  August. 
On  the  24th,  in  course  of  the  debate  on  the  Address, 
Cobden  delivered  his  first  speech.  "  It  was  remarked, " 
pays  Miss  Martineau,  in  her  History  of  tJie  Peace,  "  that 
he  was  not  treated  in  the  House  with  the  courtesy  usually 
accorded  to  a  new  member,  and  it  was  perceived  that  he 
did  not  need  such  observance."  With  perfect  self-posses 
sion,  which  was  not  disturbed  by  the  jeers  that  greeted  some 
of  his  statements,  and  with  the  utmost  simplicity,  direct 
ness,  and  force,  he  presented  the  argument  against  the  corn- 
laws  in  such  a  form  as  startled  his  audience,  and  also 
irritated  some  of  them,  for  it  was  a  style  of  eloquence 
very  unlike  the  conventional  style  which  prevailed  in 
Parliament. 

From  that  day  he  became  an  acknowledged  power  in  the 


House,  and  though  addressing  a  most  unfriendly  audience, 
ie  compelled   attention  by   his  thorough  mastery  of  his 
subject,   and  by  the   courageous  boldness  with  which  he 
harged  the  ranks  of  his  adversaries.     He  soon   came  to 
be    recognized  as  one   of  the  foremost  debaters  on  those 
:conomical  and  commercial  questions  which  at  that  time  so 
much  occupied  the  attention  of  Parliament ;   and  the  most 
prejudiced  and  bitter  of  his  opponents  were  fain  to  acknow 
ledge  that  they  had  to  deal  with  a  man  whom  the  most 
practised  and  powerful  orators   of   their  party   found   it 
hard  to  cope  with,  and  to   whose  eloquence,  indeed,   the 
great  statesman  in  whom  they  put  their  trust  was  obliged 
ultimately  to  surrender.     On  the  17th  of  February  1843 
an    extraordinary   scene    took    place    in    the    House    of 
Commons.     Cobden  had  spoken  with  great  fervour  of  the 
deplorable  suffering  and  distress  which    at  that  time  pre 
vailed  in  the  country,  for  which,    he  added,  he  held  Sir 
Robert  Peel,  as  the  head  of  the  Government,  responsible. 
This  remark,  when  it  was  spoken,  passed  unnoticed,  being 
indeed  nothing  more  than  one  of  the  commonplaces  of  party 
warfare.     But  a  few  weeks  before,  Mr  Drummond,  who 
was  Sir  Robert  Peel's  private  secretary,  had  been  shot  dead 
in  the  street  by  a  lunatic.     In  consequence  of  this,  and 
the  manifold   anxieties   of  the  time    with  which  he  was 
harassed,  the  mind  of  the  great  statesman  was  no  doubt 
in  a  moody  and  morbid  condition,  and  when  he  arose  to 
speak  later   in   the   evening,  he    referred  in  excited  and 
agitated  tones  to  the  remark,  as  an  incitement  to  violence 
against  his  person.     Sir  Robert  Peel's  party,  catching  at 
this  hint,  threw  themselves  into  a  frantic  state  of  excitement, 
and  when  Cobden  attempted  to   explain  that  he  meant 
official,  not  personal  responsibility,  they  drowned  his  voice 
with  clamorous  and  insulting  shouts.     But  Peel  lived  to 
make  ample  and  honourable  amend  for  this  unfortunate 
ebullition,  for  not  only  did  he  "fully  and  unequivocally 
withdraw  the    imputation  which  was  thrown  out  in  the 
heat  of  debate  under  an  erroneous  impression,"  but  when 
the  great  free  trade  battle  had  been  Avon,  he  took  the  wreath 
of  victory  from  his  own  brow,  and  placed  it  on  that  of  his 
old  opponent,  in  the  following  graceful  words : — "The  name 
which  ought  to  be,  and  will  be  associated  with  the  success 
of  these  measures,  is  not  mine,  or  that  of  the  noble  Lord 
(Russell),  but  the  name  of  one  who,  acting  I  believe  from 
pure  and  disinterested  motives,  has,  with  untiring  energy, 
made  appeals  to  our  reason,  and  has  enforced  those  appeals 
Avith  an  eloquence  the  more  to  be  admired  because  it  Avas 
unaffected  and  unadorned;   the  name  Avhich  ought  to  be 
chiefly  associated  with  the  success  of  these  measures  is  the 
name  of   Richard   Cobden."      Cobden  had,   indeed,  with 
unexampled  devotion,  sacrificed  his  business,  his  domestic 
comforts,  and  for  a  time  his  health  to  the  public  interests. 
His  friends  therefore  felt,  at  the  close  of  that  long  campaign, 
that  the  nation  owed  him  some  substantial  token  of  gratitude 
and  admiration  for  those  sacrifices.     No  sooner  was  the 
idea   of  such  a  tribute  started  than  liberal  contributions 
came  from  all  quarters,  which  enabled  his  friends  to  present 
him  Avith  a  sum  of  ,£80,000.     Had  he  been  inspired  with 
personal  ambition,  he  might  have  entered  upon  the  race  of 
political  advancement  Avith  the  prospect  of  attaining  the 
highest  official  prizes.    Lord  John  Russell,  who,  soon  after 
the  repeal  of  the  corn  laA\rs,  succeeded  Sir  Robert  Peel  as 
first  minister,  invited  Cobden   to  join   his   Government. 
But  he  preferred  keeping  himself  at  liberty  to  serve  his 
countrymen  ur>shackled  by  official  ties,  and  declined  the 
invitation.     He  Avithdrew  for  a  time  from  England.     His 
fin  t  intention  Avas  to  seek  complete  seclusion  in  Egypt  or 
Italy,  to  recover  health  and  strength  after  his  long  and 
exhausting  labours.   But  his  fame  had  gone  forth  throughout 
Europe,  and  intimations  reached  him  from  many  quarters 
that  his  voice  would  be  listened  to  everywhere  with  favour. 


C  0  B  D  E  N 


87 


in  advocacy  of  the  doctrines  to  the  triumph  of  which  he 
had  so  much  contributed  at  home.  Writing  to  a  friend  in 
July  184G,  he  says, — "  I  am  going  to  tell  you  of  a  fresh 
project  that  has  been  brewing  in  my  brain.  I  have  given 
up  all  idea  of  burying  myself  in  Egypt  or  Italy.  I  am 
going  on  an  agitating  tour  through  the  continent  of  Europe." 
Then,  referring  to  messages  he  had  received  from  influential 
persons  in  France,  Prussia,  Austria,  Russia,  and  Spain  to 
the  effect  mentioned  above,  he  adds: — "Well,  I  will,  with 
God's  assistance,  during  the  next  twelve  months,  visit  all  the 
large  states  of  Europe,  see  their  potentates  or  statesmen, 
and  endeavour  to  enforce  those  truths  which  have  been 
irresistible  at  home.  Why  should  I  rust  in  inactivity? 
If  the  public  spirit  of  my  countrymen  affords  me  the  means 
of  travelling  as  their  missionary,  I  will  be  the  first  ambas 
sador  from  the  people  of  this  country  to  the  nations  of  the 
Continent.  I  am  impelled  to  this  by  an  instinctive  emotion 
such  as  has  never  deceived  me.  I  feel  that  I  could  succeed 
in  making  out  a  stronger  case  for  the  prohibitive  nations  of 
Europe  to  compel  them  to  adopt  a  freer  system  than  I  had 
here  to  overturn  our  protection  policy."  This  programme 
he  fulfilled.  He  visited  in  succession  France,  Spain,  Italy, 
Germany,  and  Russia.  He  was  received  everywhere  with 
marks  of  distinction  and  honour.  In  many  of  the  principal 
capitals  he  was  invited  to  publicbanquets,  which  afforded  him 
an  opportunity  of  propagating  those  principles  of  which  he 
was  regarded  as  the  apostle.  But  beside  these  public  demon 
strations  he  sought  and  found  access  in  private  to  many  of 
the  leading  statesmen,  in  the  various  countries  he  visited, 
with  a  view  to  indoctrinate  them  with  the  same  principles. 
During  his  absence  there  was  a  general  election,  and  he 
was  returned  for  Stockport  and  for  the  West  Riding  of 
Yorkshire.  He  chose  to  sit  for  the  latter. 

When  Cobden  returned  from  the  Continent  he  addressed 
himself  to  what  seemed  to  him  the  logical  complement  of 
free  trade,  namely,  the  promotion  of  peace  and  the  reduc 
tion  of  naval  and  military  armaments.  His  abhorrence  of 
war  amounted  to  a  passion.  Throughout  his  long  labours 
in  behalf  of  unrestricted  commerce  he  never  lost  sight  of 
this,  as  being  the  most  precious  result  of  the  work  in  which 
he  was  engaged, — its  tendency  to  diminish  the  hazards  of 
war  and  to  bring  the  nations  of  the  world  into  closer  and 
more  lasting  relations  of  peace  and  friendship  with  each 
other.  He  was  not  deterred  by  the  fear  of  ridicule  or  the 
reproach  of  Utopianism  from  associating  himself  openly, 
and  with  all  the  ardour  of  his  nature,  with  the  peace  party 
iu  England.  In  1849  he  brought  forward  a  proposal  in 
Parliament  in  favour  of  international  arbitration,  and  in 
1851  a  motion  for  mutual  reduction  of  armaments.  He 
was  not  successful  in  either  case,  nor  did  he  expect  to  be. 
In  pursuance  of  the  same  object,  he  identified  himself  with 
a  series  of  remarkable  peace  congresses — international 
assemblies  designed  to  unite  the  intelligence  and 
philanthropy  of  the  nations  of  Christendom  in  a  league 
against  war — which  from  1848  to  1851  were  held  succes 
sively  in  Brussels,  Paris,  Frankfort,  London,  Manchester, 
and  Edinburgh. 

On  the  establishment  of  the  French  empire  in  1851-2  a 
violent  panic  took- possession  of  the  public  mind.  Without 
the  shadow  of  producible  evidence  the  leaders  of  opinion 
in  the  press  promulgated  the  wildest  alarms  as  to  the 
intentions  of  Louis  Napoleon,  who  was  represented  as  con 
templating  a  sudden  and  piratical  descent  upon  the  English 
coast  without  pretext  or  provocation.  Shocked  by  this 
pitiful  display  of  national  folly,  Cobden  did  not  hesitate  to 
throw  himself  into  the  breach  and  withstand  the  madness 
of  the  hour.  By  a  series  of  powerful  speeches  in  and  out 
of  Parliament,  and  by  the  publication  of  his  masterly 
pamphlet,  1793  and  1853,  he  sought  to  calm  the  passions 
of  his  countrymen.  By  this  course  he  sacrificed  the  great 


popularity  he  had  won  as  the  champion  of  free  trade,  and 
became  for  a  time  the  best  abused  man  in  England. 
Immediately  afterwards,  owing  to  the  quarrel  about  the 
Holy  Places  which  arose  in  the  east  of  Europe,  public 
opinion  suddenly  veered  round,  and  all  the  suspicion  and 
hatred  which  had  been  directed  against  the  emperor  of  the 
French  were  diverted  from  him  to  the  emperor  of  Russia. 
Louis  Napoleon  was  taken  into  favour  as  our  faithful  ally, 
and  in^a  whirlwind  of  popular  excitement  the  nation  was 
swept  into  the  Crimean  war.  Cobden,  who  had  travelled 
in  Turkey,  and  had  studied  the  condition  of  that  country 
with  great  care  for  many  years,  utterly  discredited  the 
outcry  about  maintaining  the  independence  and  integrity 
of  the  Ottoman  empire  which  was  the  battle-cry  of  the 
day.  He  denied  that  it  was  possible  to  maintain  them, 
and  no  less  strenuously  denied  that  it  was  desirable  even  if 
it  were  possible.  He  believed  that  the  jealousy  of  Russian 
aggrandizement  and  the  dread  of  Russian  power  to  which 
our  countrymen  delivered  themselves  at  that  time  were 
absurd  exaggerations.  He  maintained  that  the  future  of 
European  Turkey  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Christian 
population,  and  that  it  would  have  been  our  wisdom  to 
ally  ourselves  with  them  rather  than  with  the  doomed  and 
decaying  Mahometan  power.  "  You  must  address  your 
selves,"  he  said  in  the  House  of  Commons,  "  as  men  of 
sense  and  men  of  energy,  to  the  question — what  are  you  to 
do  with  the  Christian  population  ?  for  Mahometanism 
cannot  be  maintained,  and  I  should  be  sorry  to  see  this 
country  fighting  for  the  maintenance  of  Mahometanism 

You  may  keep  Turkey  on  the  map  of  Europe,  you 

may  call  the  country  by  the  name  of  Turkey  if  you  like, 
but  do  not  think  you  can  keep  up  the  Mahometan  rule  in 
the  country/'''  The  reader  may  be  left  to  judge  how  far 
his  sagacity  and  statesmanship  have  been  vindicated  by  the 
event.  But  for  the  time  the  torrent  of  popular  sentiment 
in  favour  of  war  was  irresistible;  and  Messrs  Cobden  and 
Bright,  who  with  admirable  courage  and  eloquence  with 
stood  what  they  deemed  the  delusion  of  the  hour,  were 
overwhelmed  with  obloquy. 

At  the  beginning  of  1857  tidings  from  China  reachcsd 
England  of  a  rupture  between  the  British  plenipotentiary 
in  that  country  and  the  governor  of  the  Canton  provinces 
in  reference  to  a  small  vessel  orlorcha  called  the  "  Arrow," 
which  had  resulted  in  the  English  admiral  destroying  the 
river  forts,  burning  23  ships  belonging  to  the  Chinese  navy, 
and  bombarding  the  city  of  Canton.  After  a  careful 
investigation  of  the  official  documents,  Cobden  became  con 
vinced  that  those  were  utterly  unrighteous  proceedings. 
He  brought  forward  a  motion  in  Parliament  to  this  effect, 
which  led  to  a  long  and  memorable  debate,  lasting  over 
four  nights,  in  which  -he  was  supported  by  Mr  Sydney 
Herbert^  Sir  James  Graham,  Mr  Gladstone,  Lord  John 
Russell,  and  Mr  Disraeli,  and  which  ended  in  the  defeat  of 
Lord  Palmerston  by  a  majority  of  sixteen.  But  this 
triumph  cost  him  his  seat  in  Parliament,  On  the  dissolu 
tion  which  followed  Lord  Palmerston's  defeat,  Cobden 
became  candidate  for  Hucldersfield,  but  the  voters  of  that 
town  gave  the  preference  to  his  opponent,  who  had 
supported  the  Russian  war  and  approved  of  the  proceedings 
at  Canton.  Cobden  was  thus  relegated  to  private  life,  and 
retiring  to  his  country  house  at  Dunford,  l;e  spent  his  time 
In  perfect  contentment  in  cultivating  his  land  and  feeding 
his  pigs. 

He  took  advantage  of  this  season  of  leisure  to  pay 
another  visit  to  the  United  States.  During  his  absence 
the  general  election  of  1859  occurred,  when  he  was  returned 
unopposed  for  Rochdale.  Lord  Palmerston  was  again 
prime  minister,  and  having  discovered  that  the  advanced 
liberal  party  was  not  so  easily  "  crushed "  as  he  had 
apprehended,  he  made  overtures  of  reconciliation,  and  invited 


COBDEN 


Cobden  and  Milner  Gibson  to  "become  members  of  his 
government.  In  a  frank,  cordial  letter  which  was  delivered 
to  Cobden  on  his  lauding  in  Liverpool,  Lord  Palmerston 
offered  him  the  Presidency  of  the  Board  of  Trade,  with  a 
seat  in  the  Cabinet.  Many  of  his  friends  urgently  pressed 
him  to  accept ;  but  without  a  moment's  hesitation  _  he 
determined  to  decline  the  proposed  honour.  On  his  arrival 
in  London  he  called  on  Lord  Palmerston,  and  with  the 
utmost  frankness  told  hiui  that  he  had  opposed  and 
denounced  him  so  frequently  in  public,  and  that  he  still 
differed  so  widely  from  his  views,  especially  on  questions 
of  foreign  policy,  that  he  could  not,  without  doing  violence 
to  his  own  sense  of  duty  and  consistency,  serve  under  him 
as  minister.  Lord  Palmerston  tried  good-humouredly  to 
combat  his  objections,  but  without  success. 

But  though  he  declined  to  share  the  responsibility  of 
Lord  Palmerston's  administration,  he  was  willing  to  act  as 
its  representative  in  promoting  freer  commercial  intercourse 
between  England  and  France.     But  the  negotiations  for 
this  purpose  originated  with  himself  in  conjunction  with 
Mr  Bright  and  M.  Michel  Chevalier.     Towards  the  close 
of  1859  he  called  upon  Lord  Palmerston,  Lord  John  Russell, 
and  Mr  Gladstone,  and   signified   his   intention   to   visit 
France  and  get  into  communication  with  the  emperor  and 
his  ministers,  with  a  view  to  promote  this  object.     These 
statesmen  expressed  in  general  terms  their  approval  of  his 
purpose,  but  he  went  entirely  on  his  own  account,  clothed 
at  first  with  no   official  authority.      His   name,  however, 
carried  an  authority  of  its  own.     On  his  arrival  in  Paris  he 
had  a  long  audience  with  Napoleon,  in  which  he  urged 
many  arguments  in   favour   of   removing  those  obstacles 
which  prevented  the  two  countries  from  being  brought  into 
closer  dependence  OK.  one   another,  and  he  succeeded  in 
making  a  considerable  impression  on  his  mind  in  favour  of 
free    trade.     He    then   addressed  himself  to   the   French 
ministers,  and  had  much  earnest  conversation,  especially 
with  M.  Fould,  Ministre  d'Etat,  and  M.  Rouher,  minister 
of  commerce,  both  of  whom,  and  especially  the  latter,  he 
found    well   inclined   to  the  economical  and   commercial 
principles  which  ho  advocated.     After  a  good  deal  of  time 
spent  in  these  preliminary  and  unofficial  negotiations,  the 
question  of  a  treaty  of  commerce  between  the  two  countries 
having  entered  into  the  arena  of  diplomacy,  Cobden  was 
requested   by   the    British    Government   to   act   as    their 
plenipotentiary  in   the  matter  in  conjunction  with  Lord 
Cowley,  their  ambassador  in  France.     But  it  proved  a  very 
long  and  laborious  undertaking.     He  had  to  contend  with 
the   bitter   hostility  of  the  French   protectionists,    which 
occasioned  a  good  deal  of  vacillation  on  the  part  of  the 
emperor   and    his    ministers.     There    were    also    delays, 
hesitations,  and  cavils  at  home,  which  were  more  inexpli 
cable.    He  was,  moreover,  assailed  with  great  violence  by  a 
powerful  section   of   the    English  press,    while   the  large 
number  of  minute  details  with  which  he  had  to  deal  in 
connection   with  proposed  changes  in  the    French   tariff, 
involved  a  tax  on  his  patience  and  industry  which  would 
have  daunted  a  less   resolute    man.     But  there  was  one 
source  of  embarrassment  greater   than  all  the  rest.     One 
strong  motive  which  had  impelled  him  to  engage  in  this 
enterprise  was  his  anxious  desire  to  establish  more  friendly 
relations  between  England  and  France,  and  to  dispel  those 
feelings   of   mutual  jealousy   and   alarm   which  were   so 
frequently  breaking  forth  and  jeopardizing  peace  between 
the  two  countries.     This  was  the  most  powerful  argument 
with  which  he  had  plied  the  emperor  and  the  members  of 
the  French  Government,  and  which  he  had  found  most 
efficacious  _\vith  them.     But  unhappily,  while  he  was  in 
the  very  thick  of  the  negotatious,  Lord  Palmerston  brought 
forward  in  the  House  of  Commons  a  measure  for  fortifying 
the  naval  arsenals  of  England,  which  he  introduced  in  a 


warlike  speech  pointedly  directed  against  France,  as  the 
source  of  danger  of  invasion  and  attack,  against  which  it 
was  necessary  to  guard.  This  produced  irritation  and 
resentment  in  Paris,  and  but  for  the  influence  which 
Cobden  had  acquired,  and  the  perfect  trust  reposed  in  his 
sincerity,  the  negotiations  would  probably  have  been  alto 
gether  wrecked.  At  last,  however,  after  nearly  twelve 
months'  incessant  labour,  the  work  was  completed  in 
November  1860.  "Rare,"  said  Mr  Gladstone,  "  is  the 
privilege  of  any  man  who,  having  fourteen  years  ago 
rendered  to  his  country  one  signal  service,  now  again, 
within  the  same  brief  span,  of  life,  decorated  neither  by 
land  nor  title,  bearing  no  mark  to  distinguish  him  from 
the  people  he  loves,  has  been  permitted  to  perform  another 
great  and  memorable  service  to  his  sovereign  and  his 
country." 

On  the  conclusion  of  this  work  honours  were  offered  to 
Cobden  by  the  Governments  of  both  the  countries  which  he 
had  so  greatly  benefited.  Lord  Palmerston  offered  him  a 
baronetcy  and  a  seat  in  the  Privy  Council,  and  the  emperor 
of  the  French  would  gladly  have  conferred  upon  him  some 
distinguished  mark  of  his  favour.  But  with  characteristic 
disinterestedness  and  modesty  he  declined  all  such  honours. 

It  has  already  been  remarked  that  Cobdeu's  efforts  in 
furtherance  of  free  trade  were  always  subordinated  to  the 
highest  moral  purposes — the  promotion  of  peace  on  earth 
and  good-will  among  men.  This  was  his  desire  and  hope 
as  respects  the  Commercial  Treaty  with  France.  He  was 
therefore  deeply  disappointed  and  distressed  to  find  the  old 
feeling  of  distrust  towards  our  neighbours  still  actively 
fomented  by  the  press  and  some  of  the  leading  politicians 
of  the  country.  He  therefore,  in  1862,  published  his 
pamphlet  entitled  The  Three  Panics,  the  object  of  which 
was  to  trace  the  history  and  expose  the  folly  of  those 
periodical  visitations  of  alarm,  as  respects  the  designs  of 
our  neighbours  with  which  this  country  had  been  afflicted 
for  the  preceding  fifteen  or  sixteen  years. 

There  was  one  other  conspicuous  service  which  Cobden 
rendered,  or  tried  to  render,  to  his  country  before  his 
death.  When  the  great  civil  war  threatened  to  break  out 
in  the  United  States,  it  was  matter  to  him  of  profound 
affliction.  But  after  the  conflict  became  inevitable  his 
sympathies  were  wholly  with  the  North,  because  the  South 
was  fighting  for  slavery.  His  great  anxiety,  however,  was 
that  the  British  nation  should  not  be  committed  to  any 
unworthy  course  during  the  progress  of  that  struggle. 
And  when  our  relations  with  America  were  becoming 
critical  and  menacing  in  consequence  of  the  depredations 
committed  on  American  commerce  by  vessels  issuing  from 
British  ports,  he  brought  the  question  before  the  House  of 
Commons  in  a  series  of  speeches  of  rare  clearness  and  force, 
in  which  he  pointed  out  the  perilous  responsibilities  we 
were  incurring  by  connivance  or  neglect  in  regard  to  those 
vessels.  He  was  first  attacked  with  great  animosity  both 
in  and  out  of  Parliament  for  taking  this  line,  but  after 
results  amply  vindicated  his  political  sagacity  and 
patriotism. 

For  several  years  Cobden  had  been  suffering  severely  at 
intervals  from  bronchial  irritation  and  a  difficulty  of 
breathing.  Owing  to  this  he  had  spent  the  winter  of 
1860  in  Algeria,  and  every  subsequent  winter  he  had  to  be 
very  careful  and  confine  himself  to  the  house,  especially  in 
damp  and  foggy  weather.  In  November  1864  he  went 
down  to  Rochdale  and  delivered  a  speech  to  his  consti 
tuents — the  last  heeverdelivered.  That  effort  was  followed 
by  great  physical  prostration,  and  he  determined  not  to 
quit  his  retirement  at  Midhurst  until  spring  had  fairly 
set  in.  But  in  the  month  of  March  there  were  discussions 
in  the  House  of  Commons  on  the  alleged  necessity  of 
constructing  large  defensive  works  in  Canada.  He  was 


O  13  —  C  0  B 


89 


deeply  impressed  with  the  folly  of  such  a  project,  and  he 
was  seized  with  a  strong  desire  to  go  up  to  London  and 
driver  his  sentiments  on  the  subject.  But  on  the  21st  of 
March,  the  day  on  which  he  left  home  a  bitter  easterly 
wiiid  blew,  and  struck  him  in  the  throat  and  chest.  He 
recovered  a  little  for  a  few  days  after  his  arrival  in 
London  ;  but  on  the  29th  there  was  a  relapse,  and  on  the 
2d  of  April  18G5,  he  expired  peacefully  at  his  apartments 
in  Suffolk  Street. 

On  the  following  day  there  was  a  remarkable  scene  in 
the  House  of  Commons.  When  the  clerk  read  the  orders 
of  the  day  Lord  Palmerston  rose,  and  in  impressive  and 
solemn  tones  declared  "  it  was  not  possible  for  the  House 
to  proceed  to  business  without  every  member  recalling  to 
his  mind  the  great  loss  which  the  House  and  country  had 
sustained  by  the  event  which  took  place  yesterday  morn 
ing."  He  then  paid  a  generous  tribute  to  the  virtues,  the 
abilities,  and  services  of  Cobden,  and  he  was  followed  by 
Mr  Disraeli,  who  with  great  force  and  felicity  of  language 
delineated  the  character  of  the  deceased  statesman,  who, 
he  said,  "  was  an  ornament  to  the  House  of  Commons  and 
an  honour  to  England.  "  Mr  Bright  also  attempted  to 
address  the  House,  but  after  a  sentence  or  two  delivered  in 
a  tremulous  voice,  he  was  overpowered  with  emotion,  and 
declared  he  must  leave  to  a  calmer  moment  what  he  had  to 
say  on  the  life  and  character  of  the  manliest  and  gentlest 
spirit  that  ever  quitted  or  tenanted  a  human  form. 

In  the  French  Corps  Legislatif,  also,  the  vice-president, 
M.  ForQade  la  Roquette,  referred  to  his  death,  and  warm 
expressions  of  esteem  were  repeated  and  applauded  on 
every  side.  "  The  death  of  Richard  Cobden,  "  said  M.  la 
Roquette,  "  is  not  alone  a  misfortune  for  England,  but  a 
cause  of  mourning  for  France  and  humanity."  M.  Drouyn 
de  Lhuys,  the  French  minister  of  foreign  affairs,  made  his 
death  the  subject  of  a  special  despatch,  desiring  the  French 
ambassador  to  express  to  the  Government  "  the  mournful 
sympathy  and  truly  national  regret  which  the  death,  as 
lamented  as  premature,  of  Richard  Cobden  had  excited  on 
that  side  of  the  Channel.  "  He  is  above  all,  "  he  added, 
"  in  our  eyes  the  representative  of  those  sentiments  and 
those  cosmopolitan  principles  before  which  national  frontiers 
and  rivalries  disappear  ;  whilst  essentially  of  his  country, 
he  was  still  more  of  his  time  ;  he  knew  what  mutual 
relations  could  accomplish  in  our  day  for  the  prosperity  of 
peoples.  Cobden,  if  I  may  be  permitted  to  say  so,  was  an 
international  man." 

He  was  buried  at  West  Lavington  Church,  on  the  7th 
of  April,  by  the  side  of  his  only  son,  whose  death,  eight  or 
nine  years  before,  had  nearly  broken  his  father's  heart. 
His  grave  was  surrounded  by  a  large  crowd  of  mourners, 
among  whom  were  Mr  Gladstone,  Mr  Bright,  Mr  Milner 
Gibson,  Mr  Villiers,  and  a  host  besides  from  all  parts  of 
the  country.  (H.  RI.) 

COBIJA,  or,  as  it  is  officially  called  in  honour  of  the 
first  president  of  the  republic,  PUERTO  LA  MAR,  is  the 
principal  port  of  Bolivia,  and  the  chief  town  of  the  province 
of  Atacama  or  Cobija.  It  is  situated  on  the  coast  of  the 
Pacific,  about  800  miles  north  of  Valparaiso  in  Chili,  in 
229  32'  50"  S.  lat.  and  70°  21'  2"  W.  long.  ;  and  it 
occupies  a  low-lying  position  on  the  beach,  at  the  foot  of  a 
lofty  range  of  hills.  The  surrounding  district  is  desolate 
in  the  extreme,  and  Cobija  is  totally  dependent  on  impor 
tation  even  for  the  common  necessaries  of  life.  Water  is 
very  scarce  ;  the  wells  only  satisfy  the  wants  of  about  400 
or  500  persons,  and  the  rest  of  the  population  has  to  be 
supplied  by  the  distillation  of  the  salt  water  from  the  sea. 
At  one  time  fish  formed  a  valuable  article  of  consumption  ; 
but  since  the  rise  of  the  mining  industries  the  fishers  have 
for  the  most  part  forsaken  their  nets.  The  town  itself  is 
poorly  built,  and  consists  of  little  more  than  one  broad, 


long  street.  The  harbour  is  comparatively  safe  ;  'but  the 
landing-place  is  bad,  and  the  danger  from  the  surf  con 
siderable.  As  a  free  port  and  the  principal  means  of  com 
munication  with  the  interior,  Cobija  attracts  a  considerable 
amount  of  foreign  trade.  It  owes  its  foundation  in  the 
course  of  last  century  to  Charles  III.  of  Spain ;  it  was 
declared  a  free  port  in  1827  ;  and  it  attained  the  rank  of 
capital  of  the  department  in  1837.  In  1827  it  consisted 
of  little  more  than  a  few  huts  inhabited  by  Changas,  or  sea 
faring  Indians  ;  and  in  1855  it  only  numbered  500  or  6CO 
of  a  population.  In  1858,  however,  the  permanent  inhabi 
tants  were  no  fewer  than  2000,  and  the  floating  population 
amounted  to  4000  souls.  (See  Tschudi,  lieise  von  San 
Pedro  de  Atacama  nacli  Cobija,  18GO.) 

COBLENTZ  (German,  Coblenz),  the  capital  of  Rhenish 
Prussia,  is  pleasantly  situated  at  the  confluence  of  the 
Rhine  and  Moselle.  From  this  circumstance  it  derived  its 
ancient  name  of  Confluentes,  of  which  Coblentz  is  a  corrup 
tion.  This  city  is  still  of  consequence  from  a  military 
point  of  view,  since  it  commands  the  junction  of  two  great 
rivers.  Its  fortifications,  which  are  very  extensive,  not 
only  protect  the  town,  but  connect  the  works  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Rhhie  with  the  fortress  of  Ehrenbreitstein  on 


Plan  of  Coblentz. 


Military  Prison  and  Lazaretto. 

Florins  Church  (Evang.) 

Market  Hall. 

School  of  Art. 

Hospital. 

General  Commando. 

Deutsches  Hans. 

I.iebfrauenkirche. 

Casino  (Civil). 

Commissariat  Magazine. 

Woisser  Thor. 
Liihr  Thor. 


11.  Theatre. 

12.  Post  Office. 

13.  Prison  (Civil). 

14.  Government  Buildings. 

15.  Building-yard  for  the  Forti 

fications. 

16.  Gouvernement. 

17.  Commandantur. 

18.  Castle. 

19.  Capuchin  Church. 

C.  Mainzer  Thor. 

D.  JIosol  Thor. 


the  other  side  of  the  river.  The  city  is  almost  triangular  in 
shape  ;  two  sides  are  bounded  by  the  RLine  and  Moselle, 
the  third  by  strong  fortifications.  These  are  pierced  by 
two  massive  gates,  the  Lohr  and  Mayence  gates,  with  draw 
bridges  over  the  fosse.  The  military  works,  which  were 
constructed  on  the  combined  systems  of  Carnot  and 
Montalembert,  include  no  fewer  than  2G  forts,  and  form  a 
fortified  camp  capable  of  containing  100,000  men.  The 
Rhine  is  crossed  here  by  a  bridge  of  boats  485  yards  long, 
and  by  the  Iron  Bridge,  built  for  railway  purposes  iu 
1866  The  Moselle  is  spanned  by  a  Gothic  freestone 
bridge  of  14  arches,  1100  feet  in  length,  erected  in  1344, 
and  also  by  a  railway  bridge.  In  the  more  ancient  part  of 
Coblentz  are  several  buildings  which  possess  an  historical 


90 


C  0  B  —  C  0  B 


interest.  Prominent  among  tl:  ^e,  at  the  point  of  conflu 
ence  of  the  rivers,  is  the  church  of  St  Castor,  built  in  the 
early  Lombard  style  of  architecture,,  and  surmounted  by 
four  towers.  The  church  was  originally  founded  in  836 
by  Lewis  the  Pious,  but  the  present  edifice  is  considerably 
less  ancient.  It  was  here  that  the  sons  of  Charlemagne 
met  in  843,  when  they  divided  the  empire  into  France, 
Germany,  and  Italy.  In  front  of  the  church  of  St  Castor 
stands  a  fountain,  erected  by  the  French  in  1812,  with  an 
inscription  to  commemorate  Napoleon's  invasion  of  Russia. 
Not  long  after,  the  Russian  troops  occupied  Coblentz ;  and 
St  Priest,  their  commander,  added  in  irony  these  words — 
"  Vu  et  approuve  par  nous,  Commandant  Russe  de  la  Ville 
de  CoUence:  Janvier  ler,  1814."  In  this  quarter  of  the 
town  there  is  also  the  Liebfrauenkirche,  a  fine  specimen 
of  the  old  cathedral  style,  built  in  1259  ;  the  ancient  town- 
hall  ;  the  Castle  of  the  Electors  of  Treves,  erected  in  1280, 
now  converted  into  a  manufactory  of  japan-ware ;  and 
the  family-house  of  the  Metternichs,  where  Prince 
Metternich,  the  Austrian  statesman,  was  born  in  1772. 
The  more  modern  part  of  the  town  has  open,  regular 
streets,  and  many  of  its  public  buildings  are  handsome. 
The  principal  of  these  is  the  Palace  or  Royal  Castle,  with 
one  front  looking  towards  the  Rhine,  the  other  into  the 
Neustadt,  or  Great  Square.  It  was  built  in  1778-86,  and 
contains  among  other  curiosities  some  fine  Gobelin  tapestry 
work.  Another  large  edifice  is  the  Palace  of  Justice,  where 
the  law  courts  sit,  and  assizes  are  held  every  three  mouths, 
Coblentz  has  also  a  gymnasium  (formerly  a  convent  of 
Jesuits),  a  hospital,  managed  by  the  sisters  of  charity,  an 
orphan  asylum,  a  valuable  town  library,  a  theatre,  a  casino, 
a  picture  gallery,  a  musical  institute,  and  a  medical  school. 
Above  the  Iron  Bridge  are  Anlagen,  or  pleasure-grounds, 
much  resorted  to  by  the  town's-people.  The  manufactures 
consist  chiefly  of  linens,  cottons,  japan-ware,  furniture,  and 
tobacco.  Coblentz  is  a  free  port,  and  carries  on  an  exten 
sive  commerce  by  means  of  the  Rhine,  Moselle,  and  Lahn. 
Being  in  the  centre  of  the  hock  wine  district,  a  large  trade 
in  this  class  of  produce  is  carried  on  with  Great  Britain, 
Holland,  and  other  countries.  Large  exports  of  mineral 
waters  are  also  made,  about  one  million  jars  of  seltzer 
being  shipped  annually.  Among  the  products  of  the  neigh 
bouring  provinces  which  are  exported  from  Coblentz  are 
corn,  iron,  volcanic  stones,  potter's  clay,  stoneware,  and 
bark.  The  population  is  28,000. 

Coblentz  was  one  of  the  military  posts  established  by  Drusus 
about  9  B.C.  It  is  not  unfrequently  mentioned  during  the  early 
centuries  of  the  Christian  era  as  the  residence  of  the  Frankish  kings, 
and  in  860  and  932  it  was  the  seat  of  ecclesiastical  councils.  In 
1018  it  obtained  the  rights  of  a  city  from  Henry  II.,  but  at  the 
Bame  time  was  made  subject  to  the  Bishop  of  Treves,  who  entrusted 
the  administration  to  the  count  palatine  of  the  Rhine.  In  the 
following  century  the  fief  was  held  by  the  counts  of  Arnstein  and 
the  counts  of  Nassau;  but  it  returned  to  the  bishops  in  1253. 
Archbishop  Arnold  surrounded  the  city  with  new  walls  in  1249-54, 
and,  in  spite  of  an  insurrection  on  the  part  of  the  inhabitants 
founded  the  citadel  which  still  overlooks  the  town.  As  a  member 
of  the  League  of  the  Rhenish  cities  which  took  its  rise  in  the  13th 
century,  Coblentz  attained  to  great  prosperity;  and  it  continued  to 
advance  till  the  disasters  of  the  Thirty  Years'  War  occasioned  a 
rapid  decline.  When  in  1632  the  Elector  Philip  Christopher  of 
feotern  surrendered  Ehrenbreitstein  to  the  French  the  town  received 
an-  imperial  garrison,  which  was  soon,  however,  expelled  by  the 
Swedes.  _  They  in  their  turn  handed  the  city  over  to  the  French 
but  the  imperial  forces  succeeded  in  retaking  it  by  storm  In  1688 
it  was  besieged  by  the  French  Marshal  Bouflers,  but  was  success 
fully  defended  by  Count  Lippe.  In  1786  the  elector  of  Treves 

lemons  \\  enceslas,  took  up  his  residence  in  the  town,  and  gave 
great  assistance  in  its  extension  and  improvement;  and  a  few  years 
later  it  became,  through  the  invitation  of  his  minister,  Dominique 
one  of  the  principal  rendezvous  of  the  French  emigres.     In  1794  it 
was  taken  by  the  Revolution  army,  and,  after  the  peace  of  Luneville 
it  was  made  the  chief  town  of  the  Rhine  and  Moselle  department' 
in  1814  it  was  occupied  by  the  Russians,  and  by  the  Congress  at 
v  K'lina  it  was  assigned  to  Prussia. 


COBRA  (Naja  tripudians),  a  poisonous  Colubrine  Snake, 
belonging  to  the  family  Elapidce,  known  also  as  the 
Hooded  Snake,  or  Cobra  di  Capello.  In  this  species  the 
anterior  ribs  are  elongated,  and  by  raising  and  bringing 
forward  these,  the  neck,  which  otherwise  is  not  distinct 
from  the  head,  can  be  expanded  at  will  into  a  broad  disc  or 
hood,  the  markings  on  which  bear  a  striking  resemblance 
to  a  pair  of  barnacles,  hence  the  name  "  Spectacle  Snake  " 
also  applied  to  the  cobra.  It  possesses  two  rows  of  palatine 
teeth  in  the  upper  jaw,  while  the  maxillary  bones  bear  the 
fangs,  of  which  the  anterior  one  only  is  in  connection  with 
the  poison  gland,  the  others  in  various  stages  of  growth 
remaining  loose  in  the  surrounding  flesh  until  the  destruc 
tion  of  the  poison  fang  brings  the  one  immediately  behind 
to  the  front,  which  then  gets  anchylosed  to  the  maxillary 
bone,  and  into  connection  with  the  gland  secreting  the 
poison,  which  in  the  cobra  is  about  the  size  of  an  almond. 
Behind  the  poison  fangs  there  are  usually  one  or  two 
ordinary  teeth.  The  cobra  attains  a  length  of  nearly  6  feet 
and  a  girth  of  about  6  inches,  and  with  the  exception  of 
the  markings  on  the  hood  is  of  a  uniform  brown  colour 
above  and  bluish-white  beneath.  There  are,  however,  many 
distinct  varieties,  in  some  of  which  the  spectacle  markings 
on  the  hood  are  awanting.  The  cobra  may  be  regarded  as 
nocturnal  in  its  habits,  being  most  active  by  night,  although 
not  unfrequently  found  in  motion  during  the  day.  It 
usually  conceals  itself  under  logs  of  wood,  in  the  roofs  of 
huts,  and  in  holes  in  old  walls  and  ruins,  where  it  is  often 
come  upon  inadvertently,  inflicting  a  death  wound  before 
it  has  been  observed.  It  feeds  on  small  quadrupeds,  frogs, 
lizards,  insects,  and  the  eggs  of  birds,  in  search  of  which  it 
sometimes  ascends  trees.  When  seeking  its  prey  it  glides 
slowly  along  the  ground,  holding  the  anterior  third  of  its 
body  aloft,  with  its  hood  distended,  on  the  alert  for  any 
thing  that  may  come  in  its  way.  "  This  attitude,"  says  Sir 
J.  Fayrer,  "  is  very  striking,  and  few  objects  are  more  cal 
culated  to  inspire  awe  than  a  large  cobra  when,  with  his 
hood  erect,  hissing  loudly,  and  his  eyes  glaring,  he  prepares 
to  strike."  It  is  said  to  drink  large  quantities  of  water, 
although,  like  reptiles  in  general  it  will  live  for  many 
months  without  food  or  drink.  The  cobra  is  oviparous ; 
and  its  eggs,  which  are  from  18  to  25  in  number,  are  of 
a  pure  white  colour,  somewhat  resembling  in  size  and 
appearance  the  eggs  of  the  pigeon,  but  sometimes  larger. 
These  it  leaves  to  be  hatched  by  the  heat  of  the  sun.  It 
is  found  in  all  parts  of  India  from  Ceylon  to  the  Himalayas, 
where  it  occurs  at  a  height  of  8000  feet,  and  it  is  justly 
regarded  as  the  most  deadly  of  the  Indian  Thanatophidia. 
A  large  proportion  of  the  deaths  from  snake  bite,  where 
the  species  inflicting  the  wound  has  been  ascertained, 
is  shown  to  be  due  to  the  cobra ;  and  it  is  estimated 
that  fully  one-half  of  the  20,000  deaths  that  annually 
occur  in  India  from  this  cause  may  be  attributed  to  this 
unluckily  common  species.  The  bite  of  a  vigorous  cobra 
will  often  prove  fatal  in  a  few  minutes,  and  as  there  is  no 
known  antidote  to  tho  poison,  it  is  only  in  rare  instances 
that  such  mechanical  expedients  as  cauterizing,  con 
striction,  or  amputation  can  be  applied  with  sufficient 
promptitude  to  prevent  the  virus  from  entering  the  cir 
culation.  Of  late  years,  owing  to  a  small  reward  offered 
by  the  Indian  Government  for  the  head  of  each  poisonous 
snake,  great  numbers  of  cobras  have  been  destroyed ; 
but  only  low  caste  Hindus  will  engage  in  such  work 
the  cobra  being  regarded  by  the  natives  generally 
with  superstitious  reverence,  as  a  divinity  powerful  to 
injure,  and  therefore  to  be  propitiated;  and  thus  oftentimes 
when  found  in  their  dwellings  this  snake  is  allowed  to 
remain,  and  is  fed  and  protected.  "  Should  fear,"  says  Sir  J. 
Fayrer,  "  and  perhaps  the  death  of  some  inmate  bitten  by 
accident  prove  stronger  than  superstition,  it  may  be  caught. 


C  0  B  — G  0  C 


91 


tenderly  handled,  and  deported  to  some  field,  where  it  is 
released  and  allowed  to  depart  in  peace,  not  killed" 
(Thanatophidia  of  India).  Great  numbers,  especially  of 
young  cobras,  are  killed  by  the  adjutant  birds  and  by  the 
mungoos — a  small  mammal  which  attacks  it  with  impunity, 
apparently  not  from  want  of  susceptibility  to  the  poison, 
but  by  its  dexterity  in  eluding  the  bite  of  the  cobra.  Mere 
scratching  or  tearing  does  not  appear  to  be  sufficient  to 
bring  the  poison  from  the  glands  ;  it  is  only  when  the  fangs 
care  firmly  implanted  by  the  jaws  being  pressed  together  that 
the  virus  enters  the  wound,  and  in  those  circumstances  it 
has  been  shown  by  actual  experiment  that  the  mungoos, 
like  all  other  warm-blooded  animals,  succumbs  to  the  poison. 
In  the  case  of  reptiles,  the  cobra  poison  takes  effect  much 
more  slowly,  while  it  has  been  proved  to  have  no  effect 
whatever  on  other  venomous  serpents.  The  cobra  is  the 
snake  usually  exhibited  by  the  Indian  jugglers,  who  show 
great  dexterity  in  handling  it,  even  when  not  deprived  of 
its  fangs.  Usually,  however,  the  front  fang  at  least  is 
extracted,  the  creature  being  thus  rendered  harmless  until 
the  succeeding  tooth  takes  its  place,  and  in  many  cases  all 
the  fangs,  with  the  germs  behind,  are  removed — the  cobra 
being  thus  rendered  innocuous  for  life.  The  snake  charmer 
usually  plays  a  few  simple  notes  on  the  flute,  and  the  cobra, 
apparently  delighted,  rears  half  its  length  in  the  air  and 
sways  its  head  and  body  about,  keeping  time  to  the  music. 
The  cobra,  like  almost  all  poisonous  snakes,  is  by  no  means 
aggressive,  and  when  it  gets  timely  warning  of  the  approach 
of  man  endeavours  to  get  out  of  his  way.  It  is  only  when 
trampled  upon  inadvertently,  or  otherwise  irritated,  that  it 
attempts  to  use  its  fangs.  It  is  a  good  swimmer,  often 
crossing  broad  rivers,  arid  probably  even  narrow  arms  of  the 
sea,  for  it  has  been  met  with  at  sea  at  least  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  from  land. 

COBURG,  or,  in  German  Koburg,  the  capital  of  the 
duchy  of  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha  and,  alternately  -with  Gotha, 
the  residence  of  the  duke  and  the  seat  of  the  administration, 
is  situated  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Itz,  an  affluent  of  the 
Regen,  and  on  the  southern  slope  of  the  Frankenwald,  40 
miles  S.S.E.  of  Gotha.  The  town  is  for  the  most  part  old, 
and  contains  a  large  number  of  remarkable  buildings.  The 
ducal  palace,  or  Ehrenburg,  is  a  fine  Gothic  edifice,  with  an 
extensive  library,  and  collections  of  coins,  paintings,  and 
specimens  in  natural  history;  it  was  originally  a  convent 
of  the  Barefooted  Friars,  received  its  present  appropriation 
from  John  Ernest  in  1549,  and  was  restored  by  Ernest  in 
1844.  In  front  of  the  palace  is  a  bronze  statue  of  the  lattet 
duke  by  Schwanthaler,  and  in  the  court-garden  is  the  ducal 
mausoleum.  Among  the  churches  the  most  remarkable  is 
the  Moritzkirche,  with  a  tower  335  feet  high,  the  beauti 
ful  Hofkirche,  and  the  modern  Roman  Catholic  church. 
The  educational  institutions  include  a  gymnasium,  founded 
in  1604  by  Casimir,  and  thus  known  as  the  Casimirianum  ; 
a  Realschule,  established  in  1848,  a  normal  college,  a 
deaf  and  dumb  asylum,  and  a  school  of  architecture.  The 
arsenal  contains  a  pu-blic  library  ;  and  the  so-called  Aitgiis- 
tenstift,  where  the  ministry  of  the  duchy  is  located,  has  an 
extensive  collection  of  objects  in  natural  history.  Coburg 
further  possesses  a  town-house,  Government  buildings, 
an  observatory,  and  a  theatre.  On  a  commanding  eminence 
in  the  vicinity  is  the  ancient  castle  of  Coburg,  which  dates 
at  least  from  the  llth  century.  Till  1348  it  was  the 
residence  of  the  counts  of  Henneberg,  and  till  1547  belonged 
to  the  dukes  of  Saxony  ;  in  1781  it  was  turned  into  a 
penitentiary  and  lunatic  asylum  ;  but  in  1835-8  it  received 
a  complete  restoration.  The  most  interesting  room  in  this 
building  is  that  which  was  occupied  by  Luther  for  three 
months  in  1530,  and  thus  became  the  birthplace  of  his 
famous  hymn,  Eine  feste  Burg  ist  unset  Gott  ;  the  bed  on 
which  he  slept  and  the  pulpit  from  which  he  preached  in 


the  old  chapel  are  still  shown.  Coburg  is  a  place  of  con 
siderable  industry,  and  possesses  a  large  brewery,  factories 
for  the  weaving  of  linen  and  cotton  goods,  tanneries,  and 
dye-works  ;  and  there  is  an  important  trade  in  the  cattle 
reared  in  the  neighbourhood.  Among  various  places  of 
interest  in  the  vicinity  are  the  ducal  residences  of  Callenberg 
and  Rosenau,  in  the  latter  of  which  Albert,  the  Prince 
Consort,  was  born  in  1819  ;  the  castle  of  Lauterberg;  and 
the  village  of  Neuses,  with  the  house  of  the  poet  Riickert, 
who  died  there  in  1866,  and  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  the 
tomb  of  the  poet  Thummel.  Population  in  1871,  12,819. 

COCA.     See  CUCA. 

COCCEIUS,  or  COCH,  JOHAKN  (1603-1669),  a  Dutch 
theologian,  was  born  at  Bremen.  After  studying  at 
Hambuig  and  Franecker  he  became  in  1629  professor  of 
Hebrew  in  his  native  town.  In  1636  he  was  transferred 
to  Franecker,  where  he  held  the  chair  of  Hebrew,  and  from 
1 643  the  chair  of  theology  also,  until  1 650,  when  he  became 
professor  of  theology  at  Leyden.  He  died  on  the  4th 
November  1669.  Cocceius  was  a  profound  Oriental 
scholar,  and  his  chief  services  were  rendered  in  the  depart 
ment  of  Hebrew  philology  and  exegesis.  The  common 
statement  that  he  held  that  every  passage  has  as  many 
meanings  as  it  can  be  made  to  bear  is  founded  on  an  entire 
misconception  of  his  fundamental  law  of  interpretation. 
What  he  really  maintained  was  the  sound  principle  that- 
individual  words  and  phrases  are  to  be  interpreted  according 
to  their  contextual  connection,  and  not  according  to  any 
predetermined  dogmatic  system,  whether  patristic  or 
scholastic.  As  one  of  the  leading  exponents  of  the 
"federal"  theology,  he  spiritualized  the  Hebrew  scriptures 
to  such  an  extent  that  it  was  said  that  Cocceius  found 
Christ  everywhere  in  the  Old  Testament  and  Grotius  found 
him  nowhere.  He  held  millenarian  views,  and  was  the 
founder  of  a  school  of  theologians  who  were  called  after 
him  Cocceians.  His  most  distinguished  pupil  was  the 
celebrated  Vitringa.  He  wrote  commentaries  on  most  of 
the  books  of  the  Old  Testament,  but  his  most  valuable 
work  was  his  Lexicon  et  Commentarius  Sermonis  Ileb.  et 
Chald.  (Leyden,  1669),  which  has  been  frequently  repub- 
lished.  The  federal  or  covenant  theology  which  he  taught 
is  fully  expounded  in  his  Summa  Doctrines  de  Foedere  et 
Testamento  Dei  (1648).  His  collected  works  were  pub 
lished  in  twelve  folio  volumes  at  Amsterdam  in  1701. 

COCHABAMBA,  a  city  and  bishop's  see  of  Bolivia, 
capital  of  a  province  and  department,  is  situated  about 
8370  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  on  both  banks  of  the 
Rio  de  la  Rocha,  a  sub-tributary  of  the  Rio  Grande,  to  the 
south  of  a  considerable  Cordillera.  It  is  about  122  miles 
N.N  W.  of  Sucre,  its  latitude  is  17°  27'  S.,  and  its  longi 
tude  65'  46'  W.  The  streets  are  broad,  and  the  houses  for 
the  most  part  of  one  story  and  surrounded  by  gardens,  so 
that  the  area  of  the  city  is  great  in  comparison  with  its 
population.  There  are  fifteen  churches,  a  gymnasium,  and 
a  cabildo  ;  and  an  extensive  industry  is  maintained  in  the 
production  of  woollen  and  cotton  stuffs,  leather,  soap, 
glass-ware,  and  pottery.  The  population  is  largely  com 
posed  of  Indians  ;  and  the  prevailing  language  is  Quichua. 
Cochabamba  was  founded  in  the  16th  century,  and  for  a 
time  was  called  Oropesa.  In  the  revolution  of  1815  the 
women  of  the  city  distinguished  themselves  by  their  bravery, 
and  successfully  attacked  the  Spanish  camp ;  and  in 
1818  a  number  of  the  heroines  were  put  to  death  by  the 
Spanish  forces.  In  1874  the  city  was  seized  by  Miguel 
Aguirre,  and  a  large  part  of  it  laid  in  ruins,  but  peace  was 
soon  afterwards  restored,  and  the  regular  authorities 
reinstated.  The  population  in  1858  was  40,678. 

COCHIN,  a  feudatory  state  of  Southern  India,  situated 
within  the  presidency  of  Fort  St  George  or  Madras,  between 
9°  48'  and  10°  50'  N.  lat..  and  between  76°  5'  and  76°  58' 


92 


0  0  C  —  0  0  C 


E.  long.  The  state,  which  is  of  irregular  shape,  is  bounded 
on  the  W.,  N.,  and  E.  by  the  districts  of  South  Malabar 
and  Coimbatore,  and  for  some  distance  on  the  W.  by  the 
Indian  Ocean ;  on  the  S.  it  is  bounded  by  the  state  of 
Travancore.  Cochin  contains  a  total  area  of  1361  square 
miles,  and  a  population,  according  to  a  census  taken  in 
1875,  of  598,353  souls,  dwelling  in  118,196  houses.  The 
state  is  divided  into  seven  taluks,  or  sub -districts,  viz., 
Cochin,  Cannanore,  Mugundapuram,  Trichur,  Tallapalli, 
Chitur,  and  Cranganore. 

Cochin  consists  for  the  most  part  of  a  maritime  lowland 
hemmed  in  between  the  sea  and  the  Ghdts.  It  includes, 
however,  the  mountains  which  thus  wall  it  out  from  inner 
India,  and  the  lower  portion  is  copiously  watered  by  the 
torrents  which  pour  down  them.  These  torrents  dwindle 
in  the  hot  weather  to  rivulets,  but  during  the  rains  they 
swell  into  great  cataracts,  rising  in  one  instance  at  least  16 
feet  in  twenty-four  hours.  Oil  the  lowlands,  they  unite  as 
elsewhere  on  the  western  coast  into  shallow  lakes  or  "  back 
waters,"  lying  behind  the  beach  line  and  below  its  level. 
In  the  monsoon  the  Cochin  backwaters  are  broad  navigable 
channels  and  lakes ;  in  the  hot  weather  they  contract  into 
shallows  in  many  places  not  2  feet  deep.  The  vegetation 
is  luxuriant ;  rich  crops  of  rice  are  grown  on  the  lowlands  ; 
the  hills  send  down  vast  quantities  of  timber  by  means  of 
the  torrents.  The  remains  of  once  fine  forests  of  teak  are 
preserved  in  the  north-eastern  corner  of  the  state,  and  still 
form  a  considerable  source  of  wealth.  Coffee  has  of  late 
years  received  much  attention  and  promises  well.  The 
other  products  are  the  usual  ones  of  an  Indian  state, — cotton, 
pepper,  betel  nut,  chillies,  ginger,  various  spices,  cardamoms, 
arrowroot,  &c.  An  excellent  account  of  Cochin  will  be 
found  in  Dr  Day's  Land  of  tlie  Permauls.  The  rajas  of 
Cochin  claim  to  hold  the  territory  by  descent  from  Cherman 
Perumal,  who  governed  the  whole  of  the  surrounding 
country,  including  Travancore  and  Malabar,  as  viceroy  of 
the  Chola  kings,  about  the  beginning  of  the  9th  century, 
and  who  afterwards  established  himself  as  an  independent 
raja.  In  1776  Cochin  was  subjugated  by  and  became 
tributary  to  Hyder  AH.  In  1792  Tippu  ceded  the 
sovereignty  to  the  British,  who  made  over  the  country  to 
the  hereditary  raj  A,  subject  to  a  tribute  of  Us.  100,000. 
The  state  is  now  in  subsidiary  alliance  with  the  British 
Government,  under  a  treaty  dated  17th  October  1809.  By 
this  engagement,  which  was  entered  into  on  the  suppression 
of  an  insurrection  on  the  part  of  the  rajas  of  Cochin  and 
Travancore  against  the  British  power,  the  Cochin  chief 
agreed  to  pay,  in  addition  to  the  tribute  of  Rs.100,000, 
an  annual  sum,  equal  to  the  expense  of  maintaining  a  bat 
talion  of  native  infantry,  or  Arcot  Ils.176,037,  making  an 
aggregate  annual  payment  of  Rs.  276,037.  In  return  for 
this  payment,  and  certain  engagements  entered  into  by  the 
raja,  the  East  India  Company  undertook  to  defend  the 
integrity  of  the  state  territory  against  all  enemies.  Subse 
quently  the  annual  tribute  to  the  British  Government  was 
reduced  to  Us.  240,000,  and  again  afterwards  to  Rs.  200,000 
(£20,000)  at  which  it  now  stands.  A  British  resident 
represents  the  government  of  India  in  Cochin  conjointly 
with  Travancore.  The  present  rajA  succeeded  to  the  throne 
in  March  1864. 

The  total  revenue  of  Cochin  for  the  Malabar  year  1049 
(1873-74  A.D.),  amounted  to  £130,851,  being  the  highest  in 
come  recorded  for  any  year;  the  principal  items  were  the  land 
revenue,  £61,764;  customs,  £11,035;  and  salt,  £15,713. 
The  disbursementsfor  the  same  year  amounted  to  £1 1 1  858 
leaving  a  surplus  for  the  year  of  £18,993.  The  state  has 
now  the  sum  of  £200,000  invested  in  British  Government 
securities.  A  high  school,  with  an  average  of  170  pupils, 
and  5  district  schools  are  maintained  by  the  state. 
Hospitals  and  dispensaries  and  a  post-office  are  also  kept 


up,  and  a  considerable  sum,  amounting  to  £13,669  in 
1874,  is  annually  spent  in  public  works.  The  military  force 
is  a  nominal  one  of  1  commissioned  officer  and  340  non 
commissioned  officers  and  men.  The  two  trading  ports 
(exclusive  of  the  British  port  of  Cochin)  are  Malipuram  and 
Narakel,  at  which  31  vessels,  a  burden  of  22,626  tons, 
arrived  in  1873-74.  The  capabilities  of  Narakel  as  a  port 
of  shelter  during  the  S.W.  monsoon  have  been  satisfactorily 
proved,  and  the  mail-steamers  of  the  British  India  Company 
touch  there  for  four  or  five  months  of  the  year,  when  the 
neighbouring  English  port  of  Cochin  is  unapproachable. 

COCHIN,  a  town  and  port  of  British  India,  belonging  to 
the  Malabar  district  of  Madras,  situated  in  9°  58'  5"  N. 
lat.  and  76°  13'  55"  E.  long.  The  town  lies  at  the  northern 
extremity  of  a  strip  of  land  about  twelve  miles  in  length, 
but  at  few  places  more  than  a  mile  in  breadth,  which  is 
nearly  insulated  by  inlets  of  the  sea  and  estuaries  of 
streams  flowing  from  the  Western  Ghats.  These  form  the 
Cochin  backwater  described  in  the  article  on  the 
Cochin  state.  The  town  of  Cochin  is  about  a  mile  in 
length  by  half  a  mile  in  breadth.  Its  first  European 
possessors  were  the  Portuguese,  from  whom  it  was  captured 
by  the  Dutch  in  1 663.  Under  the  Dutch  the  town  prospered, 
and  about  1778  an  English  traveller  describes  it  as  a 
place  of  great  trade  ;  "  a  harbour  filled  with  ships,  streets 
crowded  with  merchants,  and  warehouses  stored  with  goods 
from  every  part  of  Asia  and  Europe,  marked  the  industry, 
the  commerce,  and  the  wealth  of  the  inhabitants."  In 
1796  Cochin  was  captured  from  the  Dutch  by  the  British, 
and  in  1806  the  fortifications  and  public  buildings  were 
blown  up  by  order  of  the  authorities.  The  explosion 
destroyed  much  private  property,  and  for  a  long  time 
seriously  affected  the  prosperity  of  the  town.  Under 
Dutch  rule  Cochin  was  very  populous,  containing  Europeans, 
Moplas  or  Musalrncins,  Hindus,  Arabs,  Persians,  and 
Christians  of  various  sects,  comprising  natives,  Armenians, 
Indo-Fortuguese,  and  those  denominated  Syrian  Christians. 
The  Jews  have  also  a  settlement  here.  They  are  of  two 
classes,  the  Fair  or  White  Jews,  of  more  recent  arrival  and 
settlement  in  the  country,  and  the  Black  Jews,  who 
reside  apart  in  a  village  outside  the  town.  According  to 
the  census  of  1871,  Cochin  town  contains  2731  houses  and  a 
population  of  13,840  souls,  classified  as  follows: — Hindus, 
3883,  Muhammadans,  2174;  Christians,  7783;  and 
"  Others,"  46.  The  town  is  constituted  a  municipality, 
and  in  1873-74  the  municipal  income  (excluding  balances) 
amounted  to  £1573  10s.,  and  the  expenditure  to  £1560 
10s.  The  entrance  to  the  port  of  Cochin  is  obstructed  by 
a  bar  across  the  mouth  of  the  river,  and  during  the  S.W. 
monsoon,  which  lasts  for  four  or  five  months,  vessels  can 
neither  enter  nor  depart  from  it  in  safety.  Notwithstand 
ing  the  difficulties  of  navigation,  however,  the  port  has  a 
considerable  maritime  trade.  In  1873-74,  171  British 
vessels  of  a  burden  of  108,579  tons,  27  foreign  vessels 
of  7010  tons,  and  1644  native  craft  of  a  total  of  49,215 
tons  burden  entered  the  port,  and  paid  a  total  of  £1974 
as  port  dues, — by  far  the  greater  part,  £1 520,  being  paid  by 
the  British  ships.  The  value  of  the  exports  in  1873-74 
amounted  to  £?55,796,  and  of  the  imports  to  £547,252, 
paying  a  total  customs  duty  of  £5161.  A  lighthouse  at 
the  south  entrance  of  the  harbour  marks  the  entrance  to 
the  port,  and  is  visible  at  a  distance  of  15  miles. 

COCHIN  CHINA,  a  name  applied  to  the  eastern  division 
of  the  Indo-Chinese  peninsula,  composed  of  the  territories 
of  Anam  proper,  Tong-king,  and  the  French  colony  of 
Cochin  China.  It  forms  a  long  strip  of  country  which 
stretches  in  an  arc  of  a  circle  along  a  coast-line  of  1 240 
miles  from  8°  30'  to  23°  N.  lat.  With  a  breadth  of  372 
miles  in  the  north  of  Tong-king,  it  is  afterwards  narrowed 
by  a  chain  of  mountains  parallel  to  the  China  Sea,  and  has 


COCHIN     CHINA 


93 


no  more  than  50  miles  of  breadth  in  the  greater  part  of  the 
kingdom  of  Hue" ;  but  in  Lower  Cochin  China  it  widens 
out  again  to  about  190  miles.  The  most  western  point, 
in  Tong-kiug,  reaches  102°  20'  E.  long.,  and  the  most 
eastern,  Cape  Varela,  in  Cochin  China,  is  in  109°  40'.  The 
boundaries  are — on  the  N.  the  Chinese  provinces  of  Yun-nan 
and  Kwang-se,  on  the  E.  and  S.  the  China  Sea,  on  the  W. 
the  Gulf  of  Siaui,  the  kingdom  of  Cambodia,  and  the  Laos 
country  tributary  to  the  Siamese  empire.  According  to 
the  most  probable  estimates  the  empire  of  Anam  has  an 
area  of  from  190,000  to  230,000  square  miles,  or  about 
the  same  extent  as  France  ;  while  the  French  colony 
occupies  about  21,630.  The  western  limits  of  this  empire 
are,  however,  very  imperfectly  determined,  and  the  regions 
to  the  west  of  Tong-king  are  still  unexplored.  The  N".  of 
Cochin  China  is  washed  by  the  Gulf  of  Tong-king,  a  great 


Sketch-Map  of  Cochin  China. 

inlet  formed  by  the  coast  of  Tong-king  on  the  W.  and  the 
island  of  Hai-nan  and  the  peninsula  of  Lien-chow  on  the 
E.  At  its  mouth,  towards  Tiger  Island  and  the  S.  W.  part 
of  Hai-nan,  the  gulf  has  a  breadth  of  about  138  English 
miles,  which  almost  represents  its  medium  breadth.  Near 
the  west  coast  are  several  islands,  and  towards  the  head  of 
the  gulf  a  great  number  of  islets  and  banks.  From  sound 
ings  which  have  been  taken  throughout  its  whole  extent,  it 
has  been  found  that  in  the  middle  of  the  entrance  there  is 
a  depth  of  from  210  to  330  feet,  which  diminishes  towards 
tt.e  coasts ;  and  the  depth  is  less  half-way  up  the  gulf, 
where  the  bottom  is  generally  soft. 

Passing  along  the  coast  from  Cape  Pak-loung,  where  the 
frontier  commences  between  China  and  Tong-king,  we  find 
that  all  the  part  north  of  the  Gulf  of  Tong-king  is  little 
known  ;  it  is  said  to  be  fringed  with  banks  and  rocks, 
and  some  large  islands  have  been  visited  by  English  vessels 
in  pursuit  of  pirates.  The  most  important  are  the  Pirate 
Islands,  a  group  of  multitudinous  islets  in  a  bay  of  which 
the  Chinese  name  is  Fie-tzi-long,  and  the  Pearl  Islands. 
Next  we  find  the  mouth  of  the  Kiver  Lach-Huyen,  which 
is  deep,  but  obstructed  about  a  mile  inland  by  a  bar  prevent 
ing  the  entrance  of  any  vessel  drawing  more  than  11|  feet, 
Next  come  the  mouths  of  the  River  of  Tong-king,  Song-Coi, 
or  Houg-kiang  (Red  River).  The  delta  of  this  river  is 
formed  by  four  main  branches — Cua1  tra  lay,  Cua  lac,  Cua 

1  Cua  signifies  embouchure. 


dhai,  Cua  ba  lat — which  communicate  with  each  other  both 
by  natural  channels,  called  arroyos,  and  by  artificial  canals. 
These  are  charged  with  alluvial  matter,  and  produce  con 
siderable  increase  of  soil.  Mr  E.  Ploix,  a  hydrographic 
engineer  who  visited  the  gulf  between  1857  and  1859, 
estimates  the  annual  advance  of  the  coast  at  about  330 
feet.  It  is  by  these  rivers  that  Ke-cho,  or  Ha-noi,  the 
capital  of  Tong-king,  can  be  reached.  This  town  and  the 
port  of  Ninh-hai,in  the  province  of  Hai-dzuong,  were  opened 
to  foreign  commerce  by  a  treaty  concluded  between  France 
and  the  Government  of  Hue",  March  15,  1874.  To  allow  a 
ship  to  pass  up  the  river  at  any  season  its  draught  must  not 
exceed  5|  feet,  and  from  the  end  of  May  to  the  end  of 
November,  vessels  drawing  12  feet  can  cross  the  bars. 

About  18°  10'  N.  lat.  lies  the  island  Hoii-tseu,  or  Goats' 
Island,  near  a  prominent  cape  about  1410  feet  high.  A 
little  to  the  south  of  Hon-tseu  is  the  point  to  the  north  of 
which  there  is  only  one  tide  in  24  hours,  except  during  a 
period  of  two  weeks,  when  on  three  or  four  days  there 
are  two  tides  of  little  force.  At  Cape  Boung-Qui-hoa there 
is  a  good  anchorage  well  sheltered  by  islands,  of  which 
the  chief  is  South  Watcher  Island,  or  South  Vigie. 
In  front  of  Cape  "Lay  is  the  little  Tiger  Island,  where  the 
west  coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Tong-king  terminates.  On  the 
China  Sea  the  coast  presents  successively,  as  we  pass  south 
ward,  the  mouth  of  the  River  Hu4,  defended  by  a  fort ; 
the  Bay  of  Tourane,  wide,  deep,  and  well  sheltered,  but 
unfortunately  situated  in  an  unhealthy  district,  and  in  the 
poorest  part  of  the  country;  the  Bay  of  Quit-Quit,  a  very 
good  anchorage,  and  the  safest  on  this  coast  during  the 
N.E.  monsoon;  the  Island  Cu-lao-re,  or  Pulo  Canton; 
the  port  of  Qui-nhon,  or  Binh  dhinh,  in  the  province  of 
this  name,  opened  to  European  commerce  by  the  treaty 
of  March  1874 ;  the  bay  and  the  commodious  port  of  Phu- 
yen ;  Cape  Yarela,  or  Mui-nai,  a  very  lofty  peak  visible 
30  nautical  miles  out  at  sea,  and  to  the  south  of  the  capo 
the  port  of  Hon-ro,  safe  at  all  seasons  of  the  year  ;  the 
Bay  of  Phan-rang  and  Cape  Padaran,  or  Mui-Din,  districts 
bordered  by  coral  banks  ;  Cape  Ke-ga  ;  and  Cape  Ba-kee, 
which  forms  the  limit  between  lower  Cochin  China  and 
the  kingdom  of  Anam.  Between  Cape  Padaran  and  Cipo 
Ba-kee  the  coast  is  low,  and  bordered  by  dangerous 
banks.  In  front  are  the  little  islands  of  Pulo  Cecir, 
Catwick,  and  Pulo  Sapate,  of  difficult  access. 

The  whole  of  lower  Cochin  China  being  formed  of 
alluvial  deposits,  its  coast  is  very  low,  has  little  irregularity 
of  surface,  and  is  covered  with  mangroves.  The  different 
mouths  of  the  River  Cambodia  or  Me-kong  form  a  delta  of 
mors  than  70  miles  in  extent.  The  soil  is  subject  to  fre 
quent  changes  on  account  of  the  alluvial  deposits  of  the  river, 
which  is  bordered  by  sand  banks  stretching  seawards  out 
of  sight  of  land.  At  the  entrance  of  the  River  Don-nai, 
which  leads  to  Saigon,  rises  Cape  St  Jacques,  a  peak  920 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  At  45  sea-miles  from  the 
coast  and  from  the  mouths  of  the  Me-kong,  is  the  island  of 
Pulo  Condore,  with  a  good  port,  and  a  penitentiary  esta 
blished  by  the  French  Government.  On  the  west  coast  of 
Lower  Cochin  China,  in  the  Gulf  of  Siam,  is  the  port  of 
Ha- Tien,  communicating  by  a  canal  with  one  of  the  arms 
of  the  Me-kong. 

To  the  north  of  Tong-king  terminate  the  last  underfalls 
of  the  high  plateau  of  Thibet;  a  long  chain  stretches 
parallel  to  the  Sea  of  China  as  far  as  the  south  of  the 
kingdom  of  Anam  of  which  it  forms  the  western  boundary. 
The  highest  point  of  this  chain  does  not  exceed  5250  feet. 
Between  the  last  ramifications  of  the  mountains  of  Thibet 
there  descend  from  the  plateau  of  Yun-nan  and  in  a  south 
east  direction  the  affluents  of  the  great  River  Song-Coi 
or  Hong-kiang,  which  undergoes  periodic  variations  in  the 
supply  of  its  waters.  In  the  month  of  March  it  is  very 


94 


COCHIN     CHINA 


low ;  but  every  year  about  the  month  of  July  it  leaves  its 
channel,  floods  a  part  of  the  country,  and  rolls  along  with 
a  very  powerful  current.  Before  passing  Ha-noi  it  receives 
the  tribute  of  two  great  rivers,  known  to  the  natives  by 
the  names  of  the  Black  River  and  the  Clear  River. 

The  kingdom  of  Aiiarn,  closely  shut  in  between  the 
mountains  and  the  sea,  is  drained  by  numerous  but 
unimportant  streams.  Lower  Cochin  China,  or  French 
Cochin  China,  is  abundantly  watered  by  the  numerous 
mouths  and  the  canals  which  form  the  delta  of  the  Me 
kong  or  Cambodia.  This  river  takes  its  rise  in  the 
mountains  of  Thibet,  waters  the  southern  provinces  of  China 
and  the  district  of  Laos  tributary  to  Siam,  and  crosses 
through  the  kingdom  of  Cambodia,  where  it  divides  into 
three  branches.  The  first,  which  does  not  penetrate  into 
Cochin  China,  turns  towards  the  north-west  and  loses  itself 
in  the  Lake  of  Touli  Sap.  The  second,  which  takes  the 
name  of  Hinder  River  (Hau-giang  or  Song-sau)  flows 
south-east,  enters  Cochin  China,  communicates  with  the 
Sea  of  Siam  by  the  Canal  Vinh-te  of  Ha-tien  and  by  that 
of  Each-gia,  and  enters  the  China  Sea  by  two  mouths. 
The  third  branch,  named  Front  River  (Tien-giang  or 
Song-truoc),  flows  parallel  to  the  preceding,  divides  at 
Vinh-long  into  four  arms,  and  debouches  by  six  mouths. 
These  streams  form  numerous  islands  and  communicate 
with  each  other  by  means  of  canals  or  arroyos.  In  spite  of 
the  length  of  its  course  and  the  great  mass  of  its  waters, 
the  Me-koug  cannot  be  utilized  as  a  means  of  communica 
tion  with  Central  China,  because  of  the  numerous  ressauts 
and  rapids  which  encumber  its  course.  It  is  besides 
subject  to  an  annual  flood ;  the  waters  begin  to  rise  in 
May,  attain  their  maximum  in  October,  and  decrease  until 
March.  From  the  month  of  March  to  the  month  of  May 
the  level  is  almost  constant.  Two  other  streams  water  the 
east  of  Lower  Cochin  China, — the  Vaico,  divided  into  two 
branches,  and  the  Donnai.  These  rivers  .communicate 
with  each  other  and  with  the  mouths  of  the  Me-kong  by 
numerous  arroyos.  The  Donnai  receives  the  Saigon  River  ; 
and  it  is  by  this  means  that  the  largest  vessels  reach  the 
town  of  that  name. 

The  climate  of  the  north  of  Anam  differs  much  from  that 
of  the  south.  In  Tong-king,  though  it  is  usual  to  divide 
the  year  into  a  dry  and  a  wet  season,  there  is  properly 
speaking  no  dry  season.  In  December  and  January  the 
thermometer  falls  to  41°  or  43°  Fahr.  Summer  corresponds 
to  the  period  of  the  rains  from  the  end  of  April  to  the 
month  of  August ;  and  at  that  time  it  is  excessively  hot. 
Storms  are  frequent,  and  the  coasts  are  often  visited  by 
typhoons.  At  the  same  time  Tong-king  is  a  healthy 
country ;  the  weather  during  four  months  is  excellent ; 
and  the  French  colony  of  Saigon  might  find  there — what  has 
never  been  discovered  in  Cochin  China  proper— a  suitable 
site  for  a  sanatorium.  The  climate  of  the  French  colony 
is  unhealthy  for  Europeans ;  they  cannot  be  acclimatized. 
The  mortality  of  the  troops  is  rather  high  ;  and  before 
their  residence  was  shortened  to  two  years  it  might  be 
calculated  at  9  or  10  per  cent,  for  a  three  years'  residence. 
The  chief  cause  of  the  maladies  which  affect  Europeans  is 
the  character  of  the  soil.  On  the  banks  of  the  rivers,  in 
the  salt  marshes,  and  along  the  shores  of  the  sea,  inter 
mittent  fevers  of  great  severity  are  frequent.  In  the 
forest  land  rages  the  terrible  wood-fever,  from  which  the 
•  native  himself  cannot  escape,  though  be  lives  unharmed 
in  the  midst  of  the  rice  swamps.  But  the  great  plague  of 
Lower  Cochin  China  is  dysentery, — a  disease  which, 
endemic  in  all  warm  countries,  proves  in  Cochin  China 
particularly  fatal.  It  is  to  it  that  the  greater  part  of 
the  deaths  among  Europeans  are  to  be  ascribed  ;  and  they 
often  succumb  to  its  effects  after  their  return  to  their  native 
country.  Most  of  the  children  born  of  European  parents 


in  Cochin  China  die  a  short  time  after  birth.  White 
women  are  there  exposed  to  many  dangers,  especially 
during  their  delivery ;  and  there  is  consequently  little  hope 
of  forming  there  a  race  of  Creoles.  The  native  women,  on 
the  contrary,  are  very  prolific,  and  suft'er  surprisingly  little 
in  childbirth.  It  is  also  interesting  to  observe  that  the 
Anamites,  like  the  races  of  the  extreme  East,  recover  from 
..wounds  of  the  greatest  severity,  which  would  infallibly 
kill  Europeans  even  in  their  own  country. 

The  mean  temperature  of  Lower  Cochin  China  is  83° 
Fahr.  The  greatest  heat  in  April  and  May  within  doors  is 
97°  Fahr.  In  the  mornings  of  December  the  temperature 
falls  to  65°  Fahr.  The  year  is  divided  into  the  dry  season, 
which  corresponds  to  the  N.E.  monsoon,  and  the  rainy 
season/  which  corresponds  to  the  S.W.  monsoon.  What 
renders  the  climate  peculiarly  injurious  and  enervating  is 
that,  besides  the  very  slight  difference  between  the  tempera 
tures  of  day  and  night,  the  hygrometric  readings  are  always 
very  high.  The  surface  of  Cochin  China,  composed  of 
recent  alluvial  deposits,  is  absolutely  flat,  and  in  some 
places  is  below  the  level  of  the  sea.  The  slightness  of  the 
slope  of  this  vast  plain  allows  the  tide  to  advance  far 
mland,  and  the  borders  of  the  rivers  to  be  alternately 
covered  with  water  and  exposed  to  the  perpendicular  raya  of 
the  sun.  All  the  coasts  are  covered  by  mangroves  (the 
marsh-tree  of  the  tropics),  which  with  their  dull  monotonous 
foliage  everywhere  betoken  the  uuhealthiness  of  the  soil. 

The  finest  species  of  tiger,  the  royal  tiger,  is  to  be  met  Anim; 
with  from  the  mountains  which  bound  Tong-king  on  the 
north  as  far  as  the  south  of  Lower  Cochin  China  ;  and  a 
short  time  ago  it  was  still  to  be  found  in  the  wooded  hills 
close  to  Saigon.  The  other  wild  animals  are  the  panther,  the 
rhinoceros,  the  elephant — which  the  people  of  Anam  have 
not  learned  to  domesticate — the  cocoa-nut  bear,  the  stag, 
the  wild  boar,  the  wild  ox,  and  monkeys  of  various  kinds. 
The  domestic  animals  are  goats,  horses,  buffaloes  (with 
which  the  Indo-Chinese  carry  on  the  difficult  and  unhealthy 
cultivation  of  the  rice-fields),  and  pigs,  which  are  kept  in 
great  numbers.  There  are  numerous  birds  of  many  species, 
which — at  in  all  tropical  regions — are  remarkable  for  the 
beauty  of  their  plumage.  Among  the  rest  may  be  men 
tioned  pea-fowl,  pheasants,  turtle-doves,  the  green  pgeons 
of  Pulo  Condore,  paroquets,  hornbills,  sultana  fowls,  and 
various  species  of  wading  birds  and  palmipeds.  The 
rivers  abound  with  life ;  and  the  fish,  though  of  poor 
quality,  form  an  important  part  of  the  food  of  the  people. 
They  are  caught,  along  with  frogs  and  snakes,  even  in  the 
mud  of  the  rice-fields.  The  crocodile  is  frequently  met 
with,  and  adds  another  item  to  the  native  cuisine.  This 
hot  damp  country  swarms  with  reptiles,  of  which  some 
species  are  very  dangerous.  Among  these  are  the  huge 
cobra  di  capello  (Najct),  many  species  of  adders,  and  the 
immense  python,  which  is  of  much  use  in  destroying 
during  the  night  all  kinds  of  rats,  including  the  intolerable 
musk-rat. 

The  forests  furnish  several  kinds  of  timber  for  build-  Yeget 
ing.  In  the  plains  and  valleys  are  numerous  fruit-trees,  produ 
— the  banana,  the  guava,  the  papaw,  the  medlar-tree,  the 
orange,  the  citron,  and,  most  abundant  of  all,  the  cabbage- 
palm  and  the  cocoa-tree,  and  the  cinnamon  of  which  Toiig- 
king  furnishes  a  superior  quality.  The  people  of  Anam 
are  essentially  agricultural.  Besides  rice,  which  is  the 
chief  production  of  the  country,  the  cultivated  lauds  furnish 
cotton,  mulberry,  sugar-cane,  maize,  betel-nut,  and  veget 
ables,  especially  potatoes,  earth-nuts,  and  pepper.  Tea  is 
cultivated  also,  especially  in  Tong-king,  but  the  people  of 
Anam  do  not  know  how  to  prepare  it. 

To  the  traveller  who  pays  only  a  brief  visit  the  kingdom 
of  Anam  appears  ill  provided  with  metals.  If  a  mine  be 
discovered  the  natives  forbid  access  to  it,  and  still  more  fre- 


COCHIN     CHINA 


95 


quently,  for  fear  of  the  authorities,  are  unwilling  to  give  any 
information.  Two  excellent  authors,  Messrs  T.  Crawfurd 
and  M'Culloch  have  supported  this  false  opinion  in  their 
works.  More  precise  information  has,  however,  been 
obtained,  recent  explorers  of  the  country  stating  that 
Toug-king  is  very  rich  in  metals,  and  furnishes  especially 
gold,  silver,  brass,  zinc,  and  iron.  It  is  from  Toug-king 
that  the  famous  tam-tams,  the  manufacture  of  which  is 
still  a  secret  to  Europeans,  are  obtained.  Cochin  China, 
properly  so-called,  furnishes  also  gold,  silver,  brass,  and 
marble  ;  and  coal  is  found  there  in  several  places.  Lower 
Cochin  China,  like  all  alluvial  plains,  is  poor  in  minerals  ; 
quarries,  however,  of  granite  and  of  jet  are  worked. 

itrJr>  There  is  little  industrial  activity  in  Anam,  but  in 
Tong-king  the  manufacture  of  articles  inlaid  with  mother- 
of-pearl  is  carried  on.  From  China  Cochin  China  re 
ceives  a  large  quantity  of  manufactured  goods,  cotton  and 
silk  stuffs,  porcelain,  and  tea.  The  importation  from 
France  is  also  very  considerable.  The  principal  exports  are 
rice  (which  forms  of  itself  half  the  sum  total),  salt  fish, 
provided  principally  by  the  fisheries  at  the  mouth  of  the 
two  chief  rivers,  salt,  undyed  cotton,  pepper,  and  the  skins 
of  animals.  The  great  commercial  importance  of  Cochin 
China  arises  from  the  excellence  of  its  situation,  as  a  way 
of  communication  with  the  rich  and  populous  provinces  of 
middle  China.  England  has  long  been  seeking  to  open  a 
route  for  trade  between  the  north-east  of  India,  or  Pegu, 
and  the  south-west  of  China,  but  up  to  the  present  time, 
notwithstanding  the  courage  and  devotion  of  explorers, 
these  attempts  have  failed. 

mm-  From  1866  to  1868  a  French  expedition,  commanded  by 
Captain  Doudart  de  Lagrde,  followed  up  the  course  of  the 
Me-kong,  and  penetrated  into  middle  China.  This  expedi 
tion  cost  its  chief  his  life,  for  he  died  in  consequence  of  the 
fatigue  which  he  underwent  in  Yun-nan.  This  examination 
of  the  Me-kong  proved  that  this  fine  river  is,  as  already 
noticed,  unfit  for  regular  navigation.  Another  route, 
however,  by  the  Tong-king,  may  be  opened  up ;  and  it  is 
comparatively  easy  and  habitually  used  by  the  natives.  In 
1872  Mr  Dupuis,  a  French  merchant,  passed  up  the  course 
of  the  Hong-kiang  as  far  as  Maug-Hao,  a  town  of  Yun-nan, 
where  the  river  ceases  to  be  navigable.  He  came  down 
the  river  again  in  1873.  He  declares  it  to  be  navigable 
in  every  season,  and  has  thus  solved  the  problem  which 
Captain  Doudart  de  Lagre'e  sought  to  solve  by  means  of 
the  Me-kong.  M.  Dupuis's  expedition  led  the  French 
authorities,  at  the  solicitation  of  the  Government  of 
Hue',  to  despatch  M.  Francis  Gamier  to  the  Tong-king  ; 
but  the  gallant  explorer  was  assassinated  by  pirates  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Ha-noi. 

logy.  The  native  of  Anam  is  the  worst  built  and  the  ugliest  of 
all  the  Indo-Chinese  who  belong  to  the  Mongolian  race. 
He  is  scarcely  of  middle  height,  and  is  shorter  and  less 
vigorous  than  his  neighbours.  His  complexion  is  tawny, 
darker  than  that  of  the  Chinese,  but  clearer  than  that  of  the 
Cambodian;  his  skin  is  thick;  his  forehead  low;  his  skull 
slightly  depressed  at  the  top,  but  well  developed  at  the 
sides.  His  face  is  flat,  with  highly  protruding  cheek-bones, 
and  is  lozenge-shaped  or  eurygnathous  to  a  degree  that  is 
nowhere  exceeded.  His  nose  is  not  only  the  flattest,  but 
also  the  smallest  among  the  Indo-Chinese  ;  his  mouth  is 
large,  and  his  lips  thick ;  his  teeth  are  blackened  and  his 
gums  destroyed  by  the  constant  use  of  the  betel-nut,  the 
areca-nut,  and  lime,  a  custom  which  perhaps  originated  in 
hygienic  reasons.  His  neck  is  short,  his  shoulders  slope 
greatly,  his  body  is  thick-set,  large,  all  of  one  piece,  as  it 
were,  and  wanting  in  suppleness.  His  pelvis  is  large, 
with  a  considerable  separation  of  the  upper  part  of  the 
femora,  giving  to  his  gait  a  curious  swagger,  which  has, 
uot  without  reason,  been  described  as  theatrical.  This 


odd  swagger  by  itself  suffices  to  distinguish  Jie  Anamese 
from  every  other  Indo-Chinese  people  without  exception. 
Another  peculiarity,  which  especially  distinguishes  this 
race  from  the  other  Indo-Chinese  branches,  is  a  greater 
separation  of  the  big  toe  from  the  rest  than  is  found 
in  any  of  the  other  peoples  that  walk  bare-footed.  It 
is  sufficiently  general  and  well  marked  to  serve  as  an 
ethnographic  test ;  and  it  indicates  that  the  people  of  Anam 
are  not  descended — as  some  authors  have  asserted — from  a 
mingling  of  indigenous  savages  with  the  Chinese,  but  have 
existed  as  a  distinct  race  for  a  long  time.  According  to 
Father  Legrand  de  la  Liraye  (Notes  historiques  sur 
la  nation  Annamitc,  Saigon,  1865),  this  curious  feature 
has  served  to  distinguish  the  people  of  Anam  since  the  year 
2285  B.C.,  that  is  to  say,  63  years  after  the  Biblical  deluge. 
This  statement,  taken  as  it  is  from  the  Chinese  annals, 
shows  that  the  Anamese  could  not  have  received  this  char 
acteristic  from  their  neighbours  ;  and  it  is  a  very  curious 
fact  that  it  has  been  transmitted  to  the  present  inhabitants 
despite  the  frequent  intermarriages  with  other  races"  which 
must  have  taken  place  during  this  period  of  forty  centuries. 
The  inhabitants  of  Lower  Cochin  China  are  evidently 
weaker  and  smaller  than  those  of  Tong-king,  and  this  pro 
bably  results  from  their  dwelling  in  marshy  rice-fields. 

In  the  midst  of  the  Anamese  live  Cambodians  and 
immigrant  Chinese,  the  latter,  associated  together- accord 
ing  to  the  districts  they  come  from,  carrying  on  nearly 
all  the  commerce  of  the  country.  In  the  forests  on  the 
frontiers  of  Cochin  China  dwell  certain  wretched  savages 
called  Mois,  or  Stiengs,  of  whom  little  is  known  ;  and 
alongside  of  these  are  the  Chams,  a  Mahometan  people 
which  appear  to  be  of  Arab  origin,  and,  in  spite  of 
a  strong  infusion  of  Chinese  blood,  preserve  the  warlike 
qualities  of  their  ancestors,  their  love  of  lighting,  their  gay 
and  open  character,  and  their  abstinence  from  theft.  Their 
stature  is  tall,  and  they  are  characterized  by  the  enormous 
projection  of  the  soft  parts  of  the  abdomen.  Their  women, 
while  mixing  freely  in  society  without  veiling,  have  a  high- 
spirited  virtue  which  forms  a  contrast  to  the  corruption  that 
prevails  around  them.  Their  language  shows  that  they 
once  knew  the  lion  and  the  chamois ;  and  while  they  are 
now  inferior  in  civilization,  they  preserve  traces  in  their 
vocabulary  of  a  higher  condition.  Among  the  different 
races  which  inhabit  Indo-China  numerous  mixtures  take 
place.  There  are  crosses  of  the  Anamite  with  the  Hindu, 
with  the  Malay,  with  the  Cambodian,  and  with  the 
Chinese.  The  last  of  these  half  breeds,  who  are  called 
Min-huongs,  are  the  most  numerous  and  interesting. 

Evidently  derived  from  the  Chinese,  of  which  it  appears  Language, 
to  be  a  very  ancient  dialect,  the  Anamese  language  is  com 
posed  of  monosyllables,  of  slightly  varied  articulation, 
expressing  absolutely  different  ideas  according  to  the  tone 
in  which  they  are  pronounced.  It  is  quite  impossible  to 
connect  with  our  musical  system  the  utterance  of  the 
sounds  of  which  the  Chinese  and  Auamese  languages  are 
composed.  What  is  understood  by  a  "tone"  in  this 
language  is  distinguished  in  reality,  not  by  the  number  of 
sonorous  vibrations  which  belong  to  it,  but  rather  by  a  use 
of  the  vocal  apparatus  special  to  each.  Thus,  the  sense 
will  to  a  native  be  completely  changed  according  as  the 
sound  is  the  result  of  an  aspiration  or  of  a  simple  utterance 
of  the  voice.  Thence  the  difficulty  of  substituting  our 
phonetic  alphabet  for  the  ideographic  characters  of  the 
Chinese,  as  well  as  for  the  ideophonetic  writing  partly 
borrowed  by  the  Anamese  from  the  letters  of  the  celestial 
empire.  We  owe  to  the  Jesuit  missionaries  the  introduc 
tion  of  an  ingenious  though  very  complicated  system,  which 
has  caused  remarkable  progress  to  be  made  in  the  employ 
ment  of  phonetic  characters.  By  means  of  six  accents, 
one  bar,  and  a  crotchet,  it  is  possible  to  note  with  sufficient 


COCHIN     CHINA 


precision  the  indications  of  tone  without  which  the  Anamese 
words  have  no  sense  for  the  natives.  This  system  is 
universally  adopted  in  French  Cochin  China,  and  the  new 
generation,  almost  without  exception,  are  able  to  read  and 
write  in  Latin  characters. 

National  The  Anamese  are  idle,  incapable  of  deep  emotion,  and 
haracter  fond  Of  ease.  They  show  much  outward  respect  for 
ntl  superiors  and  parents,  but  they  take  great  delight  in 

ms'  mocking  and  banter.  They  cherish  great  love  of  their 
native  soil  and  native  village,  and  cannot  long  remain  far 
from  home.  On  the  whole  they  are  mild,  or  rather 
apathetic,  but  the  facility  with  which  they  learn  is  remark 
able.  Buddhism,  mingled  with  coarse  popular  beliefs,  is 
the  dominant  creed,  but  the  learned  hold  the  doctrine  of 
Confucius,  and  in  truth  the  people  of  Anam  are  but  slightly 
religious.  Nevertheless,  like  their  neighbours,  the  Chinese 
and  the  Cambodians,  they  have  a  great  respect  for  the 
dead,  and  their  worship  almost  entirely  consists  of 
ceremonies  in  honour  of  their  ancestors.  Like  the  Chinese 
they  dispose  of  the  body  by  inhumation.  Among  the 
savage  tribes  of  the  interior  there  is  scarcely  any  idea  of  a 
God,  and  the  superstitious  practices  to  which  they  are 
addicted  can  scarcely  be  considered  as  the  expression  of  a 
definite  religious  idea.  Christianity  counts  400,000 
adherents  in  Tong-kiug  and  5000  in  Lower  China. 
overu  The  system  of  government  in  the  empire  of  Anam  is 

tent.  pure  an(j  absolute  monarchy  without  any  other  constitution 
than  powerful  custom.  The  succession  to  the  throne 
follows  the  order  of  primogeniture.  Between  the  citizens 
there  exists  the  most  complete  equality,  since  public  offices 
are  open  to  all,  and  there  are  no  other  social  distinctions 
than  those  due  to  office  or  fortune.  The  sovereign,  at  once 
high  priest  and  supreme  judge,  governs  despotically  with 
the  assistance  of  six  ministers.  The  army,  or  rather  the 
military  list,  for  a  large  part  of  the  force  exists  only  on 
paper,  is  composed  of  80  regiments,  with  500  men  in  each. 
It  is  recruited  from  Cochin  China ;  Tong-king  furnishes 
no  soldiers.  It  is  under  the  command  of  a  commander- 
in-chief,  a  kind  of  constable  of  the  kingdom,  or  grand 
marshal,  who  is  personally  responsible  for  the  defence  of 
the  citadel  of  Hue.  The  marine,  which  has  no  ships, 
is  composed  of  30  regimerits,  under  an  admiral-in-chief, 
who  is  assisted  by  a  vice-admiral  and  two  rear-admirals, 
each  of  whom  commands  10  regiments.  The  mandarins, 
as  in  China,  form  two  distinct  classes — the  civil  and  the 
military.  The  first  class  are  scholars  who  have  passed 
literary  examinations.  The  latter  are  chosen  chiefly  on 
account  of  physical  fitness;  and  it  is  only  in  the  highest  ranks 
that  well-educated  respectable  men  are  to  be  found.  The 
people  have  a  great  regard  for  the  learned,  who  have  all 
received  a  higher  moral  education, — that  of  Confucius. 
The  mandarins  are  divided  into  nine  degrees,  and  each 
degree  comprises  two  classes.  Besides  the  French  colony, 
the  empire  of  Anam  is  divided  into  24  provinces  placed 
each  under  the  authority  of  a  governor.  The  province  is 
subdivided  into  departments,  arrondissements,  cantons,  and 
communes.  The  French  colony,  administered  by  a  governor 
assisted  by  a  privy  council,  comprehends  the  six  ancient 
provinces  of  the  south.  It  is  now  divided  into  four 
provinces,  bearing  the  names  of  their  chief  cities, — Saigon, 
Mi-tho,  Vinh-long,  and  Bassac.  The  provinces  form  to 
gether  19  inspectorships  with  an  administrator  of  native 
affairs  at  the  head  of  each. 

hief  The  chief  town  and  the  ancient  capital  of  Tong-king, 

Ha-noi,  or  Ke-cho  (i.e.,  the  market),  situated  on  one  of  the 
branches  of  the  Song-Coi,  though  at  present  greatly  fallen, 
still  contains  at  least  50,000  inhabitants.  It  possesses  a 
very  large  citadel,  which  serves  as  the  residence  of  the 
viceroy  and  of  the  special  envoy  or  royal  commissioner,  who 
is  the  first  authority  in  Tong-king.  This  citadel,  at  present 


badly  kept  in  repair  and  poorly  equipped,  was  built  in  the 
course  of  last  century  according  to  plans  furnished  by 
European  engineers,  The  provincial  capitals  of  Hai-dzuong 
(30,000  inhabitants),  Bac-Ninh,  Nam-Dinh,  likewise  possess 
important  citadels ;  and  that  of  Minh-binh,  also  the 
chieMown  of  a  province,  is  the  strongest  of  all  Tong-king. 
Hue",  or  Fhu-tua-tien,  capital  of  the  kingdom  of  Anam,  is 
composed  of  two  portions — the  inner  town,  a  vast  fortress 
built  on  the  Vauban  system  according  to  the  plans  of  French 
engineers,  and  occupied  by  the  Government ;  and  the  outer 
town,  which  is  inhabited  by  the  mass  of  the  population, 
who  are  estimated  at  100,000  souls.  Mention  may  also  be 
made  of  Tourane  and  Quin-nhon,  or  Binh-dhiuh,  important 
ports  open  to  European  commerce.  Saigon,  the  capital  of 
the  French  colony,  is  composed  of  three  towns: — 1st, 
an  Asiatic  town,  inhabited  by  Auamese  husbandmen, 
fishers,  or  servants,  by  mercantile  Chinamen,  by  Malays, 
Tagals,  and  Hindus  engaged  in  various  occupations ;  2d, 
the  town  of  the  colonists  ;  and  3d,  the  Government  town, 
inhabited  by  the  Government  employe's,  administrators, 
officers,  and  physicians.  The  houses  are  mainly  built  of 
brick.  Two  gardens,  one  belonging  to  the  governor  and 
the  other  the  botanical,  overlook  the  town.  The  latter  is 
very  interesting,  containing  as  it  does  a  fine  collection  of 
trees  and  plants,  both  indigenous  and  exotic,  as  well  as  a 
very  curious  menagerie.  At  the  port  of  Saigon  387  vessels 
entered  and  398  left  in  1874,  which  forms  about  half  of 
the  whole  maritime  trade  in  the  colony.  Eight  miles  from 
Saigon  is  the  town  of  Cho-len  (i.e.,  the  great  market),  a 
Chinese  town  with  an  extensive  commerce,  and  according 
to  some  writers  80,000,  according  to  others  30,000  or 
40,000  inhabitants.  The  other  towns  of  the  colony  are 
Go-cong  to  the  south-west  of  Saigon,  where,  in  the  midst 
of  the  rice  fields,  there  lives  an  agricultural  population, 
which  presents  in  all  its  purity  the  true  Anamese  type ; 
Mi-tho,  a  port  on  one  of  the  arms  of  the  Me-kong,  and  the 
second  town  of  the  colony  ;  the  fort  and  the  town  of  Yinh- 
long  ;  the  fort  and  town  of  Chaudoc  ;  Ha-tien,  on  the 
Gulf  of  Siam,  one  of  the  most  unhealthy  places  on  the 
coast,  inhabited  by  Chinese  and  Anamese ;  and  at  the 
Cape  St  Jacques,  the  military  port  and  fort  of  Ba-ria. 

It  is  difficult  to  state  the  exact  number  of  the  population  Popult 
of  the  empire  of  Anam,  and  authors  vary  greatly  in  their  tioi>- 
estimates.     The  data  which  appear  most  worthy  of  credit 
give  a  total  sum  of  10  or  12  millions.      As  to  the  French 
colony,  the  last  official  census  of  which  the   results  have 
been  published  was  made   in  1873;   it  gives  1,487,200 
inhabitants,  of    whom   49,500   were  Chinese  and   82,700 
Cambodians.     The  Europeans  numbered   1114,  exclusive 
of  the  Government  officials  and  the  garrison. 

The  Anamese,  according  to  their  own  annals,  are  natives  Histor 
of  the  south  of  China.  "  In  the  2d  or  3d  century  before 
Abraham,"  says  Pere  Legraud  de  la  Liraije,  "  four  barbarous 
tribes  occupied  the  limits  of  the  Chinese  empire ;  to  the 
south  was  the  tribe  of  the  Giao-chi."  It  is  from  this  tribe 
that  the  Anamese  claim  to  have  descended  ;  and  at  the  time 
when  history  begins  to  acquire  some  degree  of  certitude, 
about  2357  before  our  era,  the  Chinese  annals  mention  the 
Anamese  under  the  name  of  Giao-chi,  which  signifies  "  with 
the  big  toe."  According  to  native  scholars  the  history 
of  this  epoch  is  of  a  legendary  character.  It  results  from 
their  labours  that  for  twenty  centuries  the  race  of  Giao-chi 
was  governed  in  vassalage  to  the  empire  by  a  dynasty  of 
Chinese  origin,  which  lasted  till  257  B.C.  From  that  date 
till  110  before  the  Christian  era  the  throne  was  held  by 
two  other  vassal  dynasties;  and  from  110  B.C.  till  907 
A.D.  these  dynasties  were  replaced  by  Chinese  governors. 
In  the  beginning  of  the  10th  century  some  of  the  native 
chiefs,  weary  of  the  Chinese  rule,  revolted  ;  and  their 
efforts  were  crowned  with  success.  From  960  downwards, 


c  o  c  —  o  o  c 


97 


under  the  government  of  native  princes,  the  Auamese  lived 
independent,  and  preserved  rather  the  name  than  the  reality 
of  vassalage  to  the  Chinese  empire.  Since  that  time  the 
nation,  with  a  most  remarkable  aptitude  for  expansion,  has 
aggrandized  itself  at  the  expense  of  its  neighbours,  and  has 
conquered  from  the  Cambodians  Tsiampa  and  the  six  pro 
vinces  of  the  south  which  now  form  the  French  colony. 
It  is  to  be  noted  that  the  Cambodians,  though  endowed 
with  physical  force  far  superior  to  that  of  the  Cochin  Chinese, 
have  been  beaten  by  them  in  every  encounter, 

It  is  nearly  a  century  since  the  first  treaty  of  alliance 
was  signed  between  France  and  the  kingdom  of  Anam.  By 
this  treaty,  dated  the  28th  November  1787,  the  king  of 
Cochin-China  ceded  to  France  in  full  property  the  Penin 
sula  of  Tourane  and  the  Isle  of  Pulo-Condore.  The  agree 
ment  was  only  partially  executed,  but  it  was  sufficient  to 
render  the  influence  of  France  predominant  in  Cochin 
China;  and  Christianity  made  rapid  progress  in  Tong-king. 
At  the  death  of  the  king  Gia-long,  in  1820,  the  party 
hostile  to  strangers  prevailed;  and  several  attempts  to  pro 
tect  the  French  missionaries  and  establish  the  French  influ 
ence  had  failed,  when  in  1858,  in  consequence  of  the  murder 
of  M.  Diaz, — who  was  put  to  death  by  order  of  the  king, 
merely  on  account  of  the  news  that  a  French  ship  was 
cruising  in  sight  of  the  coast, — a  squadron  was  sent  under 
the  command  of  Admiral  Iligault  de  Genouilly,  who  seized 
Tourane.  Shortly  after  the  admiral  made  explorations  in 
the  south,  seeking  a  better  situation  for  a  settlement  than 
Tourane,  and  passing  up  the  River  Don-nai,  he  took  posses 
sion  of  Saigon,  the  true  capital  of  Lower  Cochin  China.  On 
the  5th  June  1862  the  court  of  Hue"  accepted  a  treaty,  b}T 
which  it  abandoned  three  provinces  to  France,  and  bound 
itself  to  pay  an  indemnity  of  war.  After  various  expedi 
tions  occasioned  by  revolts,  Francs  occupied  in  1867  the 
three  other  provinces  of  Lower  Cochin  China,  and  after 
long  negotiations  a  treaty  was  signed  at  Saigon,  on  the  15th 
March  1874,  definitively  abandoning  the  six  provinces  to 
France.  This  treaty  opens  besides  to  the  commerce  of  all 
nations  one  port  in  eastern  Cochin  China  and  one  port  in 
Tong-king,  and  guarantees  liberty  of  transit  from  the  sea 
as  far  as  Vim-nan. 

Bibliography. — M.  Barbie  du  Bocage,  secretary  of  the  Central 
Commission  of  the  Geographical  Society  at  Paris,  published  in  1867 
a  very  complete  bibliography  of  the  books,  periodicals,  manuscripts, 
and  plans  relating  to  the  history  and  geography  of  Anam,  in  a 
pamphlet  of  105  pages,  8vo.  In  M  Vivien  de  Saint  Martin's  well- 
known  work — L'Annee  Geographique,  Hachette  and  Cie — there  is 
to  be  found  a  list  well  up  to  date  of  new  works  on  Indo-China, 
among  which  we  may  mention— Fr.  von  Hichthofen,  Sur  Us  Pro 
vinces  Sud-ouest  de  la  Chine;  MacMahon  (Colonel  A.  P.)  Emitcs  du 
Sud-oucst  de  la  Chine;  Edinburgh  Review,  April  1873;  F.  Vial, 
Les  premier  is  annecs  de  la  Cochinchine,  1874  ;  Romanet  du  Cail- 
laux,  La  France  au  Tong  King;  Aymonnier,  Dictionnaire  francais- 
cambodgien  et  Geographie  du  Cambodge,  1876;  G.  Coryton,  "  On  the 
Routes  between  British  Burmah  and  the  West  of  China,"  in  vol. 
xix.  of  Journ.  R.  G.  S.,  1849;  Papers  read  by  Docteur  Mondieres 
and  Doeteur  A.  Morice  before  the  Societe  d'Anthropologie,  in  Jan. 
1875  ;  DrHarmand,  Apercu  pctthologique  sur  la  Cochinchine ;  Bigrel, 
Carte  generale  de.  la  Cochinchine  francaise,  with  an  interesting  note 
on  the  proper  naines.  The  following  recent  works  have  not  been 
mentioned  in  the  Annee  Geographique. — Instructions  nautiques 
publiecs  par  le  Ministere  de  la  Marine;  Tableaux  de  Population, 
dc  Culture,  de  Commerce,  et  de  Navigation,  publics  par  le  Ministere 
de  la  Marine ;  Petit  cours  de  Geographie  de  la  Basse  Cochinchine, 
by  P.  J.  B.  Truong-vinh-ky,  Saigon,  1875;  Cours  d'histoire 
annamite  d  Vusage  dcs  ecoles  de  la  Basse  Cochinchine,  by  Truong- 
vinh-ky  ;  Voyage  d' Exploration  en  Indo-Chine  pendant  les  annecs 
1866,  1867,  1868,  sous  le  Commandement  de  M.  Doudart  de  Lagree, 
public  sous  la  direction  de  M.  Francis  Gamier,  2  vols.,  Hachette, 
1873 — a  magnificent  work.  The  following  are  of  earlier  date:  — 
Viaggi  di  Tre  Vescovi  in  1669  ;  Barrow,  A  Voyage  to  Cochin  China 
•in  the  years  1792  and  1793;  Bissachere,  Etat  actucl  dc  Cochin- 
chine,  1812  :  Crawfurd's  Embassy  to  tlic  Courts  of  Siarn  and  Cochin 
China,  1828  ;  Gutzlaff  "  Geography  of  the  Cochin  Chinese  Empire," 
in  Journ.  Roy.  &oc.,  1849);  Bouillevaux,  Voyage  dans  V Indo-Chine, 
1848-56,  Paris,  1858;  Veuillot,  La  Cochinchine  ct  la  Tonquin, 


1859;  Cortambert  and  De  Rosny,  Tableau  de  la  Cochinchine; 
Mouhot,  Siam,  Cambodia,  and  Lao,  1864.  A  Dictionnarium  an- 
amiticum,  lusitanum,  ct  latinum  was  published  at  Home  in  1671  by 
Pere  Alex,  de  Rhode ;  and  another,  the  combined  work  of  Pigneaux 
and  Tabard,  appeared  in  1838.  An  essay  on  the  language  and 
writing  was  published  by  Schott  in  1855.  "  (C.  MA.) 

COCHINEAL,  a  dye-stuff  used  for  the  production  of 
scarlet,  crimson,  orange,  and  other  tints,  and  for  the  pre 
paration  of  lake  and  carmine.  It  consists  of  the  females 
of  Coccus  cacti,. an  insect  of  the  order  Hemipttra,  which 
feeds  upon  various  species  of  the  Cactacece,  more  especi 
ally  the  nopal  plant,  Opuntia  coccinellifera,  a  native  of 
Mexico  and  Peru.  The  dye  was  introduced  into  Europe 
from  Mexico,  where  it  had  been  in  use  long  before  the 
entrance  of  the  Spaniards  in  the  year  1518,  and  where  it 
formed  one  of  the  staple  tributes  to  the  Crown  for  certain 
districts.  In  1523  Cortes  received  instructions  from  the 
Spanish  court  to  procure  it  in  as  large  quantities  as 
possible.  It  appears  not  to  havs  been  known  in  Italy  so 
late  as  the  year  1548,  though  the  art  of  dyeing  then 
flourished  there.  Cornelius  van  Drebbel,  at  Alkmaar,  first 
employed  cochineal  for  the  production  of  scarlet  in  1650. 
Until  about  1725  the  belief  was  very  prevalent  that 
cochineal  was  the  seed  of  a  plant,  but  Dr  Lister  in  1672 
conjectured  it  to  be  a  kind  of  kermes,  and  in  1703  Leeu- 
wenhoeck  ascertained  its  true  nature  by  aid  of  the  micro 
scope.  Since  its  introduction  cochineal  has  supplanted 
kermes  (Coccus  ilicis)  over  the  greater  part  of  Europe. 
The  male  of  the  cochineal  insect  is  half  the  size  of  the 
female,  and,  unlike  it,  is  devoid  of  nutritive  apparatus  ;  it 
has  long  white  wings,  and  a  body  of  a  deep  red  colour, 
terminated  by  two  diverging  setse.  The  female  is  apterous, 
and  has  a  dark-brown  plano-convex  body  ;  it  is  found  in 
the  proportion  of  150  to  200  to  one  of  the  male  insect. 
The  dead  body  of  the  mother  insect  serves  as  a  protection 
for  the  eggs  until  they  are  hatched.  Cochineal  is  now 
furnished  not  only  by  Mexico  and  Peru,  but  also  by 
Algiers  and  the  S.  of  Spain.  In  Teneriffe  it  was  success 
fully  cultivatsd  in  1858,  on  the  failure  of  the  vines  there 
through  disease,  but  the  diminished  value  of  cochineal  of 
late  years  has  much  affected  its  production  in  the  Canaries 
Cochineal  is  collected  thrice  in  the  seven  months  of  tho 
season.  The  insects  are  carefully  brushed  from  the 
branches  of  the  cactus  into  bags,  and  are  then  killed  by 
immersion  in  hot  water,  or  by  exposure  to  the  sun,  steam, 
or  the  heat  of  an  oven — much  of  thf3  variety  of  appear 
ance  in  the  commercial  article  being  caused  by  the 
mode  of  treatment.  The  dried  insect  has  the  form  of 
irregular,  fluted,  and  concave  grains,  which  weigh  about 
YQ-  of  a  grain,  as  many  as  70,000  insects  being  estimated  to 
weigh  1  It.  Cochineal  has  a  musty  and  bitterish  taste 
There  are  two  principal  varieties — silver  cochineal,  which 
has  a  greyish-red  colour,  and  the  furrows  of  the  body 
covered  with  a  white  bloom  or  fine  down ,  and  black 
cochineal,  which  is  of  a  dark  reddish-brown,  and  destitute 
of  bloom.  Granilla  is  an  inferior  kind,  gathered  from 
uncultivated  plants.  The  best  crop  is  the  first  of  the 
season,  which  consists  of  the  unimpregnated  females  ;  the 
later  crops  contain  an  admixture  of  young  insects  and 
skins,  which  contain  proportionally  little  colouring  matter. 

Cochineal  owes  its  tinctorial  power  to  the  presence  of 
a  substance  termed  cochinealin,  or  carminic  acid,  a  com 
pound  of  hydrogen,  carbon,  and  oxygen,  which  may  be 
prepared  from  the  aqueous  decoction  of  cochineal.  The 
comparative  value  of  different  specimens  of  cochineal  may 
be  ascertained  by  a  method  based  upon  the  bleaching  action 
of  ferricyanide  of  potassium  upon  a  weak  potash  solution 
of  the  dye.  The  black  variety  of  cochineal  is  sometimes 
sold  for  silver  cochineal  by  shaking  it  with  powdered  talc, 
or  heavy-spar :  but  these  adulterations  can  be  readily 
detected  by  means  of  a  lens.  The  duty  on  cochineal  was 

VI.  —   TJ 


98 


Q  C  — C  0  G 


repealed  in  1845.  In  1869  the  exports  of  cochineal  from 
the  Canaries  reached  6,310,000  Ib,  value  £842,921.  Of 
this  amount  4,232,600  tt>,  consisting  of  grana,graniUa, 
and  polro,  were  shipped  to  Great  Britain,  value  £554,092 
More  than  half  of  this  quantity  was  supplied  by  the  Island 
of  Grand  Canary.  In  three  months  ending  31st  March 
1376  the  imports  were  10,094  cwts,  value  £112,534. 


HandbucJi  dcr  Entomologie  ;  Vincent,  Ann.  8d.  Nat.,  vol.  viii.,  1st 
scr.;   Westwood,  Modern  Classification   of  Insects,  pp.   448,   449. 


1691,  pp.  502-3  ;  and  lioyle's  Essay  on  the  Productive  Resources  of 
India,  pp.  47-65,  1840. 

COCKATOO  (Cacatuidce),  a  family  of  Scansorial  Birds, 
distinguished  from  other  Old  World  parrots  by  their  greater 
size,  by  a  crest  of  feathers  on  the  head,  which  cau  be  raised 
or  depressed  at  will,  and  by  their  enormously  developed 
bills.     They  inhabit  the  Indian  Archipelago,  New  Guinea, 
aud  Australia,  and  are  gregarious,  frequenting  woods  and 
feeding  on  seeds,  fruits,  and  the  larvre  of  insects.    Their  note 
is  generally  harsh  and  unmusical,  and  although  they  are 
readily  tamed  when  taken  young,  becoming  familiar,  and  in 
some  species  showing  remarkable  intelligence,  their  powers 
of  vocal   imitation  are  exceedingly  limited.     Of  the  true 
cockatoos  (Cacatua)  ths  best  known  is  the  Crested  Cockatoo 
(Cacatua   galerita),  of   a  pure   white   plumage    with    the 
exception  of  the  crest,  which  is  deep  sulphur  yellow,  and  of 
the  ear  and  tail  coverts,  which  are  slightly    tinged  with 
yellow.     The  crest  when  erect  stands  5  inches  high.     Those 
birds  are  found  in   Australia  in  flocks  varying  from  1 00  to 
1000  in  number,  and  do  great  damage  to  newly  sown  grain, 
for  which  reason  they  are  mercilessly  destroyed  by  farmers. 
They  deposit  their  eggs — two  in  number,  and  of  a  pure 
white  colour — in  the  hollows  of  decayed  trees,  or  in  the 
fissures  of  rocks,  according  to  the  nature  of  the  locality  in 
which  they   reside.     This  is  the  species   usually  kept  in 
Europe  as  a  cage  bird.     Leadbetter's  Cockatoo  (Cacatua 
Leadbeateri),  an  inhabitant  of  South  Australia,  excels  all 
others  in   the  beauty   of  its  plumage,   which  consists    in 
great  part  of  white,  tinged  with  rose  colour,  becoming  a 
deep  salmon    colour  under   the  wings,  while  the  crest  is 
bright  crimson  at  the  base,  with  a  yellow  spot  in  the  centre 
and  white  at  the  tip.     It  is  exceedingly  shy  and  difficult  of 
approach,  and  its  note  is  more  plaintive  while  less  harsh  than 
that  of  the  preceding  species.     In  the  cockatoos  belonging 
to  the  genus  Calyptorhynchus  the  general  plumage  is  black 
or  dark  brown,  usually  with  a  large  spot  or  band  of  red  or 
yellow  on  the  tail,  and  in  some  species  behind  the  ear  'also. 
The  largest  of  these  is  known  as  the  Funereal  Cockatoo 
(Calyptorhynchus  funereus),  from  the  lugubrious   note  or 
call  which  it  utters,  resembling  the  two  syllables  Wy — la — , 
the  native  name  of  the  species.     It  deposits  its  eggs  in  the 
hollows  of  the  large  gum  trees  of    Australia,   and   feeds 
largely  on  the  larvae  of  insects,  in  search  of  which  it  peel 
off  the  bark  of  trees,  and  when  thus  employed  it  may  be 
approached  closely.      "  When  one  is  shot,  the  remainder  of 
the  company,"  says  Gould,  "  fly  round  for  a  short  distance, 
and  perch  on  the  neighbouring  trees  until  the  whole  are 
brought  down." 

COCKATRICE,  a  fabulous  monster,  the  existence 
which  was  firmly  believed  in  throughout  ancient  and 
mediaeval  times, — descriptions  and  figures  of  it  appearing 
in  the  natural  history  works  of  such  writers  as  Pliny  and 
Aldrovandus,  those  of  the  latter  published  so  late  as  the 
beginning  of  the  17th  century.  Produced  from  a  cock's 
egg  hatched  by  a  serpent,  it  was  believed  to  possess  the 
most  deadly  powers,  plants  withering  at  its  touch,  and  men 


and  animals  dying  poisoned  by  its  look.  It  stood  in  awe, 
lowever,  of  the  cock,  the  sound  of  whose  crowing  killed  it, 
and  consequently  travellers  were  wont  to  take  this  bird 
with  them  in  travelling  over  regions  supposed  to  abound  in 
cockatrices.  The  weasel  alone  among  mammals  was 
unaffected  by  the  glance  of  its  evil  eye,  and  attacked  it  at 
all  times  successfully ;  for  when  wounded  by  the  monster's 
teeth  it  found  a  ready  remedy  in  rue— the  only  plant  which 
;he  cockatrice  could  not  wither.  This  myth  reminds  one 
of  the  real  contests  between  the  weasel-like  mungoos  of 
India  and  the  deadly  cobra,  in  which  the  latter  is  generally 
cilled.  The  term  "  cockatrice "  is  employed  on  four 
occasions  in  the  English  translation  of  the  Bible,  in  all  of 
which  it  denotes  nothing  more  than  an  exceedingly 
venomous  reptile ;  it  seems  also  to  be  synonymous  with 
"  Basilisk,"  the  mythical  king  of  serpents. 

COCKBURN,  MRS  ALISON    (1712-1794),  justly  cele 
brated  for   having  written  one  of  the  most  exquisite    of 
Scottish  ballads,  the  "  Flowers  of  the  Forest,"  *  was  the 
daughter  of  a  border  laird,  Robert  Rutherfurd  of  Fairnalee, 
and  was  born  in  the  heart  of  the   Southern  Highlands  in 
the  autumn   of    1712.     Her   education    was  slight,     She 
spent  her  youth  in  rambling  and  riding  about  the  country 
side,  and  in  paying  visits  to  an  aged  minister  in  the  neigh 
bourhood,  of    whose    "  heavenly    affection "    for   her   she 
wrote  enthusiastically  in  after  years.     She  was  a  graceful 
dancer,  spent  two  winter  seasons  in  Edinburgh,  and  was 
one  of  the  Edinburgh  belles  of  her  time.     Different  causes 
have  been  assigned  for  the  composition  of  the  "  Flowers  of 
the  Forest."     Mr  Chambers  states  that  it  was  written  on 
the  occasion  of  a  great  commercial  disaster  which  ruined 
the  fortunes  of  some  Selkirkshire  lairds.     Her  later  bio 
graphers,    however,    think    it  more   probable  that  it   was 
written    on   the  departure    to  London  of  a  certain  John 
Aikman,  between  whom  and  Alison  there  appears  to  have 
been  an  early  attachment.      In   1731   Alison  Rutherfurd 
was  married  to  Patrick  Cockburn  of  Ormiston,  one  of  a 
family  of  stanch  Whigs  and  Presbyterians,  and  an  advo 
cate  at  the  Scottish  bar.     After  her  marriage  she  knew  all 
the  intellectual  and  aristocratic  celebrities  of  her  day.     In 
the  memorable  year  1745  she  vented  herWhiggism  in  a  squib 
upon  Prince  Charlie,  and  narrowly  escaped  being  taken  by 
the  Highland  guard  as  she  was  driving  through  Edinburgh 
in  the  family  coach  of  the  Keiths   of  Ravelston,  with  the 
parody  in  her  pocket.     Mrs  Cockburn  was  an  indefatigable 
letter-writer  and  a  composer  of  parodies,  squibs,  toasts,  and 
"character-sketches" — then  a  favourite  form  of  composi 
tion — like  other  wits  of  her  day  ;  but  the  "  Flowers  of  the 
Forest"  is  the  only  thing  she  wrote  that  possesses  great  lite 
rary  merit.     She  survived    her  husband   forty-one  years, 
living  to  the  age  of  eighty-two,  and  to  the  last  she  main 
tained  her  social  popularity.     At  her  house  on  Castle-hill, 
and  afterwards  in  Crighton  Street,  she  received  many  illus 
trious  friends,  among  whom  wyere  Mackenzie,  Robertson, 
Hume,   Home,   Monboddo,  the  Keiths   of  Ravelston,   the 
Balcarres  family,  and  Lady  Anne  Barnard,  the  authoress 
of  "  Auld  Robin  Gray."     She  was  in  Edinburgh  when  Dr 
Johnson  visited  that  city,  towed  thither  by  the  triumphant 
Boswell.     She   saw  and   commented  upon   Burns's    short, 
bright  Edinburgh  career.      As  a  Rutherfurd  she  was  a  con 
nection  of  Sir  Walter  Scott's  mother,  and  was  her  intimate 

1  There  are  two  versions  of  this  song, — the  one  by  Mrs  Cockburn, 
the  other  by  Miss  Jean  Elliot  of  Minto.  Both  were  founded  on  the 
remains  of  an  ancient  Border  ballad.  It  is  believed  by  the  descendants 
of  her  family  that  Mrs  Cockburn  composed  her  version — that  beginning 
"  I've  seen  the  smiling  of  fortune  beguiling" — before  her  marriage  in 
1/31.  Anyhow,  it  was  composed  many  years  before  Jean  Elliot's 
sister  verses,  beginning,  "  I've  heard  them  lilting  at  our  ewe-milking." 
These  were  written  in  1756,  and  printed  soon  afterwards.  Mrs 
Cockburn's  song,  however,  was  not  pxiblished  until  1765,  when  Jean 
Elliot's  was  already  popular. 


c  o  c  — c  o  c 


99 


friend.  Loikhart  quotes  an  interesting  letter  written  by 
Mrs  Cockbuni  in  1777,  describing  the  precocious  conduct 
of  little  Walter  Scott,  then  scarcely  six  years  old,  during  a 
visit  which  she  paid  to  his  mother.  It  was  Mrs  Cockburn 
also  who  wrote  the  character-sketch  of  Scott's  father,  which, 
when  it  was  given  as  a  toast,  was  so  true  as  to  be 
immediately  recognized.  Scott  himself  spent  pleasant 
evenings  at  Mrs  Cockburn's  house  when  she  was  a  very 
old  lady  and  he  a  young  advocate.  Mrs  Cockburn  died  in 
1794,  having  survived  her  only  child,  Captain  Adam 
Cockburn,  fourteen  years. 

COCKBURN,  SIE  GEORGE  (1772-1853),  admiral,  was 
of  Scottish  extraction,  and  was  born  in  London.  He 
entered  the  navy  in  his  ninth  year.  After  serving  on  the 
home  station,  and  in  the  East  Indies  and  the  Mediterranean, 
he  assisted,  as  captain  of  the  "  Minerve,"  at  the  blockade 
of  Leghorn  in  1796,  and  a  year  afterwards  he  fought 
in  the  battle  of  Cape  St  Vincent.  In  1809,  in  command 
of  the  naval  force  on  shore,  he  contributed  greatly  to 
the  reduction  of  Martinique,  and  signed  the  capitulation  by 
which  that  island  was  handed  over  to  the  English  ;  for  his 
services  on  this  occasion  he  received  the  thanks  of  the 
House  of  Commons.  After  service  in  the  Scheldt  and  at 
the  defence  of  Cadiz  he  was  sent  in  1811  on  an  unsuc 
cessful  mission  for  the  reconciliation  of  Spain  and  her 
American  colonies.  He  was  made  rear-admiral  in  1812, 
and  in  1813-14  he  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  American 
war,  especially  at  the  battle  of  Bladensburg  and  the  cap 
ture  of  Washington.  Early  in  1815  he  received  the  Order 
of  the  Bath,  and  in  the  autumn  of  the  same  year  he  carried 
out,  in  the  "Northumberland,"  the  sentence  of  deportation 
to  St  Helena  which  had  been  passed  upon  Bonaparte. 
In  1818  he  received  the  Grand  Cross  of  his  Order,  and  was 
made  a  Lord  of  the  Admiralty ;  and  the  same  jrear  he  was 
returned  to  parliament  for  Portsmouth.  He  was  promoted 
to  the  rank  of  vice-admiral  in  1819,  and  to  that  of  admiral 
in  1837  ;  he  became  senior  naval  lord  in  1841,  and  held 
office  in  that  capacity  till  1846.  From  1827  he  was  a  privy 
councillor.  In  1851  he  was  made  Admiral  of  the  Fleet,  and 
in  1852,  a  ysar  before  his  death,  his  brother's  baronetcy 
fell  to  him  by  inheritance.  See  O'Byrne,  Naval  Biography; 
James,  Naval  History  ;  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  1853. 

COCKBURN,  HENRY  DUNDAS  (1779-1854),  known  as 
Lord  Cockburn,  was  born  in  Edinburgh,  October  26,  1779. 
He  was  educated  at  the  High  School  and  at  the  university 
of  Edinburgh;  and  he  was  a  member  of  the  famous 
Speculative  Society,  to  which  Scott,  Brougham,  and  Jeffrey 
belonged.  He  entered  the  faculty  of  advocates  in  the  year 
1 800,  and  attached  himself,  not  to  the  party  of  his  relatives, 
who  could  have  afforded  him  most  valuable  patronage,  but 
to  the  Whig  or  Liberal  party,  and  that  at  a  time  when  it 
held  out  few  inducements  to  men  ambitious  of  success  in 
life.  On  the  accession  of  Earl  Grey's  ministry  in  1830,  he 
became  Solicitor-General  for  Scotland,  In  1834  he  was 
raised  to  the  bench,  and  on  taking  his  seat  as  a  judge  in 
the  Court  of  Session  he  adopted  the  title  of  Lord  Cockburn. 
Cockburu's  forensic  style  was  remarkable  for  its  clearness, 
pathos,  and  simplicity  ;  and  his  conversational  powers  were 
unrivalled  among  his  contemporaries.  The  extent  of  his 
literary  ability  only  became  known  after  he  had  passed  his 
seventieth  year,  on  the  publication  of  his  biography  of  Lord 
Jeffrey  in  1852,  and  from  the  Memorials  of  his  Time,  which 
appeared  posthumously  in  1856.  He  died  on  the  26th  of 
April  1854,  at  his  mansion  of  Bonaly,  near  Edinburgh. 

COCKER,  EDWARD,  the  reputed  author  of  the  famous 
Arithmetick,  the  popularity  of  which  has  added  a  phrase  to 
the  list  of  English  proverbialisms,  was  born  about  1632, 
and  died  between  1671  and  1675.  He  was  an  engraver, 
and  also  taught  writing  and  arithmetic.  He  is  credited 
with  the  authorship  and  execution  of  some  fourteen  sets  of 


copy  slips,  one  of  which,  Daniel's  Copy-Bool;  ingraven  by 
Edward  Cocker,  Philomath,  is  preserved  in  the  British 
Museum.  Pepys,  in  his  Diary,  makes  very  favourable 
mention  of  Cocker,  who  appears  to  have  displayed  great 
skill  in  his  art.  Cocker's  Arithmetick,  the  fifty-second 
edition  of  which  appeared  in  1748,  and  which  has  passed 
through  some  sixty  editions  in  all,  was  not  published  during 
the  lifetime  of  its  reputed  author,  the  first  impression  bear 
ing  date  of  1678.  The  late  Professor  De  Morgan  in  his 
Arithmetical  Books  (1847)  adduces  proofs,  which  may  be 
held  to  be  conclusive,  that  the  work  was  a  forgery  of  the 
editor  and  publisher,  John  Hawkins  ;  and  there  appears  to 
be  no  doubt  that  the  Decimal  Arithmetic  (1684),  and  the 
English  Dictionary  (second  edition,  1715),  issued  by 
Hawkins  under  Cocker's  name,  are  forgeries  also.  De 
Morgan  condemns  the  Arithmetick  as  a  diffuse  compilation 
from  older  and  better  works,  and  dates  "  a  very  great  de 
terioration  in  elementary  works  on  arithmetic "  from  the 
appearance  of  the  book,  which  owed  its  celebrity  far  more 
to  persistent  puffing  than  to  its  merits.  He  pertinently 
adds, — "  This  same  Edward  Cocker  must  have  had  great 
reputation,  since  a  bad  book  under  his  name  pushed  out 
the  good  ones." 

COCKEREL!,,  CHARLEsRoBERT  (]  788-1863),  architect, 
was  born  in  London.  After  a  severe  preliminary  training 
in  his  profession,  he  visited  and  studied  the  great  architec 
tural  remains  of  Greece,  Italy,  and  Asia  Minor.  At  ^Egina, 
Phigalia,  and  other  places  of  interest,  he  conducted  exca 
vations  on  a  large  scale,  enriching  the  British  Museum 
with  many  fine  fragments,  and  adding  several  valuable 
monographs  to  the .  literature  of  archaeology,  the  best  of 
which  is  said  to  be  that  on  the  mausoleum  of  Halicarnassus. 
Elected  in  1829  an  associate  of  the  Royal  Academy,  he 
became  a  member  in  1836,  and  in  1839  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  architecture,  Ids  lectures  in  which  capacity 
were  so  greatly  esteemed  as  to  be  attended  by  all  the 
students  of  the  several  arts  professed  within  the  school. 
On  the  death  in  1837  of  Soane,  the  distinguished  architect 
of  the  Bank  of  England,  Cockerell  was  appointed  Lis  suc 
cessor,  and  successfully  carried  out  the  alterations  that  have 
been  needed  in  that  building.  In  addition  to  branch 
banks  at  Liverpool  and  Manchester  he  erected  in  1840  the 
New  Library  at  Cambridge,  and  in  1845  the  university 
galleries  at  Oxford,  the  last  one  of  the  architect's  least 
happy  efforts,  as  well  as  the  Sun  and  the  Westminster  Fire 
Offices  in  Bartholomew  Lane  and  in  the  Strand  ;  and  Tite 
and  he  were  joint  architects  of  the  London  and  Westminster 
Bank.  On  the  death  of  Henry  Lonsdale  Elmes  in  1847, 
Cockerell  was  selected  to  finish  the  St  George's  Hall,  Liver 
pool,  a  task  which  he  executed  with  great  success.  Cocker- 
ell's  best  conceptions  were  those  inspired  by  classic  models  ; 
his  essays  in  the  Gothic — the  college  at  Lampeter,  for 
instance,  and  the  chapel  at  Harrow — are  by  no  means  so 
successful.  Among  his  numerous  publications,  however, 
may  be  mentioned  those  On  the  Iconography  of  Wells 
Cathedral,  and  On  the  Sculptures  of  Lincoln  and  Eoccter 
Cathedrals,  which  prove  his  thorough  knowledge  of  Gothic 
art  as  well  as  of  Greek.  His  Tribute  to  the  Memory  of  Sir 
Christopher  Wren  (1838)  is  a  collection  of  the  whole  of 
Wren's  works  drawn  to  the  same  scale. 

COCKEEMOUTH,  a  parliamentary  borough  and  market- 
town  of  England,  in  the  county  of  Cumberland,  25  miles  by 
rail  from  Carlisle,  at  the  confluence  of  the  Derwent  and  the 
Cocker,  both  of  which  are  crossed  by  bridges  in  the 
immediate  vicinity.  The  town  is  irregularly  built,  but  is 
clean  and  well  paved.  It  has  remains  of  au  old  castle,  built 
soon  after  the  Conquest,  a  town-hall,  a  free  grammar  school, 
and  a  house  of  correction  ;  and  its  manufactures  include 
linen  and  woollen  goods,  thread,  hosiery,  hats,  and  papor. 
In  the  neighbourhood  are  extensive  coal  mines,  which  give 


100 


C  O 


employment  to  nearly  2000  workmen.  In  1871  the  town-  | 
ship  had  a  population  of  5115;  the  borough  (which 
returns  one  member  to  parliament),  with  an  area  of  8467 
acres,  had  6936.  Of  the  early  occupation  of  the  site  of 
Cockermouth  conclusive  evidence  is  atl'orded  by  the  relics 
discovered  from  time  to  time ;  directly  north  of  the  town  is 
a  tumulus  called  Toot's  Hill ;  and  at  Pap  Castle,  about  half 
a  mile  to  the  north-west,  are  the  remains  of  a  Roman  camp. 
The  barony  or  honour  of  Cockermouth  was  held  shortly 
after  the  Conquest  by  Waltheof,  lord  of  Allerdale,  and  has 
since  passed  through  a  long  series  of  possessors,  including 
the  Umfravilles,  Multens,  Lucies,  Percies,  and  Nevilles, 
down  to  the  present  Lord  Leconfield.  The  town  was 
captured  in  1387  by  the  Scotch  under  Douglas;  and  in  1648 
the  castle,  garrisoned  for  king  Charles,  was  taken  and 
dismantled  by  the  Parliamentarians.  Wordsworth  the  poet 
was  born  at  Cocksrmouth  in  1770  ;  and  Tickell,  the  friend 
of  Addison,  at  the  village  of  Bridekirk,  about  two  miles  to 
the  north. 

COCKLE  (Cardium},  a  genus  of  Acephalous  Mollusks 
belonging  to  the  family  Cardiadce,  and  comprising  about 
200  species,  nearly  a  third  of  which  are  said  to  occur  in 
the  Indian  Ocean,  while  only  a  few,  but  these  exceedingly 
abundant  in  individuals,  and  widely  distributed,  are  found 
in  northern  and  temperate  latitudes.  The  shells  of  cockles 
are  highly  convex,  and  almost  invariably  show  a  ridge-and- 
furrow  sculpture,  the  ridges  or  ribs  being  often  spiny, 
and  the  valves  locking  closely  together.  The  animal 
inhabiting  the  shell  is  provided  with  a  large,  fleshy,  and 
highly  elastic  foot,  by  means  of  which  it  can  rapidly  bury 
itself  in  the  soft  muddy  sand  which  it  frequents,  reappear 
ing  above  the  surface  with  equal  facility.  In  performing 
those  leaps,  for  which  it  is  remarkable,  "  the  long  taper 
foot,"  says  Gosse,  "  is  thrust  to  its  utmost,  and  feels  about 
for  some  resisting  surface,  a  stone  for  instance,  which  it 
no  sooner  feels  than  the  hooked  point  is  pressed  stiffly 
against  it,  the  whole  foot,  by  muscular  contraction,  is  made 
suddenly  rigid,  and  the  entire  creature — mantle,  siphons, 
foot,  shell,  and  all — is  jerked  away  in  an  uncouth  manner." 
Many  of  the  species  are  of  considerable  value  as  articles  of 
food,  especially  the  Common  Cockle  (Cardium  edule), 
gregarious  everywhere  in  the  sandy  bays  and  estuaries 
around  the  British  coast,  from  low-water  mark  to  a  few 
fathoms  deep,  and  extending  from  Iceland  to  the  Canaries, 
and  as  far  east  as  the  Caspian  and  Aral  Seas,  where  it 
occurs  in  one  of  its  varieties.  The  shell  of  the  cockle  is 
liable  to  considerable  variation,  getting  thinner  and  more 
elongated  posteriorly  in  sheltered  situations  and  in  muddy 
ground,  more  convex  and  thicker  when  exposed  to  rougher 
conditions.  They  vary  also  in  size  from  1  inch  to  2J 
inches 'in  breadth.  They  occur  in  great  abundance'  on 
several  parts  of  the  British  coast,  and  in  many  places 
cockle-gathering  gives  employment  to  large  numbers  of 
people  ;  thus  at  Penclawdd  in  Glamorganshire,  the  women 
and  children  are  regularly  employed  in  gathering  and 
preparing  cockles,  which  they  afterwards  dispose  of  in  the 
Swansea  market.  At  Starcross  they  have  "  cockle-gardens," 
where  those  mollusks  are  reared,  and  these  are  said  to 
possess  a  better  flavour  than  the  ordinary  cockle.  Some 
species  or  other  of  Cardium  is  used  for  food  by  the  maritime 
populations  of  almost  every  country  in  the  world,  and  the 
dietetic  value  of  these  mollusks  appears  to  have  been 
equally  appreciated  in  prehistoric  times,  as  the  shell-mounds 
or  kjokkenmoddings  of  many  countries  abundantly  testify. 
As  cockle  shells  contain  about  90  per  cent,  of  carbonate  of 
lime,  they  are  calcined  and  used  instead  of  common  lime 
where  the  latter  cannot  readily  be  obtained. 

COCKROACH  (Blattidce),  a  family  of  Orthopterous 
Insects,  distinguished  by  their  flattened  bodies,  long 
thread-like  antenna),  and  shining  leathery  integuments. 


Cockroaches  are  nocturnal  creatures,  secreting  themselves 
in  chinks  and  crevices  about  houses,  issuing  from  their 
retreats  when  the  lights  are  extinguished,  and  moving 
about  with  extraordinary  rapidity  in  search  of  food. 
They  are  voracious  and  omnivorous,  devouring,  or  at  least 
damaging,  whatever  comes  in  their  way,  for  all  tbe  species 
emit  a  disagreeable  odour,  which  they  communicate  to 
whatever  article  of  food  or  clothing  they  may  touch.  The 
Common  Cockroach  (Blatta  oritntalis)  is  not  indigenous  to 
Europe,  but  is  believed  to  have  been  introduced  from  the 
Levant  in  the  cargoes  of  trading  vessels.  The  wings  in 
the  male  are  shorter  than  the  body ;  in  the  female  they  are 
rudimentary.  The  eggs,  which  are  16  in  number,  are 
deposited  in  a  leathery  capsule  fixed  by  a  gum-like  sub 
stance  to  the  abdomen  of  the  female,  and  thus  carried 
about  till  the  young  are  ready  to  escape,  when  the  capsule 
becomes  softened  by  the  emission  of  a  fluid  substance. 
The  larvae  are  perfectly  white  at  first,  although  in  other 
respects  not  unlike  their  parents,  but  they  are  not  mature 
insects  until  after  the  sixth  casting  of  the  skin.  The 
American  Cockroach  (Blatta  arnericana)  is  larger  than  the 
former,  and  is  not  uncommon  in  European  seaports  trading 
with  America,  being  conve}red  in  cargoes  of  grain  and  other 
food  produce.  The  largest  known  species  is  the  Drummer 
of  the  West  Indies  (Blatta  gigantea],  so  called  from  the 
tapping  noise  it  makes  on  wood,  sufficient,  when  joined  in 
by  several  individuals,  as  usually  happens,  to  break  the 
slumbers  of  a  household.  It  is  about  2  inches  long,  with 
wings  3  inches  in  expanse,  and  forms  one  of  the  most 
noisome  and  injurious  of  insect  pests.  The  best  mode  of 
destroying  cockroaches  is,  when  the  fire  and  lights  are 
extinguished  at  night,  to  lay  some  treacle  on  a  piece  of 
wood  afloat  on  a  broad  basin  of  water.  This  proves  a 
temptation  to  the  vermin  too  great  to  be  resisted.  The  chinks 
and  holes  from  which  they  issue  should  also  be  filled  up  with 
unslaked  lime,  and  some  may  be  scattered  on  the  ground. 

COCLES,  HORATIUS,  a  Roman  hero,  who,  with  Spurius 
Lartius  and  Titus  Herminius  as  sole  companions,  defended 
the  Sublician  bridge  against  Lars  Porsena  and  the  whole 
army  of  the  Etruscans.  While  the  three  heroes  kept  back 
the  enemy  the  Romans  cut  down  the  bridge  behind. 
When  it  was  almost  ready  to  fall  his  comrades  retreated, 
but  Horatius  waited  till  the  work  was  complete,  and  Rome 
was  saved.  Then,  despite  the  arrows  of  the  enemy,  he 
swam  in  safety  to  the  opposite  shore.  A  statue  was 
erected  in  his  honour,  and  he  received  as  much  land  as  he 
could  plough  round  in  a  single  day.  According  to  another 
story,  Horatius  wras  alone  in  his  heroism,  and  gave  his  life 
for  his  country.  The  former  version  is  adopted  by  Lord 
Macaulay  in  his  Lays  of  Ancient  Home. 

COCOA,  or  more  properly  CACAO,  is  a  valuable  dietary 
substance  yielded  by  the  seeds  of  several  small  trees 
belonging  to  the  genus  Theobroma,  of  the  natural  order 
Sterculiacew.  The  w:hole  genus,  which  comprises  nine  or 
ten  species,  belongs  to  the  tropical  parts  of  the  American 
continent;  and  although  the  cocoa  of  commerce  is  probably 
the  produce  of  more  than  one  species,  by  far  the  greatest 
and  most  valuable  portion  is  obtained  from  the  TJnobroma 
Cacao  of  Linnaeus.  The  generic  name  is  derived  from  $£o's 
(god)  and  j3pw/j.a  (food),  and  was  bestowed  by  Linnaeus  as 
an  indication  of  the  high  appreciation  in  which  he  held  the 
beverage  prepared  from  the  seeds,  which  he  considered  to 
be  a  food  fit  for  the  gods. 

The  common  cocoa  tree  is  of  low  stature,  seldom  exceed 
ing  16  or  18  feet  in  height,  but  it  is  taller  in  its  native 
forests  than  it  is  in  cultivated  plantations.  The  leaves  are 
large,  smooth,  and  glossy,  elliptic-oblong  and  acuminate  in 
form,  growing  principally  at  the  ends  of  branches,  but 
sometimes  springing  directly  from  the  main  trunk.  The 
flowers  are  small,  and  occur  in  numerous  clusters  on  the 


COCO  A 


101 


main  branches  and  the  trunk,  a  very  marked  peculiarity 
which  gives  the  matured  fruit  the  appearance  of  being 
artificially  attached  to  the  tree.  Generally  only  a  single 
fruit  is  matured  from  each  cluster  of  flowers.  When  ripe 
the  fruit  or  "  pod  "  is  elliptical-ovoid  in  form,  from  7  to  10 
inches  in  length,  and  from  3  to  44-  inches  in  diameter.  It 
has  a  hard,  thick,  leathery  rind  of  a  rich  purplish  yellow 
colour,  externally  rough  and  marked  with  ten  very  distinct 
longitudinal  ribs  or  elevations.  The  interior  of  the  fruit 
has  five  cells,  in  each  of  which  is  a  row  of  from  5  to  10 
seeds  embedded  in  a  soft  delicately  pink  acid  pulp.  Each 
fruit  thus  contains  from  20  to  40  or  more  seeds,  which 
constitute  ths  raw  cocoa  or  "cocoa  beans"  of  commerce. 


Branch  of  Cocoa  Tree,  with  Fruit  in  section. 

The  tree  appears  to  have  been  originally  a  native  of  Mexico  ; 
but  it  can  be  cultivated  in  suitable  situations  within  the 
25th  parallels  of  latitude.  It,  however,  nourishes  best 
within  the  15th  parallels,  at  elevations  ranging  from  near 
the  sea-level  up  to  about  2000  feet  in  height.  It  is  now 
cultivated  in  Mexico,  Honduras,  Guatenfala,  Nicaragua, 
Brazil,  Peru,  Ecuador,  New  Granada,  Venezuela,  Guiana, 
and  most  of  the  West  Indian  Islands.  Its  cultivation  has 
also  been  attempted  in  other  tropical  regions  of  the  globe  ; 
but  the  industry  has  hitherto  not  been  developed  on  any 
considerable  scale  away  from  the  American  continent  and 
the  West  Indian  Islands. 

For  the  successful  cultivation  of  the  cocoa  tree  a  rich 
well-watered  soil  and  a  humid  atmosphere,  with  freedom 
from  cold  winds  and  protection  from  violent  storms,  are 
necessary.  As  the  young  plants  are  extremely  delicate  and 
tender,  they  are  reared  in  nursery  grounds  till  they  attain 
a  height  of  from  15  to  18  inches,  and  after  planting  out 
they  still  require  protection  from  the  wind  and  sun,  which 
is  provided  by  growing  "  provisions  "  (food-yielding  plants), 
and  the  coral-beau  tree,  Erythrina  Corallodendron,  among 
the  young  trees.  The  trees  begin  to  bear  in  the  fourth  or 
fifth  year,  but  they  do  not  attain  their  full  productive 
vigour  till  about  their  eighth  year,  and  they  ought  to  con 
tinue  prolific  for  from  thirty  to  forty  years  thereafter.  As 
the  trees  carry  buds,  flowers,  and  fruit  in  all  stages  at  the 
same  time,  ripe  pods  may  be  collected  at  any  period  of  the 
year,  but  there  are  periodical  harvests  dependent  on  the 
suitability  of  the  weather  for  collecting  the  fruit  and  curing 
the  seeds.  In  Venezuela,  where  the  famous  Caracas  cocoa 
is  grown,  the  gathering  takes  place  in  June  and  December, 


these  being  the  crop  cf  St  John  and  the  Christmas  crop 
respectively.  In  gathering  the  workman  is  careful  to  cut 
down  only  fully  ripened  pods,  which  he  adroitly  accom 
plishes  with  a  long  pole  armed  with  two  prongs  or  a  knife 
at  its  extremity.  The  pods  are  left  in  heaps  on  the  ground 
for  about  twenty-four  hours ;  they  are  then  cut  open,  and  the 
seeds  are  taken  out,  and  carried  in  baskets  to  the  place 
where  they  undergo  the  operation  of  sweating  or  curing. 
There  the  acid  juice  which  accompanies  the  seeds  is  first 
drained  off,  after  which  they  are  placed  in  a  sweating  box, 
in. which  they  are  enclosed  and  allowed  to  ferment  for  some 
time,  great  care  being  taken  to  keep  the  temperature  from 
rising  too  high.  The  fermenting  process  is,  in  some  cases, 
effected  by  throwing  the  seeds  into  holes  or  trenches  in  the 
grouna,  and  covering  them  with  earth  or  clay.  The  seeds 
in  this  process,  which  is  called  claying,  are  occasionally 
stirred  to  keep  the  fermentation  from  proceeding  too 
violently.  The  .sweating  is  a  process  which  requires  the 
very  greatest  attention  and  experience,  as  on  it  to  .a  great 
extent  depend  the  flavour  of  the  seeds  and  their  fitness 
for  preservation.  The  operation  varies  in  duration  according 
to  the  state  of  the  weather,  but  a  period  of  about  two  days 
yields  the  best  results.  Thereafter  the  seeds  are  exposed 
to  the  sun  for  drying,  and  those  of  a  fine  quality  should 
then  assume  a  warm  reddish  tint,  which  characterizes 
beans  of  a  superior  quality. 

The  cocoa  tree  was  cultivated,  and  its  produce  held  in 
the  highest  esteem,  in  Mexico  and  Peru  previous  to  the 
discovery  of  the  American  continent  by  Columbus. 
Frescott,  in  his  Conquest  of  Peru,  says  of  the  followers 
of  Fizarro,  that  as  they  sailed  along  the  Pacific  coast 
they  saw  "  hill-sides  covered  with  the  yellow  maize 
and  the  potato,  or  checkered  in  the  lower  levels  with 
blooming  plantations  of  cacao."  The  same  writer,  referring 
to  the  use  of  cocoa  in  Mexico,  says  of  the  Emperor 
Montezuma  that  "  he  was  exceedingly  fond  of  it,  to  judga 
from  the  quantity,  no  less  than  50  jars  or  pitchers  being 
prepared  for  his  own  daily  consumption  ;  2000  more  were 
allowed  for  that  of  his  household."  "Traffic,"  he  adds 
again,  "  was  carried  on  partly  by  barter  and  partly  by 
means  of  a  regulated  currency  of  different  values.  This 
consisted  of  transparent  quills  of  gold  dust,  of  bits  of  tin 
cut  in  the  form  of  a  T,  and  bags  of  cacao  containing  a 
specified  number  of  grains." 

A  knowledge  of  this  valuable  article  of  food  was  first 
1  rough t  to  Europe  by  Columbus,  but  some  time  elapsed  ere 
ils  virtues  were  appreciated  in  the  Old  World.  Spain  was 
the  first  nation  in  which  its  use  became  common ;  and  to 
this  day  cocoa  is  much  more  extensively  consumed  among 
the  Spaniards  than  by  any  other  European  community. 
The  earliest  intimation  of  the  introduction  of  cocoa  into 
England  is  found  in  an  announcement  in  the  Public 
Advertiser  of  Tuesday,  16th  June  1657,  notifying  that 
"  In  Bishopgate  Street,  in  Queen's  Head  Alley,  at  a 
Frenchman's  house,  is  an  excellent  West  India  drink,  called 
chocolate,  to  be  sold,  where  you  may  have  it  ready  at  any 
time,  and  also  unmade,  at  reasonable  rates."  About  the 
beginning  of  the  18th  century  chocolate  had  become  an 
exceedingly  fashionable  beverage,  and  the  cocoa  tree  was  a 
favourite  sign  and  name  for  places  of  public  refreshment. 
Cocoa  and  chocolate  are  frequently  mentioned-  in  contem 
porary  literature,  and  among  others  Pope,  in  his  Rape  of  tlu 
Lock,  alludes  to  it ;  the  negligent  spirit,  fixed  liko  Ixion- 

"In  fumes  of  burning  chocolate  shall  glow, 
And  tremble  at  the  sea  that  froths  below." 

The  high  price  at  which  it  was  retailed  kept  chocolate 
among  the  luxuries  of  the  wealthy ;  and  coffee,  which  had 
been  introduced  two  or  three  years  before  chocolate,  and 
tea,  which  came  a  year  later,  both  soon  far  out-stripped  their 
rival  beverage  in  public  estimation. 


102 


COCOA 


Haw  cocoas  are  distinguished  iu  commerce  by  the  name 
of  the  localities  of  their  growth  ;  and  it  is  foun'd  that  the 
produce  of  particular  regions  maintains,  pretty  constantly, 
a  distinctive  character  and  appearance.  The  most  esteemed 
of  all  varieties  is  that  obtained  from  Venezuela,  known  in 
commerce  as  Caracas  cocoa,  next  to  which  in  value  stand 
the  red  "  nuts "  of  Trinidad.  The  finest  qualities  are  in 
form  and  size  not  unlike  thick  round  almonds  ;  they  have  a 
husk  of  a  clear  brick-red  colour,  and  the  cotyledons,  which 
are  of  a  deep  chocolate  brown,  have  a  fine  membrane 
permeating  their  entire  substance,  and  dividing  them  into 
numerous  irregular  segments,  into  which  the  seeds  are  easily 
broken  down.  The  kernels  are  astringent  in  taste,  with  a 
mild,  not  disagreeable  ilavour.  In  chemical  composition, 
as  well  as  in  physical  characteristics,  they  vary  within 
certain  limits ;  but  the  analysis  by  Payen  may  be  taken  as 
representing  their  average  constitution.  It  is  as  follows  : — 

Fat  (Cocoa  Butter)    52-00 

Nitrogenous  compounds  20 '00 

Starch lO'OO 

Cellulose 2'00 

Tlieobromiue 2  -00 

Saline  substances  4'00 

Water 10 '00 

Cocoa  red    . .  )  , 

Essential  oil  ..                                          ...  trace3 


100-00 

The  constituent  upon  which  the  peculiar  value  of  cocoa 
depends  is  the  theobromine,  an  alkaloid  substance  which 
till  recently  was  supposed  to  be  distinct  from,  though 
closely  allied  to,  the  theino  of  tea  and  coffee.  It  is  now, 
however,  known  that  the  alkaloid  in  these  and  in  two  or 
three  ether  substances  similarly  used  is  identical,  and  their 
physiological  value  is  consequently  the  same.  The  fat  or 
cocoa  butter  is  a  firm,  solid,  white  substance  at  ordinary 
temperatures,  having  an  agreeable  taste  and  odour,  and 
very  remarkable  for  its  freedom  from  any  tendency  to 
become  rancid.  It  consists  essentially  of  stearin  with  a 
little  olein,  and  is  used  in  surgical  practice,  and  in  France 
as  a  material  for  soap  and  pomade  manufacture.  Tho 
starch  grains  present  in  raw  cocoa  are  small  in  size,  and  of 
a  character  so  peculiar  that  there  is  no  difficulty  in  distin 
guishing  them  under  the  microscope  from  any  other  starch 
granules.  As  an  article  of  food  cocoa  differs  essentially 
from  both  tea  and  coffee.  While  only  an  infusion  of  these 
substances  is  used,  leaving  a  large  proportion  of  their  total 
weight  unconsumed,  the  entire  substance  of  the  cocoa  seeds  is 
prepared  as  an  emulsion  for  drinking,  and  the  whole  is  thus 
utilized  within  the  system.  While  the  contents  of  a  cup 
of  tea  or  coffee  can  thus  only  be  regarded  as  stimulant  in 
its  effect,  and  almost  entirely  destitute  of  essential  nutritive 
properties,  a  cup  of  prepared  cocoa  is  really  a  most  nourish 
ing  article  of  diet,  as,  in  addition  to  the  value  of  the 
theobromine  it  contains,  it  introduces  into  the  system  no 
inconsiderable  proportion  of  valuable  nitrogenous  and 
oleaginous  elements. 

The  manufacturing  processes  through  which  raw  cocoa 
passes  have  for  their  object  the  development  of  the  aroma 
peculiar  to  the  substance,  and  its  preparation  in  a  soluble 
palatable  and  digestible  form.  The  first  operation  consists 
in  roasting  the  seeds,  whereby  the  empyreumatic  aromatic 
substance  is  formed,  and  the  starch  particles  are  changed 
into  dextrin.  The  roasting  is  accomplished  in  large 
revolving  cylinders,  after  the  completion  of  which  the 
roasted  seeds  are  taken  to  the  crushing  and  winnowing 
machine.  Here  the  seeds  are  reduced  to  the  form  of  nibs° 
which  are  separated  from  the  shells  or  husks  by  the  action 
of  a  powerful  f.iu  blast.  The  nibs  are  next  subjected  to  a 
process  of  winnowing  in  small  quantities  in  hand  sieves, 
by  which  the  hard  cocoa  "germs"  are  sifted  out,  and 


mouldy  or  discoloured  fragments  are  at  the  same  time 
removed  by  hand.  Nibs  so  prepared  constitute  the 
simplest  and  purest  preparation  in  which  manufactured 
cocoa  is  sold  ;  but  they  require  prolonged  boiling  to  effect 
their  complete  disintegration.  The  nibs  when  ground  to 
a  fine  meal  can  be  cooked  with  much  greater  facility. 
Another  form  in  which  the  pure  seeds  are  prepared  is  in 
•flaked  cocoa,  which  consists  of  the  nibs  ground  up  into  u 
rather  coarse  uniform  paste.  The  grinding  is  effected  in 
cylinder  machines,  having  an  outer  fixed  casing  within 
which  a  drum  revolves.  The  nibs  are  fed  in  by  a  hopper 
on  the  upper  part  of  the  apparatus,  and  are  carried  round 
its  circumference  by  the  revolution  of  the  drum,  and 
delivered  as  a  thin  uniform  pasty  mass,  the  heat  developed 
by  the  friction  within  the  cylinder  being  sufficient  to 
liquefy  the  oil,  which  again  sets  on  cooling  of  the  paste. 
Of  late  years  a  preparation  culled  extract  of  cocoa  has  como 
into  extensive  use.  It  is  made  by  removing  a  certain 
proportion  of  the  fat  from  the  seeds,  whereby  the  remaining 
substance  can  be  ground  to  an  impalpable  powder,  which 
yields  a  beverage  much  more  palatable  and  agreeable  to 
many  stomachs  then  either  entire  nibs  or  the  so-called 
soluble  cocoas.  The  removal  of  the  fat  is  effected  Ly 
placing  nibs,  after  they  have  been  reduced  by  grinding  to 
a  fine  yniooth  paste,  in  bags,  and  subjecting  them  to  power 
ful  pressure  in  heated  presses.  The  fat  exudes  slowly  arid 
quickly  solidifies,  and  a  solid  compact  cake  is  left  in  the 
press,  which  only  requires  to  be  broken  up  and  finely 
powdered  for  use. 

Most  other  preparations,  whether  sold  as  cocoa  or  cho 
colate,  are  mixtures  of  various  substances  with  ground 
nibs,  the  object  of  the  mixture  being  to  mask  the  presence 
of  the  cocoa  fat,  and  to  render  the  whole  readily  miscible 
with  boiling  water.  The  ordinary  distinction  between  thet>e 
soluble  cocoas  and  chocolate  is  that  the  cocoa  is  usually 
sold  in  the  form  of  a  powder,  the  chocolate  being  made  up 
in  cakes,  which  require  to  be  scraped  down,  boiled,  and 
"  milled  "  or  frothed  before  being  ready  for  drinking.  la 
making  the  soluble  cocoa,  which  is  sold  under  such  names 
as  homoeopathic,  Iceland  moss,  pearl  cocoa,  &c.,  the  nibs  aro 
first  ground  up  in  a  heated  stone  mill,  and,  while  in  a  soft 
pasty  condition,  thoroughly  mixed  with  certain  proportions 
of  sugar  and  arrowroot,  or  other  and  inferior  starches.  Tho 
compound  is  afterwards  ground  to  fine  powder  and  sold 
under  various  names  and  at  different  prices,  according  to 
the  quality  of  the  cocoa  and  the  nature  and  proportion  of 
the  ingredients  which  are  combined  with  it.  The  finer 
chocolates  are  combinations  of  cocoa  with  sugar  aloue, 
flavoured  with  some  aromatic  substanqg,  generally  vanilla; 
but  into  the  composition  of  cheap  qualities  starchy 
substances  enter,  The  nibs  for  chocolate  are  brought  to  a 
fine  pasty  state  in  a  heated  mill,  and  the  sugar  or  sugar 
and  starch  with  vanilla  are  then  added  and  thoroughly  in 
corporated  in  the  mill.  The  paste  is  next  passed  several 
times  between  heavy  horizontal  rollers  to  produce  a 
thoroughly  homogeneous  mixture.  It  is  lastly  cast  into 
moulds  while  still  in  a  thin  pasty  state,  and  after  cooling  it 
forms  hard  solid  cakes,  and  is  ready  to  wrap  up  for  the 
market.  Chocolates  for  eating  are  prepared  with  largs 
proportions  of  sugar  and  various  flavouring  substances,  and 
the  elegant  preparations  of  these  and  of  chocolate  creams 
by  Menier  of  Paris  and  Fry  and  Sons  of  Bristol  undoubtedly 
form  most  wholesome,  palatable,  and  nutritious  confections. 
To  the  last-named  firm  we  have  to  express  our  obligation 
for  information  courteously  placed  at  our  disposal. 

Preparations  of  cocoa  are  still  much  more  largely  con 
sumed  in  Spain  than  in  any  other  European  country.  In 
Great  Britain  the  consumption,  [tartly  stimulated  by  the 
improvements  effected  in  its  manufacture,  is  steadily  increas 
ing,  although  as  compared  with  the  consumption  of  tea  and 


C  O  C  — C  0  D 


103 


coffee  its  employment  is  yet  on  a  very  restricted  scale.  The 
following  figures  exhibit  the  ratio  of  increase  of  cocoa 
entered  for  home  consumption  since  1820  : — 


1820          267,321  ft 
1830          425,382 

1840  2,645,470 

1850  3,080,641 


1860 
1870 
1874 

1875 


4,583,124ft 
6,943,102 
8,863,646 
9,973,926 


In  addition  to  these  quantities  of  raw  cocoa,  a  considerable 
quantity  of  prepared  cocoa  and  chocolate  is  now  imported 
from  France.  In  1820  the  imports  of  manufactured  cocoa 
only  amounted  to  14  lb,  but  in  1874  91,466  Bb  were  im 
ported.  An  import  duty  of  Id.  per  lb  on  raw  and  2d.  per 
lb  on  manufactured  cocoa  is  levied  in  Great  Britain. 

COCOA-NUT  PALM  (Cocos  nudfera),  sometimes,  and 
perhaps  more  correctly,  called  the  coco-nut  palm,  is  a  very 
beautiful  and  lofty  palm-tree,  growing  to  a  height  of  from  60 
to  100  feet,  with  a  cylindrical  stem  which  atta-ns  a  thickness 
of  2  feet.  The  tree  terminates  in  a  crown  of  graceful  waving 
pinnate  leaves.  The  leaf,  which  may  attain  to  20  feet  in 
length,  consists  of  a  strong  mid-rib,  whence  numerous  long 
acute  leaflets  spring,  giving  the  whole  the  appearance  of  a 
gigantic  feather.  The  flowers  are  arranged  in  branching 
spikes  5  or  6  feet  long,  enclosed  in  a  tough  spathe,  and  the 
fruits  mature  in  bunches  of  from  10  to  20.  The  fruits 
when  mature  are  oblong,  and  triangular  in  cross  section, 
measuring  from  12  to  18  inches  in  length  and  6  to  8  inches 
in  diameter.  The  fruit  consists  of  a  thick  external  husk  or 
rind  of  a  fibrous  structure,  within  which  is  the  ordinary 
cocoa-nut  of  commerce.  The  nut  has  a  very  hard,  woody 
shell,  enclosing  the  nucleus  or  kernel,  within  which  again 
is  a  milky  liquid  called  cocoa-nut  milk.  The  palm  is  so 
widely  disseminated  throughout  tropical  countries  that  it  is 
impossible  to  distinguish  its  original  habitat.  It  flourishes 
with  equal  vigour  on  the  coast  of  the  East  Indies,  through 
out  the  tropical  islands  of  the  Pacific,  and  in  the  West 
Indies  and  tropical  America.  It,  however,  attains  its 
greatest  luxuriance  and  vigour  on  the  sea  shore,  and  it  is 
most  at  home  in  the  innumerable  small  islands  of  the 
Pacific  seas,  of  the  vegetation  of  which  it  is  eminently  char 
acteristic.  Its  wide  distribution,  and  its  existence  in  even 
the  smallest  coral  islets  of  the  Pacific,  have  been  favoured 
by  the  peculiar  triangular  shape  of  the  fruit,  which  drop 
ping  into  the  sea  from  trees  growing  on  any  shores  would 
be  carried  by  tides  and  currents  to  be  cast  up  and  to 
vegetate  on  distant  coasts. 

The  cocoa-nut  palm,  being  the  most  useful  of  its  entire 
tribe  to  the  natives  of  the  regions  in  which  it  grows,  and 
furnishing  many  valuable  and  important  commercial  pro 
ducts,  is  the  subject  of  careful  cultivation  in  many  countries. 
On  the  Malabar  and  Coromandel  coasts  of  India  the  trees 
grow  in  vast  numbers  ;  and  in  Ceylon,  which  is  peculiarly 
well  suited  for  their  cultivation,  it  is  estimated  that  twenty 
millions  of  the  trees  flourish.  The  wealth  of  a  native  in 
Ceylon  is  estimated  by  his  property  in  cocoa-nut  trees,  and 
Sir  J.  Emerson  Tennent  notes  a  law  case  in  a  district  court 
in  which  the  subject  in  dispute  was  a  claim  to  the  2520th 
part  of  ten  of  the  precious  palms.  The  cultivation  of  cocoa- 
nut  plantations  in  Ceylon  is  thus  described  by  Sir  J.  E. 
Tenuent.  "  The  first  operation  in  cocoa-nut  planting  is  the 
formation  of  a  uurssry,  for  which  purpose  the  ripe  nuts  are 
placed  in  squares  containing  about  400  each ;  these  are 
covered  an  inch  deep  with  sand  and  sea-weed  or  soft  mud 
from  the  beach,  and  watered  daily  till  they  germinate. 
The  nuts  put  down  in  April  are  sufficiently  grown  to  be 
planted  out  before  the  rains  of  September,  and  they  are 
then  set  out  in  holes  3  feet  deep  and  20  to  30  feet  apart. 
.  .  Before  putting  in  the  young  plant  it  is  customary 
to  bed  the  roots  with  soft  mud  and  sea-weed,  and  for  the 
first  {.wo  years  they  must  be  watered  and  protected  from 
tho  glare  of  the  suu  under  shades  made  of  the  plaited 


fronds  of  the  cocoa-nut  palm,  or  the  fan-like  leaves  of  the 
palmyra."  The  palm  begins  to  bear  fruit  from  the  fifth 
to  the  seventh  year  of  its  age,  each  stock  carrying  from 
5  to  30  nuts,  the  tree  maturing  on  an  average  60  nuts 
yearly. 

The  uses  to  which  the  various  parts  of  the  cocoa-nut  palm 
are  applied  in  the  regions  of  their  growth  are  almost 
endless,  The  nuts  supply  no  inconsiderable  proportion  of 
the  food  of  the  natives,  and  the  milky  juice  enclosed  within 
them  forms  a  pleasant  and  refreshing  drink.  The  juico 
drawn  from  the  unexpanded  flower  spathes  forms  "  toddy,  " 
which  may  be  boiled  down  to  sugar,  or  it  is  allowed  to 
ferment  and  is  distilled,  when  it  yields  a  spirit  which,  in 
common  with  a  like  product  from  other  sources,  is  known 
as  "arrack."  The  trunk  yields  a  timber  (known  in 
European  commerce  as  porcupine  wood)  which  is  used  for 
building,  furniture,  firewood,  &c.;  the  leaves  are  plaited 
into  cajan  fans  and  baskets,  and  used  for  thatching  the 
roofs  of  houses ;  the  shell  of  the  nut  is  employed  as  a  water 
vessel ;  and  the  external  husk  or  rind  yields  the  coir  fibre, 
with  which  are  fabricated  ropes,  cordage,  brushes,  &c.  The 
cocoa-nut  palm  also  furnishes  very  important  articles  of 
external  commerce,  of  which  the  principal  is  cocoa-nut  oil. 
It  is  obtained  by  pressure  or  boiling  from  the  kernels, 
which  are  first  broken  up  into  small  pieces  and  dried  in 
the  sun,  when  they  are  known  as  copperah  or  copra.  It  is 
estimated  that  1000  full-sized  nuts  will  yield  upwards  of 
500  lb  of  copra,  from  which  25  gallons  of  oil  should  be 
obtained.  The  oil  is  a  white  solid  substance  at  ordinary 
temperatures,  with  a  peculiar,  rather  disagreeable  odour, 
from  the  volatile  fatty  acids  it  contains,  and  a  mild  taste. 
Under  pressure  it  separates  into  a  liquid  and  a  solid  portion, 
the  latter,  cocoa-stearin,  being  extensively  used  in  the 
manufacture  of  candles.  Cocoa-nut  oil  is  also  used  in  the 
manufacture  of  marine  soap,  which  forms  a  lather  with  sea 
water.  Coir  is  also  an  important  article  of  commerce, 
being  in  largo  demand  for  the  manufacture  of  coarse 
brushes,  door  mats,  and  woven  coir  matting  for  lobbies  and 
passages.  A  considerable  quantity  of  fresh  nuts  is 
imported,  chiefly  from  the  West  Indies,  and  sold  as  a  dainty 
among  the  poorer  classes,  or  used  in  the  preparation  of  a 
kind  of  confection. 

COCYTUS,  a  tributary  of  the  Acheron,  a  river  of 
Thesprotia,  which  flows  into  the  Ionian  Sea.  Its  modern 
name  is  the  Vuvo.  The  name  is  also  applied,  in  classical 
mythology,  to  a  tributary  of  the  Acheron,  a  river  in  Hades. 
The  etymology  suggested  is  from  KIOKVCIV,  to  wail. 

COD  (Morrhua  vulgaris),  a  well-known  speciesof  Gadidce, 
a  family  of  Anacanthine  Fishes,  possessing,  in  common  with 
the  other  members  of  the  genus,  three  dorsal  and  two  anal 
fins,  and  a  single  barbel  at  the  chin.  It  is  a  widely 
distributed  species,  being  found  throughout  the  northern 
and  temperate  seas  of  Europe,  Asia,  and  America,  extending 
as  far  south  as  Gibraltar,  but  not  entering  the  Mediter 
ranean,  and  inhabits  water  from  25  to  50  fathoms  deep, 
where  it  always  feeds  close  to  the  bottom.  It  is  exceed 
ingly  voracious,  feeding  on  the  smaller  denizens  of  the 
ocean — fish,  crustaceans,  worms,  and  moliusks,  and  greedily 
taking  almost  any  bait  the  fisherman  chooses  to  employ. 
The  cod  spawns  in  February,  and  is  exceedingly  prolific, 
the  roe  of  a  single  female  having  been  known  to  contain 
upwards  of  eight  millions  of  ova,  and  to  form  more  than 
half  the  weight  of  the  entire  fish.  Only  a  small  proportion 
of  these  get  fertilized,  and  still  fewer  ever  emerge  from  the 
egg.  The  number  of  cod  is  still  further  reduced  by  tho 
trade  carried  on  in  roe,  large  quantities  of  which  are  used 
in  France  as  ground-bait  in  the  sardine  fishery,  while  it 
also  forms  an  article  of  human  food.  The  young  are  about 
an  inch  in  length  by  the  end  of  spring,  but  are  not  fit  for 
the  market  till  the  second  year,  and  it  has  been  stated  that 


1C4 


C  0  D  — C  O  D 


they  do  not  reach  maturity,  as  shown  by  the  power  of 
reproduction,  till  the  end  of  their  third  year.  They  usually 
measure  about  3  feet  in  length,  and  weigh  from  12  to  20 
ft,  but  specimens  have  been  taken  from  50  to  70  tb  in 
weight.  As  an  article  of  food  the  cod-fish  is  in  gre  itest 
perfection  during  the  three  months  preceding  Christmas. 
It  is  caught  on  all  parts  of  the  British  and  Irish  coasts;  bat 
the  Djgger  Bank,  and  Rockall.  off  the  Outer  Hebrides,  have 
been  specially  noted  for  their  cod-fisheries.  Until  recently, 
the  London  market  was  in  great  part  supplied  from  the 
former  of  these ;  but  now  the  fishery  is  chiefly  carried  on 
along  the  coast  of  Norfolk  and  Suffolk,  where  gre  it 
quantities  of  the  fish  are  caught  with  hook  and  line,  and 
conveyed  to  market  alive  in  "  well-boats  "  specially  built 
for  this  traffic.  Such  boats  have  been  in  use  since  the 
beginning  of  the  18th  century.  The  most  important  cod- 
fishery  in  the  world  is  that  which  has  been  prosecuted  for 
centuries  on  the  Newfoundland  banks,  where  it  is  not 
uncommon  for  a  single  fisherman  to  take  over  500  of  these 
fish  in  10  or  11  hours.  The  fish  have  lately  been  decreas 
ing  in  that  well-worn  locality,  but  that  the  yield  is  still 
enormous  is  seen  from  recently  published  returns,  from 
which  it  appears  that  the  quintity  of  cod  obtained  by  the 
Canadian  fishery  alone  in  1875  weighed  over  31,000  tons, 
while  in  1874  it  reached  3i,500  tons.  These,  salted  and 
dried,  are  exported  to  all  parts  of  the  world,  and  form, 
when  taken  in  connection  with  the  enormous  quantity  of 
fresh  cod  consumed,  a  valuable  addition  to  the  food 
resources  of  the  human  race.  The  swimming  bladder  of 
this  fish  furnishes  isinglass,  little,  if  at  all,  inferior  to  that 
obtained  from  the  sturgeon,  while  from  the  liver  is  obtain  3d 
cod-liver  oil,  now  lirgely  used  in  medicine  as  a  remedy  in 
scrofulous  complaints  and  pulmonary  consumption.  "  The 
Norwegians,"  says  Cuvier,  "  give  cod  heads  with  marine 
plants  to  their  cows  for  the  purpose  of  producing  a  greater 
proportion  of  milk.  The  vertebrae,  the  ribs,  and  the  bones 
in  general,  are  given  to  their  cattle  by  the  Icelanders,  and 
by  the  Kamtchatdales  to  their  dogs.  These  same  parts, 
properly  dried,  are  also  employed  as  fuel  in  the  desolate 
steppes  of  the  Icy  Se;i."  At  Port  Logan  in  Wigtonshire 
cod-fish  are  kept  in  a  large  reservoir,  scooped  out  of  the 
eolid  rook  by  the  action  of  the  sea,  egress  from  which  is 
prevented  by  a  barrier  of  stones,  which  does  not  prevent 
the  free  access  of  the  water.  These  cod  are  fed  chiefly  on 
mussels,  and  when  the  keeper  approaches  to  feed  them  they 
may  be  seen  rising  to  the  surface  in  hundreds  and  eagerly 
seeking  the  edge.  They  have  become  comparatively  tame 
and  familiar.  Frank  Buckland,  who  some  years  ago  visited 
the  place,  states  that  after  a  little  while  they  allowed  him 
to  take  hold  of  them,  scratch  them  on  the  back,  and  play 
with  them  in  various  ways.  Their  flavour  is  considered 
superior  to  that  of  the  cod  taken  in  the  open  sea. 

COD-LIVER  OIL  is  an  oil  of  great  medicinal  value, 
obtained  from  the  liver  of  the  common  cod  (Morrhua  vid- 
<7Tm),and  also  to  some  extent  from  the  ling  (Lota  molva),  the 
whiting  (Merlanyus  vulgaris),  the  pollack  (Merlanrjus  polla- 
chius],  as  well  as  other  members  of  the  Gadidce.  The  oil  ob 
tained  from  the  livers  differs  in  quality  from  a  very  pure 
pale-coloured  liquid  to  a  dark  evil-smelling  product,  accord 
ing  to  the  care  exercised  and  the  processes  adopted  for  its 
extraction.  The  very  dark  coloured  rank  oils  are  used  only 
for  burning  and  lubricating,  and  in  commerce  are  known 
as  cod  oil.  The  purer  qualities,  up  to  an  oil  having  a 
brown  sherry  colour,  are  alone  used  medicinally  as  cod-liver 
oil.  Various  methods  of  extracting  the  oil  are  adopted  in 
the  different  countries  where  its  preparation  is  prosecuted. 
Generally  it  may  be  stated  that  the  medicinal  oil  is 
obtained  from  selected  livers,  which  are  carefully  examined, 
cleaned,  split  up,  and  thrown  together  into  a  large  vessel! 
From  these  a  very  small  proportion  of  a  pure  and  almost 


colourless  oil  exudes  spontaneously,  and  exposure  to  the 
heat  of  the  sun  causes  a  further  exudation.  By  the 
application  of  heat  in  a  steam  or  water  bath  to  a  tempera 
ture  not  exceeding  180°  Fahr.,  a  proportion  of  still  pale, 
or  straw-coloured  oil  is  obtained.  The  oil  which  results 
from  the  application  of  a  higher  heat  and  pressure,  and 
that  obtained  from  imhealthy  and  from  putrid  livers,  are 
•only  used  industrially  as  cod  oil.  The  extraction  of  the 
oil  is  most  extensively  prosecuted  in  Newfoundland  and  in 
Norway  ;  but  a  considerable  quantity  is  also  prepared  in 
the  Shetland  Islands  and  along  the  east  coast  of  Scotland. 

Three  varieties  of  medicinal  oil  are  recognized  in  com 
merce — -pale,  light  brown,  and  brown  ;  but  these  insensibly 
merge  into  each  other,  and  are  only  the  result  of  different 
processes  or  periods  of  preparation,  as  mentioned  above. 
The  pale  oil  possesses  a  fishy  odour  and  a  slightly  acrid 
taste,  while  with  the  darker  oil  there  is  a  distinctly  dis 
agreeable  empyreumatic  odour  and  taste.  In  composition 
the  oil  contains  olein  and  margarin,  with  small  proportions 
of  free  butyric  and  acetic  acids,  a  peculiar  principle  termed 
gaduin,  certain  bile  acids,  free  phosphorus,  phosphatic  salts, 
and  traces  of  iodine  and  bromine.  Cod-liver  oil  is  valuable 
in  medicine  on  account  of  its  great  nutrient  properties ;  it 
adds  rapidly  to  tho  store  of  fat  within  the  human  frame, 
and  it  enriches  the  blood  in  red  corpuscles.  It  is  much 
more  digestible  than  other  animal  oils,  a  fact  which  may 
account  for  its  superior  therapeutic  value.  At  one  time  it 
was  supposed  that  its  virtues  resided  in  the  iodine  and 
bromine  which  the  oil  generally  contains  ;  but  these  are 
present  only  in  exceedingly  minute  proportions,  and  some 
times  they  cannot  be  traced  at  all.  The  oil  has  long  been 
favourably  known  in  medicine  as  a  remedy  for  rheumatic 
complaints,  but  its  great  value  in  pulmonary  consumption  has 
been  demonstrated  only  in  comparatively  recent  times.  It 
is  administered  internally  in  chronic  rheumatism,  scrofula, 
phthisis,  chronic  skin  diseases,  and  general  debility;  and  it 
is  sometimes  externally  applied  in  affections  of  the  skin. 
The  oil  is  taken  with  facility  by  young  children  ;  but  the 
repugnance  of  adults  to  its  taste  and  eructations  is  not 
easily  overcome,  and  many  methods  have  been  suggested 
for  masking  its  taste.  With  that  view  the  oil  is  enclosed 
in  gelatinous  capsules,  or  prepared  in  the  form  of  aromatized 
emulsions,  of  equal  parts  of  mucilage,  of  gum  tragacanth, 
and  the  oil.  There  are  numerous  other  forms  of  emulsions 
recommended,  as  well  as  combinations  with  medicinal 
syrups,  and  cod-liver  oil  creams,  jellies,  and  bread;  and 
various  devices  are  familiarly  employed  as  in  the  adminis 
tration  of  unpleasant  medicines.  Failing  all  these,  cod-liver 
oil  has  been  introduced  into  the  system  by  injection. 

CODE.  A  code  is  a  complete  and  systematic  body  of 
law,  or  a  complete  and  exclusive  statement  of  some  portion 
of  the  law.  Such,  at  least,  is  the  sense  in  which  the  word 
is  used  when  it  is  proposed  to  recast  the  laws  of  a  country 
like  England  in  the  form  of  a  code.  Many  collections  of 
laws,  however,  which  are  commonly  known  as  codes,  would 
not  correspond  to  this  definition.  The  Code  of  Justinian, 
the  most  celebrated  of  all,  is  not  in  itself  a  complete  and 
exclusive  system  of  law.  It  is  a  collection  of  imperial 
constitutions,  just  as  the  Pandects  are  a  collection  of  the 
opinions  of  jurisconsults.  The  Code  and  the  Pandects 
together  being,  as  Austin  says,  "  digests  of  Roman  law  in 
force  at  the  time  of  their  conception,"  would,  if  properly 
arranged,  constitute  a  code.  Codification  in  this  sense  is 
merely  a  question  of  the  form  of  the  laws,  and  has  nothing 
to  do  with  their  goodness  or  badness  from  an  ethical  or 
poUtical  point  of  view.  Sometimes  codification  only 
means  the  changing  of  unwritten  into  written  law ;  in  the 
stricter  sense  it  means  the  changing  of  unwritten  or  bartiy 
written  law  into  law  well  written. 

Roman   (lodes. — Under  the  empire  the  constitutions  or 


edicta  of  the  chief  of  the  state  had  the  force  of  law.  The 
practice  of  collecting  the  constitutions  of  the  emperors  seems 
to  have  been  begun  by  private  lawyers — such  at  all  events 
is  the  character  of  the  oldest  collection,  known  as  the 
Codex  Gregorianns  ft  Hermogenianus,  which  formed  the 
model  for  the  imperial  codes  of  Theodosius  and  Justinian. 
The  Theodosian  code  was  the  work  of  a  commission  of 
sixteen,  to  whom,  in  435  A.D.,  the  emperor  intrusted  the 
task  of  collecting  the  edicts  and  constitutions  from  the  time 
of  Constantine.  It  was  finished  in  438,  and  promulgated 
as  the  law  of  the  empire. 

In  528  the  Emperor  Justinian  ordered  a  new  collection 
to  be  made,  and  appointed  a  commission  of  ten  for  that 
purpose,  including  the  celebrated  Tribonian.  The  com 
missioners  were  to  compile  one  code  out  of  the  "  three 
codes —  Gregorian,  Hermogenian,  and  Theodosian,"  and 
the  constitutions  which  had  been  ordained  since  the  last  of 
these  was  confirmed.  The  commissioners  had  full  power 
to  make  such  changes  as  might  be  necessary  in  the 
language  of  the  constitutions,  and  to  omit  all  that  was 
unnecessary,  obsolete,  or  inconsistent.  The  collection  was 
to  include  rescripts  as  well  as  constitutions,  and  was  to 
supersede  (as  the  Theodosian  code  also  did)  the  sources 
from  which  it  had  been  compiled.  The  code  was  finished 
within  fourteen  months,  but  a  revised  edition  was  rendered 
necessary  by  some  new  decisions  and  constitutions  of  the 
emperor.  In  534  the  new  code  was  published  and  the  first 
edition  superseded.  The  second  is  the  Code  we  now  possess ; 
the  first  has  been  lost.  The  Code  is  divided  into  twelve 
books,  and  each  book  into  titles,  under  which  the  constitu 
tions  are  arranged  in  chronological  order,  arid  with  the 
names  of  the  emperors  by  whom  they  were  enacted.  There 
is  a  general  correspondence  between  the  order  of  the 
Digest  and  the  Code  of  Justinian,  but  neither  the  Digest 
nor  any  of  the  codes  pretended  to  scientific  classification. 
The  arrangement  was  dictated  by  the  order  of  writers  on 
the  Praetorian  Edict. 

The  same  causes  which  made  these  collections  necessary 
in  the  time  of  Justinian  have  led  to  similar  undertakings 
among  modern  peoples.  The  actual  condition  of  laws  until 
the  period  when  they  are  consciously  remodelled  is  one  of 
confusion,  contradiction,  repetition,  and  disorder ;  and  to 
these  evils  the  progress  of  society  adds  the  burden  of 
perpetually  increasing  legislation.  Some  attempt  must  be 
made  to  simplify  the  task  of  learning  the  laws  by  improving 
their  expression  and  arrangement.  This  is  by  no  means  an 
easy  task  in  any  country,  but  in  our  own  it  is  surrounded 
with  peculiar  difficulties.  The  independent  character  of 
English  law  has  prevented  us  from  attempting  what  has 
already  been  done  for  other  systems  which  have  the  basis 
of  the  Roman  law  to  fall  back  upon. 

The  most  celebrated  modern  code  is  the  Code  Napoleon, 
The  necessity  of  a  code  in  France  was  mainly  caused  by 
the  immense  number  of  separate  systems  of  jurisprudence 
existing  in  that  country  before  1789,  justifying  Voltaire's 
sarcasm  that  a  traveller  in  France  had  to  change  laws 
about  as  often  as  he  changed  horses.  The  conception  of  a 
general  code  for  the  whole  country  had  occurred  to  jurists 
and  statesmen  before  Napoleon,  and  the  Convention,  in  fact, 
discussed  two  projects  presented  by  Cambace'res,  one  of 
which  had  been  found  too  complicated  and  the  other  too 
condensed.  Napoleon,  on  becoming  consul,  appointed  a 
commission  headed  by  M.  Tronchet  to  review  previous 
efforts  and  present  a  new  project.  In  four  mouths  the 
project  was  presented  to  the  Government,  submitted  to  the 
judges,  and  discussed  by  the  Council  of  State — Napoleon 
himself  taking  part  in  the  deliberations.  At  first  published 
under  the  title  of  Code  Civil  des  Francois  ;  it  was  afterwards 
entitled  the  Code  Napoleon,- — the  emperor  wishing  to  attach 
his  name  to  a  work  which  he  regarded  as  the  greatest  glory 


105 

of  his  reign.  The  Code  Napoleon  consists  of  2281  articles, 
arranged  under  titles  and  divided  into  three  books,  preceded 
by  a  preliminary  title.  The  subjects  of  the  different  books 
are — 1st,  "Des  personnes";  2d,  "  Des  biens  et  des  differents 
modifications  de  la  propriete  ; "  3d,  "  DCS  diffe"rents  manieres 
d'a-;qu6rir  la  proprieleV'  The  code,  it  has  been  said,  is  the 
product  of  Roman  and  customary  law,  together  with  the  ordi 
nances  of  the  kings  and  the  laws  of  the  Revolution.  In  form 
it  has  passed  through  several  changes  caused  by  the  politi 
cal  vicissitudes  of  the  country,  and  it  has  of  course  suffered 
from  time  to  time  important  alterations  in  substance,  but  it 
still  remains  virtually  the  same  in  principle  as  it  left  the 
hands  of  its  framers.  The  code  has  produced  a  vast  number 
of  commentaries,  among  which  may  be  named  those  of 
Duranton,  Troplong,  and  Demolombe.  The  remaining 
French  codes  are  the  Code  de  procedure  civile,  the  Code  de 
commerce,  the  Code  ^instruction  criminelle,  and  the  Code 
penal.  The  merits  of  the  French  code  have  entered  into  the 
discussion  on  the  general  question  of  codification.  Austin 
agrees  with  Savigny  in  condemning  the  ignorance  and 
haste  with  which  it  was  compiled.  "  It  contains,"  says 
Austin,  "  no  definitions  of  technical  terms  (even  the  most 
leading),  no  exposition  of  the  rationale  of  distinctions 
(evtn  the  most  leading),  no  exposition  of  the  broad 
principles  and  rules  to  which  the  narrower  provisions 
expressed  in  the  code  are  subordinate  ;  hence  its  fallacious 
brevity."  The  French